FASB's Current Expected Credit Loss Model

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FASB’s Current Expected Credit Loss ModelOverview of the Proposed Accounting Standards UpdateFinancial Instruments – Credit Losses (Subtopic 825-15)This content is for informational purposes only and should not be considered or relied upon as financial orlegal advice. The views or opinions presented are those of the speaker and do not necessarily represent thoseof Primatics Financial

AgendaCurrent Expected Credit Loss (CECL) OverviewCECL – One Size Fits Most?CECL Discussion – Gaps in the current ALLL Process2

CECL Overview3

What is the CECL Model?CECL is defined as “An estimate of all contractual cash flows not expected to be collectedfrom a recognized financial asset (or group of financial assets) or commitment to extendcredit.”Key Principles Single Model - applies to all financial instruments measured at amortized cost. Expected Loss Model - removes the incurred concept and the probable threshold. Life of Instrument Reserve - requires a reasonable and supportable forecast of futureconditions. Risk Weighted - must reflect a risk of loss, not a best estimate. Time Value of Money - if the estimate is based on a discounted cash flow model, thediscount rate used in the model shall be the effective interest rate.4

CECL Model – what is in scope?“An entity should apply the CECL model for financial assets measured at amortizedcost.”FAS 5FAS 114CECLSOP 03-3EITF 99-20 Replaces FAS 5, FAS 114, and SOP 0-3 for Loans Held for Investment Replaces EITF 99-20 for Debt Securities Held to Maturity* Available for Sale Debt Securities were removed from the scope of CECL and will retain theother than temporary impairment (OTTI) model. The OTTI model will be updated to allow reversalof previous impairment. Tentative Board Decisions – August 13, 2014.5

The Measurement of Expected Credit Losses Should . . . Consider all contractual cash flows including expected prepayments excluding extensions, renewals, and modifications unless a TDR is expected. Required to evaluate assets on a collective basis where similar risk characteristicsexist. Consider past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Always reflect the risk of loss, even when remote; however, will not be required torecognize a loss when the risk of nonpayment is greater than zero yet the amount ofloss would be zero. Revert to historical average loss experiences for future periods beyond which theentity is able to make or obtain reasonable and supportable forecasts over the estimated life on a straight-line basis a period and in a pattern that reflects the entity’s assumptions about expectedcredit losses over that period. Consider qualitative and quantitative factors and relevant internal and externalinformation.Tentative Board Decisions through April 22, 2015.6

CECL - One Size Fits Most?7

Implementation Considerations Auditor and regulator enforcement Asset size Ownership structure Previous experience with forward-looking loss models!FASB’s CECL represents a move from rules based to principles basedaccounting guidance. Therefore, FASB’s CECL is less prescriptive thancurrent U.S. GAAP. How individual institutions implement CECL will bedependent upon auditor and regulator enforcement.8

Guidance on Accounting for Expected Credit LossesBasel Committee on Banking Supervision – Consultative Document Issued February 2, 2015. Open for comment through April 30, 2015. Provides practical guidelines for credit risk practices used for the expected creditloss measurement. Replaces 2006 Sound Credit Risk Assessment and Valuation for Loans (SCRAVL). Updated for expected credit loss (ECL) models - IFRS 9 and FASB’s CECL. Applies to sophisticated internationally active banks; however, . . .!“For less complex banks, consistent with the Basel Core Principles, the Committeerecognizes that supervisors may adopt a proportionate approach with regard to thestandards that supervisors impose on banks and the conduct of supervisors in thedischarge of their own responsibilities. This allows less complex banks to adoptapproaches commensurate with the size, nature and complexity of their lendingexposures.” – Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, Paragraph 129

CECL Discussion - Gaps in the Current ALLL Process10

CECL Discussion - Data GapsCECLRequiresExpected life of instrument loss for all financialinstruments measured at amortized cost. Prepayment rates TDR eventsEvaluate on a collective basis where shared riskcharacteristics exist. Population identification and segregation Reconciliation Loan level credit attributesConsider past events, current conditions, andreasonable and supportable forecasts. Historical loss rates Current credit quality indicatorsCredit quality disclosures by vintage.* Track loan originationsGeneral Data Challenges Synchronization of risk and finance applications Support multiple views and ad-hoc analysis “Application-ready” data Reconciliations and timing differences!Addressing the data challenge successfully requires addressingsourcing, applications, and back-end reporting holistically.* Tentative decision, February 11, 2015 Board Meeting.11

