Bioenergy Research: Advances And Applications - SAE International

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ContentsPreface ixForeword xiList of Contributors xiii4. Recent Advancements in PretreatmentTechnologies of Biomass to Produce Bioenergy 57IRMENE ORTÍZ, RODOLFO QUINTEROLignocelullosic Biomass 57Pretreatment of Lignocelullosic Biomassfor Biofuels Production 58Types of Pretreatments 58Trends in Pretreatments 62Pretreatment Modeling 65Environmental and Economical Aspects 65Concluding Remarks 66References 661. Current Bioenergy Researches: Strengthsand Future Challenges 1NAVEEN KUMAR MEKALA, RAVICHANDRA POTUMARTHI,RAMA RAJU BAADHE, VIJAI K. GUPTAIntroduction 1Biopellets 3Bioethanol 3Biodiesel 9Biogas 14Conclusion 17References 185. Biofuels and Bioproducts Produced throughMicrobial Conversion of Biomass 71TRENT CHUNZHONG YANG, JYOTHI KUMARAN,2. Bioenergy Research: An Overview onTechnological Developments and BioresourcesSAMUEL AMARTEY, MIRANDA MAKI, XIANGLING LI,FAN LU, WENSHENG QIN23Lignocellulosic Biomass and its Pretreatment 72Commonly used Microorganisms for BiologicalPretreatment 73Strategies of Using Microbial Pretreatment to Enhance SugarRelease for Biofuel and Bioproduct Production 79References 87VIJAI K. GUPTA, RAVICHANDRA POTUMARTHI,ANTHONIA O’DONOVAN, CHRISTIAN P. KUBICEK,GAURI DUTT SHARMA, MARIA G. TUOHYIntroduction 23Current Bioenergy Practices 25Main Biofuel Technologies and Current Processes 26Technological Routes for Bioenergy Production 28Bioenergy Resources and Biofuels Development ProgramSustainability 36Conclusions 41References 41336. Databases for Bioenergy-Related Enzymes 95YANBIN YINPlant Biomass 95Bioenergy-Related Enzymes and RegulationDatabases and Web Servers 98Future Perspectives 103References 1033. Use of Agroindustrial Residuesfor Bioethanol Production 4996LUIZ J. VISIOLI, FABIANE M. STRINGHINI, PAULO R.S. SALBEGO,DANIEL P. CHIELLE, GABRIELLY V. RIBEIRO, JULIANA M. GASPAROTTO,7. Isobutanol Production from Bioenergy Crops 109BRUNO C. AITA, RODRIGO KLAIC, JÉSSICA M. MOSCON,THADDEUS CHUKWUEMEKA EZEJI, NASIB QURESHI,MARCIO A. MAZUTTIIntroduction 49Raw Material 50Sugar Production and FermentationConcluding Remarks 55References 55VICTOR UJORBackground/Introduction 109Keto Acid Pathways for Higher Alcohol ProductionBiochemistry of Isobutanol Fermentation 11252v110

viCONTENTSMetabolic Engineering of Microorganisms for IsobutanolProduction 113Feasibility of Using Bioenergy Crops as SustainableFeedstocks for Isobutanol Production 114Technologies that Have Been Developed for SimultaneousButanol Fermentation and Recovery 115Conclusion and Future Perspective 116References 1168. Lipase-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production:Technical Challenges 119RAMA RAJU BAADHE, RAVICHANDRA POTUMARTHI,VIJAI K. GUPTAIntroduction 119Chemistry of Biodiesel 120Transesterification 120Disadvantages of Chemical Transesterification 120Advantages of Using Lipases in Biodiesel ProductionHistorical Background of Lipase 121Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification Donein two Approaches 121Advantages of Immobilized Lipase 122Technical Challenges 123Feedstock 123Choice of Enzyme 124Molar Ratio (Alcohol/Oil) 124Temperature 124Water Content 126Acyl Acceptors 126Solvents 126Reactor System 126Conclusions 127References 1271219. Bioelectrochemistry of MicrobialFuel Cells and their Potential Applicationsin Bioenergy 131MINGHUA ZHOU, JIE YANG, HONGYU WANG, TAO JIN,DANIEL J. HASSETT, TINGYUE GUIntroduction 132Bioelectrochemistry of MFC 132Biofilm Electrochemistry for Enhanced MFC Performance:A Molecular Biology Perspective 139MFCs for Wastewater Treatment with ConcomitantElectricity Production 143Summary and Perspectives 147References 14710. Second-Generation Biofuel from High-EfficiencyAlgal-Derived Biocrude 153RHYKKA CONNELLYIntroduction 153Microalgal Biofuel History154Microalgae Biomass/Biofuel ProductiondCultivationPhototrophic Microalgae 155Heterotrophic Microalgae 155Nutrients 156Contamination 156Mixing 156Culture Techniques 156Open-Pond Culture 157Photobioreactors 157Processing Microalgal Biomassfor Biofuels 158Microalgal Biomass to Biofuels 158Biodiesel 158Production of Biodiesel from Microalgae 159Comparison of Biodiesel to Petrodiesel 160Bioethanol 161Bioethanol Production Process 161Biomethane 164Biohydrogen 165Biocrude 166Properties of Subcritical Water 166Hydrothermal Catalytic Liquefaction 167HTL Summary and Outlook 167Conclusions 167References 16815511. Microalgae: The Tiny Microbes witha Big Impact 171SHOVON MANDAL, NIRUPAMA MALLICKRenewable Energy 171Petroleum Fuel Scenario in India 172Biodiesel 172Microalgae: Viable Feedstocks for Biodiesel 173Selection of Potent Strains 173Genetic Engineering Approach 175Microalgal Biodiesel Production 177Fatty Acid Methyl Esters and FuelProperties 179Waste Utilization for Biodiesel Production:A Case Study with Scenedesmus Obliquusin a Recirculatory Aquaculture System 179Concluding Remarks 181References 18112. Biobased Fats (Lipids) and Oils from Biomassas a Source of Bioenergy 185CIARÁN JOHN FORDE, MARIE MEANEY, JOHN BOSCO CARRIGAN,CLIVE MILLS, SUSAN BOLAND, ALAN HERNONIntroduction 185Sources of Biolipids 186Supply and Projected/Purrent Volume 190Energy Balance 192Processing of Biolipids and Properties ofBiolipid-Derived Biofuels 193Properties of Pure Plant Oil 195

viiCONTENTSProperties of Biodiesel 196Biomass to Liquid Fuels (Bio-oil)Conclusion 198References 198Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass 248Conclusion 251References 25119713. Use of Volatile Solids from Biomassfor Energy Production 203W.J. OOSTERKAMPLUIZ P. RAMOS, CLAUDINEY S. CORDEIRO,Introduction 204Biodegradability 204Addition of Macro- and Micronutrients 204Addition of Microbes 205Addition of Enzymes 206Pretreatments 207Longer Retention Times 207Energy Crops 207Food Processing Residues 207Crop Residues 209Spent Bedding 209Kitchen and Garden Waste 209Aquatic Weeds 209Digestion Systems 211Increase in Solids Content in Wet Digesters 212Loading and Unloading of Digesters 212Treatment of Digestate in WetDigesters 212Use of Methane 213Chemical Conversion of Volatile Solids 213Thermal Conversion of VolatileSolids 214Discussion 214Conclusions 214References 21514. Biorefinery Systems: An OverviewMARIA APARECIDA F. CESAR-OLIVEIRA, FERNANDO WYPYCH,SHIRLEY NAKAGAKIIntroduction 255Heteropolyacids 257Zeolites 258Clay Minerals 260Layered Materials 265Polymeric Catalysts 269Concluding Remarks 272References 27217. Lignocellulose-Based Chemical Products 277ED DE JONG, RICHARD J.A. GOSSELINK219MARIA GAVRILESCUIntroductiondBiorefinery, Conceptsand Emerging Opportunities for Sustainable Economy 219Short History of Biorefineries and Bio-Based Products 221Biomass Feedstock 221Structure of Biorefinery Concept 224Biorefinery Platforms 227Biorefinery Eco-Efficiency 231Concluding Remarks and Perspectives 236References 23915. Catalytic Thermochemical Processes forBiomass Conversion to Biofuelsand Chemicals 243LIN MEI WU, CHUN HUI ZHOU, DONG SHEN TONG, WEI HUA YUIntroduction 243Pyrolysis of Biomass 244Gasification of Biomass 24716. Applications of Heterogeneous Catalysts in theProduction of Biodiesel by Esterification andTransesterification 255Introduction 278Occurrence and Composition of LignocellulosicBiomass 278Cellulose 280Hemicelluloses 280Lignin 283Pretreatment Technologies 286Pretreatment Technologies Still at aLaboratory/Conceptual Stage 290Lignocellulosic BiorefineriesdClassification 292C6 and C6/C5 Sugar Platform 295Lignin Platform 296Importance of Furans and Aromatics as Building Blocks forChemicals and Fuels 297Carbohydrate Dehydration 298Conversion of Technical Lignins intoMonoaromatic Chemicals 305Conclusions and Further Perspectives 309References 30918. Industrial Lignins: Analysis, Properties, andApplications 315ALEX BERLIN, MIKHAIL BALAKSHINThe Potential of Technical Lignins as a RenewableRaw Material Feedstock 315Technical Lignins: Production, Properties, and Analysis 318Technical Lignins: Traditional and Emerging Applications 332Conclusions 333References 333