General CECL Data RequirementsServicing System Data:Risk System Data:1.Loan characteristics1.Loan classes and gradesTerm – renewals, modifications andextension dates2.Modification history by loan class3.Loan renewal and funding history by loanclassRate – fixed, variable, and index2.Loan "credit enhancements“4.Loan prepayments history by loan class3.TDR events5.Loan cash flows not collected4.Collateral fair values6.Loan grade LGD and PD rates5.Transaction codes in loan servicing systems7.Loan grade charge-off history6.Loan geography8.Loan grade migration history7.Contractual cash flows for each loan or poolof loans9.External historical loss rate by loan class12

Discussion – Operational ComplexityCECLRequiresConsider past events, current conditions, andreasonable and supportable forecasts. Assumptions around future conditions Translation to accountingIn addition to discounted cash flows an entity wouldnot be prohibited from using loss-rate methods,probability-of-default methods, or a provisionmatrix. Forward-looking loss estimate Consider the time-value of money Reflect the risk of lossReflect the risk of loss even when remote andreflect the time value of money. Probability of default Assess collectively Effective yieldGeneral Operational Challenges Coordination between risk and finance Controlled SOX process!The expected credit loss estimate may be more of a processchallenge rather than a calculation challenge.13

Discussion – CECL Status and Next Steps Transition - cumulative-effect adjustment as of the beginning of the first period in whichthe guidance is effective (offset to retained earnings). Issue Date – expected to be issued during 2015.IASB’s IFRS9 effective Effective Date – none proposed.date isJanuary 1,2018. What can / are Community Banks do / doing to prepare for CECL? Assign roles and responsibilities Gather data Leverage capital planning exercises Integrate applications Add / document controls!“Give me six hours to chop down a tree and I will spend the first foursharpening the axe.” - Abraham Lincoln14

Appendix Frequently Asked Questions Proposed Disclosure Requirements15

Frequently Asked Questions1.How will I forecast for commitments and credit cards?The funded portion of loan commitments will be estimated in the same manner as other loans. Theexpected credit loss for the unfunded loan commitment should reflect the full contractual periodover which the entity is exposed to the credit risk unless unconditionally cancellable by the issuer.The estimate must consider the likelihood that funding will occur and an estimate of expected creditlosses on commitments expected to be funded. The estimate of expected credit losses onunfunded loan commitments will be presented on the statement of financial position as a liability.2.Do I have to recognize a loss if the estimated collateral value is greater than the exposure?No. According to the February 19, 2014 Tentative Board Decisions, “the estimate of expected creditlosses should always reflect the risk of loss, even when that risk is remote. However, an entitywould not be required to recognize a loss on a financial asset in which the risk of nonpayment isgreater than zero yet the amount of the loss would be zero.” Note that the final standard will notexplicitly state for which financial assets a zero allowance of expected credit losses would beappropriate. However, a scenario where the estimated collateral value is greater than the loanbalance fits this description.Note: The definition of collateral dependent will be updated to “A financial asset for which therepayment is expected to be provided primarily or substantially through the operation or sale of thecollateral.” Primarily or substantially will replace solely16

Frequently Asked Questions (continued)3.What are the disclosure requirements?The disclosure requirements are extensive with the goal of enabling investors to understand thedrivers of changes in the allowance estimate. Explaining how assumptions underlying theeconomic forecast and changes in the portfolio composition impacts the allowance will bechallenging.As of the February 11, 2015 Board Meeting, the amortized cost basis roll forward was removedfrom the proposed disclosure requirements. The vintage (year of origination) for the last 5 yearswill be added to the current Credit Quality Disclosures. Entities may find it challenging todisaggregate the ending balance by year of origination.* Proposed disclosure requirements are located in the appendix.4.Do I need to use a discounted cash flow model?The guidance does not mandate a specific method for estimating the current expected credit loss.However, a discounted cash flow model represents the best practice.According to the September 17, 2013 Tentative Board Decisions, “In addition to discounted cashflow modeling, an entity would not be prohibited from using loss-rate methods, probability-ofdefault methods, or a provision matrix using loss factors.”17