viiiCONTENTS19. Amino-Based Products from Biomass andMicrobial Amino Acid Production 337Conclusions 415References 415K. MADHAVAN NAMPOOTHIRI, VIPIN GOPINATH, M. ANUSREE,NISHANT GOPALAN, KIRAN S. DHARAmino Acids 337Aspartame 341Poly(Amino Acid)s 341Polyamines 345Conclusion and PerspectivesReferences 34924. Bioenergy Technology and Food Industry WasteValorization for Integrated Production ofPolyhydroxyalkanoates 419VASILIKI KACHRIMANIDOU, NIKOLAOS KOPSAHELIS, COLIN WEBB,APOSTOLIS A. KOUTINAS34920. Production of Phytochemicals, Dyes and Pigmentsas Coproducts in Bioenergy Processes 353HANSHU DING, FENG XUIndustrial Phytochemicals 353Production of Industrial Phytochemicals 358Coproduction of Phytochemicals in Bioenergy Processes 361References 36321. Recent Developments on Cyanobacteriaand Green Algae for BiohydrogenPhotoproduction and Its Importance in CO2Reduction 367Y. ALLAHVERDIYEVA, E.M. ARO, S.N. KOSOUROVIntroduction 367Mechanisms of Hydrogen Photoproduction 368Hydrogen Photoproduction by Cyanobacteria 372Hydrogen Photoproduction by Green Algae 375References 38222. Engineered Cyanobacteria: Researchand Application in Bioenergy 389Introduction 419PHA Structure and Properties 420PHA Production Integrated in Biorefinery ConceptsConclusions and Future Perspectives 430References 43042125. Advances and Innovations in Biochar Productionand Utilization for Improving EnvironmentalQuality 435CHARLES HYLAND, AJIT K. SARMAHIntroduction 435Properties of Biochar 436Utilization of Biochar for Environmental Quality 438Postpyrolysis Indirect Application of Biochar 440Conclusions, Knowledge Gaps, and Research Needs 443References 44426. Biochar Processing for Sustainable Development inCurrent and Future Bioenergy Research 447MARK P. MCHENRYIntroduction 447Theoretical Income Streams 448Agricultural Benefits 450Economic Analysis 451Conclusion 454Disclaimers 455References 455GUSTAVO B. LEITE, PATRICK C. HALLENBECKIntroduction 389Engineering Cyanobacteria 392Cyanobacteria as a Production System for Biofuels: CurrentStatus 393Conclusion and Outlook 403References 40323. Sustainable Farming of Bioenergy Crops 407ADRIAN MULLERIntroduction 407Criteria for Sustainable Farming and Sustainable FoodSystems 409What is Sustainable Bioenergy Production? 410How Much Bioenergy may be Produced Sustainably? 41227. Development of Thermochemical and BiochemicalTechnologies for Biorefineries 457MICHAEL P. GARVER, SHIJIE LIUIntroduction 457Characteristics of Lignocellulosic Biomass 458An Overview on Biomass Conversion 461PretreatmentdBiomass Size Reduction by Physical orMechanical Methods 462Hydrolysis 476BioconversiondConverting Sugars to Products 477Thermochemical Conversion 478Conclusion 482References 482Index 489

2. Bioenergy Research: An Overview on Technological Developments and Bioresources 23 VIJAI K. GUPTA, RAVICHANDRA POTUMARTHI, ANTHONIA O'DONOVAN, CHRISTIAN P. KUBICEK, GAURI DUTT SHARMA, MARIA G. TUOHY Introduction 23 Current Bioenergy Practices 25 Main Biofuel Technologies and Current Processes 26 Technological Routes for Bioenergy Production 28

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