Frequently Asked Questions (continued)5.What about Troubled Debt Restructurings?Troubled Debt Restructurings (TDR) are still relevant from an identification and reportingperspective. However, a basis adjustment (rather than an allowance) will be recorded at the timeof modification in order to bring the cost basis of the loan equal to the present value of themodified contractual cash flows discounted by the pre-modification effective yieldAccording to the February 19, 2014 Tentative Board Decisions, this may result in an increase tothe cost basis with a corresponding credit to the allowance.6.Can you speak to the forecasting process for variable rate loans? To what extent will therebe an expectation of rate forecasting?The proposed guidance specifically mentions forecasting prepayments and excluding renewals(unless a TDR is expected); however, it does not specifically mention forecasting rate changes forvariable rate loans. According to ASC 310-20-35-20 (FAS 91) “In a period in which theindependent factor on a variable rate loan changes, the constant effective yield is recalculated notfrom the inception of the loan but from the time of the change.” Therefore, because the yield isheld constant until the factor changes, the projection should not reflect changes in the rate untilthe factor is updated. There should be consistency between the discount yield and the expectedcash flows used to calculate the allowance.This is consistent with the practice under ASC 310-10-35 (FAS 114) and ASC 310-30 (SOP 03-3)today.18

Frequently Asked Questions (continued)7.Can you comment on the public comments made by examiners (Federal Reserve, OCC,FDIC) that the reserve is supposed to go up by 40% - 60% from the reserves today?The short answer . . . it depends upon the assumptions.The long answer . . . Two entities can start with the same set of facts, make different assumptions,and arrive at very different answers. Case in point, Primatics performed a CECL analysis with theAmerican Bankers Association (ABA) where the life of loan loss was applied to a portfolio of loansincreasing the reserve as of the balance sheet date by roughly 30%. At the same time, anotherinstitution performed an analysis on the same population making different assumptions and theirreserve increased by 60%. This study highlights the role that assumptions will play, their impact onthe allowance, and the unavoidable challenges to comparability between financial statements.Assumptions must be made around borrower behavior and the forecast of future conditions.It depends upon the economic cycle - For example, heading into the ’08 financial crisis theoutlook for the reserves would be quite high, but as the financial crisis passes reserves would bereleased.We should also clarify that when we say that the amount of the allowance will increase, this is as ofthe balance sheet date. Ultimately, over the long run the reserve will be the same as under USGAAP, but removing the incurred and probable threshold will results in earlier recognition underCECL.19

Frequently Asked Questions (continued)8.Can the collateral value be used to calculate the impairment?There is a practical expedient for collateral dependent assets. The reserve can be measured by thedifference between the collateral’s fair value (less selling costs) and the amortized cost basis of theasset. The definition of collateral dependent will be updated to - A financial asset for which therepayment is expected to be provided primarily or substantially through the operation (by thelender) or sale of the collateral, based on an entity’s assessment as of the reporting date. Primarilyor substantially will replace solely. Many believe that this expands the definition of collateraldependent and increases the number of assets for which this practical expedient can be applied.9.Can I use historical averages?According to the proposed model and the tentative decisions confirmed during the August 13, 2014board meeting, the entity must consider past events, current conditions, and reasonable andsupportable forecasts when developing the expected loss estimate. An entity should revert tounadjusted historical credit loss experience for future periods beyond which the entity is able tomake reasonable forecasts over a.) the financial asset’s estimated life on a straight-line basis or b.)a period and in a pattern that reflects the entity’s assumptions about expected credit losses overthat period.20

Frequently Asked Questions (continued)10. How will I forecast for loans?According to the guidance, an entity should consider all contractual cash flows over the life of therelated financial assets. An entity should consider expected prepayments and should not considerexpected extensions, renewals, and modifications unless it reasonably expects to execute atroubled debt restructuring with the borrower.An entity should consider relevant qualitative and quantitative factors as well as internal andexternal information specific to the borrower and related to the environment in which the entityoperates. Note that this does not require that discounted cash flows be used to estimate the loss,only that the method used reflect all the remaining contractual cash flows.11. Will the loss need to be evaluated for assets individually?According to the tentative board decisions confirmed August 13, 2014, entities will be required toevaluate financial assets on a collective basis when similar risk characteristics exist. If an entitydetermines that a financial asset does not share similar risk characteristics with other financialassets of the entity, the entity would evaluate the financial asset on an individual basis.21

Frequently Asked Questions (continued)12. What about Purchased Credit Impaired (PCI) Assets?There is a significant shift from current GAAP for PCI Assets under ASC 310-30 (formerly SOP 033). An allowance is established at the time of purchase, and a non-credit mark must be allocated toeach asset. The amortized cost basis is grossed-up to the purchase price plus the allowance at thetime of purchase. Increases in expected cash flows are recognized through the reserve rather thanthrough the yield (symmetrical to decreases in expectations). Interest income is based oncontractual cash flows, and nonaccrual rules would be applicable.As determined during the March 11, 2015 Board Meeting, assets currently accounted for as PCI(including assets for which Subtopic 310-30 has been applied by analogy) will be classified as PCIassets at the date of CECL adoption. Entities will be required to gross up the allowance forexpected credit losses for all PCI assets at the date of adoption and will continue to recognizeinterest income based on the yield of such assets as of the adoption date.As determined during the April 22, 2015 Board Meeting, the definition of a PCI Asset was updatedto assets with more than insignificant credit deterioration since origination which is expected toincrease the number of assets that qualify for PCI treatment. The gross-up approach will be appliedto assets qualifying as PCI only. There are no changes to the current accounting practice for nonPCI assets acquired in a business combination.22

Proposed Disclosure RequirementsDisclosureChanges inEconomicForecasts andPortfolioCompositionDescription Method and information used to calculatethe allowance. How the current and projected forecastsdrive the estimate.DifficultyChallenging The forecast of future economic circumstances, is a new andchallenging element. The potential for expected credit loss volatility is high. Past events, current conditions, andreasonable supportable forecasts. Collaboration between the credit and accounting groups will benecessary. Changes in the factors and the reason forthe change. Forecasts of future economic conditions are highly judgmental.Credit QualityDisclosures byVintage* Credit quality indicators disclosed undercurrent GAAP disaggregated by year ofthe asset’s origination.Challenging New requirement for all institutions. Entities may find it challenging to disaggregate the endingbalance by year of origination.Purchased CreditImpaired FinancialAssets Reconciliation between the fair value andthe face value.Challenging Purchase fair value, Discount attributableto expected credit losses, Non-creditrelated discount/premium, Unpaidprincipal balance Amortized cost basis is equal to the purchased fair value grossof the allowance. The difference between the fair value and principal balance issegregated by a credit mark and an non-credit mark.Transition Cumulative-effect adjustment to thestatement of financial position.ChallengingAllowance forExpected CreditLoss Roll Forward Beginning balance, provision, write- offs,recoveries, and the ending balance of theallowance for the period.Medium Requires that the roll forward be disaggregated at the portfoliolevel, and include all charge-off and recovery activity for theperiod.* As of the February 11, 2015 Board Meeting. Replaces the amortized cost basis roll forward in the original exposure draft.23

Proposed Disclosure Requirements (continued)DisclosureCredit QualityInformationDescription Enable the user to understand the creditquality of the portfolio. Amortized cost basis disaggregated bycredit quality indicators.DifficultyMedium Credit quality disclosures in ASC 310 (ASU 2010-20) effective inDecember 2010 for public companies. Inherent risk associated with combining accounting balancesand risk classifications from multiple source systems.Past Due Status Aging analysis of the amortized cost fordebt instruments that are past due.Medium Similar to the current disclosure requirement for nonaccrual andpast due financing receivables in ASC 310-10.Nonaccrual StatusProvide the following by portfolio segment:Medium- 90 days past due and accruing status Covers a broad range of information including the estimatedallowance, interest income, collateral values, and the amortizedcost basis of nonperforming loans.- Nonaccrual status but no relatedexpected credit losses due to fullcollateralization A roll forward of loans on nonaccrual status is ideal whenproviding the nonaccrual balance at the beginning and end ofthe period.- Beginning and ending amortized cost innonaccrual- Interest income on the cash basis.CollateralizedFinancial Assets Collateral type by class of financial assetfor collateral dependent loans. Explain by class changes in the extent towhich collateral secures an entity’sfinancial assets.Medium Updated appraisals, loan-to-value (LTV) ratios, and the houseprice index (HPI) will be needed to convey the extent to whichthe financial collateral dependent financial assets are secured. This will require coordination between the accounting and creditgroups.24

ContactLauren Smith, CPAlsmith@primaticsfinancial.comOffice: 571.282.6858Mobile: 703.398.6916This document is protected under the copyright laws of the US and other countries as an unpublished work. This document contains information that is proprietary and confidential toPrimatics Financial LLC, and by accepting receipt of this document the recipient agrees not to disclose, or to otherwise duplicate or use, this document or its contents in whole or in partfor any purpose other than in connection with services or deliverables to be delivered by Primatics Financial LLC. Any use or disclosure in whole or in part of this information without theexpress written permission of Primatics Financial LLC is prohibited. 2013 Primatics Financial LLC – All rights reserved.25

6. Loan geography 8. 7. Contractual cash flows for each loan or pool of loans Risk System Data: 1. Loan classes and grades 2. Modification history by loan class 3. Loan renewal and funding history by loan class 4. Loan prepayments history by loan class 5. Loan cash flows not collected 6. Loan grade LGD and PD rates 7. Loan grade charge-off history

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