www.irishheart.ieLOSE WEIGHTand reduce your riskof heart diseaseand stroke
Weight loss, heartdisease and strokeBeing overweight means thatyour heart has to workharder to pump blood aroundyour body. This extrapressure can cause wear andtear on your heart and bloodvessel system.Many people whoare overweight for along time develophigh blood pressureor diabetes.1
Many people who areoverweight for a long timedevelop high blood pressureor diabetes, which are bothrisk factors for heart diseaseand stroke.In the last 10 years there has been an increase in thenumber of people who are overweight or veryoverweight (obese). Being overweight and obesedamages our hearts, blood vessels and our joints, andis mainly the result of too many calories in our dietand too little activity.If you are overweight or obese, you should check withyour family doctor if you have other risk factors suchas high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol andsmoking. Even losing a small amount of weight willimprove your overall health and help reduce your riskof heart disease and stroke.You can get more information about other risk factors– see the back page for contact details.If you are overweight, start now and use the tips inthis leaflet to change your eating habits and get morephysically active. Making small changes now will stopyou from gaining extra weight over the next fewyears.2
Do you need to lose weight? Is your weight creeping up each year? Do you have less energy than you used to? Do you get breathless running for a bus?Your answer is likely to be ‘Yes’, as more than halfof Irish adults are overweight or very overweight(obese).By losing some of your extra weight you will: feel better look better lower your chances of heart disease, stroke,diabetes and high blood pressure and help to reduce or even stop your medication forangina, high blood pressure or raised cholesterol.You may, of course, have your own reasons forwanting to lose weight.If you have already had a heart attack, bypass surgeryor an angioplasty, it’s important that you follow thetips in this leaflet to lose weight. You should especiallytry to: choose oily fish (for example, sardines, salmon,mackerel or trout) twice a week; choose at least five or more portions of fruit andvegetables every day.Making smallchanges nowwill stop youfrom gainingextra weightover the nextfew years.3
Are you always on a diet?Forget about dieting. Instead, follow a weight lossplan for life. Make small gradual changes to the foodyou eat and get more active. Even losing a smallamount of weight has health benefits. Start withchanges that are easy to make and that you can keepup for life – this will help you to reach a healthierweight and then to stay at this weight.Being a healthy weight isn’t about being as thin asa model, in fact it is quite the opposite. Find the rightweight for you by making sure it is within a healthyBMI range, eating healthily, regularly taking briskwalks and being generally active.Even losinga small amountof weight hashealth benefits.4
Are you an apple or pear shape?If you are overweight, it is where your body stores theextra fat that is the problem. If the extra fat is storedaround your waist, this gives you an apple shape. Thisshape is linked with a higher risk of heart disease,stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes and somecancers. If extra fat is stored around your hips thisgives you a pear shape and this shape is less harmfulto your health.Use a measuring tape to measure your waist and thencheck the table on the next page to assess your risk ofheart disease and stroke.No one weight isideal, as there is arange of healthyweights for aparticular height.5
Waist measurement tableWomenMenHealthy waistmeasurementLess than 80centimetres(32 inches)Less than 94centimetres(37 inches)Moderate riskBetween 80 and88 centimetres(32 and 35 inches)Between 94and 102centimetres(37 and 40 inches)High riskMore than 88centimetres(35 inches)More than 102centimetres(40 inches)Check your body mass index.Your body mass index (BMI) is an easy check to findout your weight range.Draw a line across from your height and up from yourweight. Where these two lines cross is your body massindex. No one weight is ideal, as there is a range ofhealthy weights for a particular height.6
If you are in the ‘overweight band’ range, start tofollow the tips in this leaflet. If you are in the ‘obese’ or‘very obese band’ range, get help and advice fromyour family doctor or a dietitian. There is no quick wayto lose weight. A steady loss of one kilogram (one totwo pounds) a week is the safest and most effectiveway to lose weight and keep it off.Are you ready to lose weight?There are two important things you need to do tolose weight successfully:1. Get motivated to lose those extra pounds. Keepinga diary of the food you eat and the activities you dowill help get you focused and keep you motivated.2. Plan and be prepared. Planning ahead helps youfeel more in control of your weight loss. Have plentyof healthy foods in your fridge, lots of fresh fruit andvegetables, low-fat snack foods like low-fat yoghurtand a light oil spray for cooking. Have your tracksuitand trainers ready for your walking or activityprogramme. This will make it easier foryou to start your new eating andactivity plan.7
MotivationMotivation is most important when it comes toachieving a healthy weight. Motivation gets youstarted and keeps you going. Start by making a list of the reasons why you wantto lose weight. Keep this list and look at it whenyour willpower is low. Next, keep a food and activity diary. Just write downwhat you eat for three days and when you do anyexercise or physical activity. This will help you focuson what you’re eating and what you need tochange. People who keep food and activity diariesare more successful at losing weight than thosewho don’t. Set realistic goals that you can reach over time - onekilogram (one to two pounds) per week. This way,you will be more likely to reach your target weightand stay there. Put your favourite photo of yourself on your fridge.This will make you think before you open the door –‘Do I really need this food?’ Lose weight with a friend or with a recognisedweight loss group – you are more likely to succeed. Relax. Try to manage your stress by taking time outto do some activity, something you enjoy. You arelikely to eat and drink more when you are understress. Picture yourself in your mind with some realisiticweight-loss. Think about this image a few times aday. Seeing a mental picture of yourself withweight-loss can make you more confident that youcan achieve your goal.8
Use the Food Pyramid to plan yourhealthy food choices every day andwatch your portion size9
Copyright Department of Health10
Successful tips for losing weight Look carefully at the size of your food portions,especially when you are eating out. Follow the Food Pyramid guidelines. Focus on whatyou can eat rather than on what you can’t. Be strictand limit your food choices from the top shelf. Forlunch and dinner, use a smaller dinner plate and fillit mostly with vegetables. Have three regular meals each day. Research showsthat people who eat breakfast regularly are morelikely to keep their weight down. Some people find that having two smaller coursesrather than one large main meal makes them feelmore satisfied. Try choosing fruit, vegetables orsalad as a starter, or fruit to finish off your meal. Learn to recognise hunger. If you are not reallyhungry at meal times, just eat small portions. Each week, write out a shopping list of the healthyfoods you need to help you lose weight. Bring thislist with you every week when you’re doing yourfamily shopping. Try not to shop when you arehungry.Choose healthy low-fat ways of cooking Oven-bake, grill, boil, poach, stir-fry, steam ormicrowave food instead of frying it. Boil, steam, dry-roast or bake potatoes instead ofhaving chips. Try a light cooking spray instead of cooking oil. Cut all visible fat off meat and take the skin offchicken. Drain fat off meat and sauces when they arecooked. Choose tomato-based sauces instead of creamysauces for pasta and rice dishes.11
Emergency supplies Have low-fat ready meals in the freezer – homemade or bought. Have a good supply of raw vegetables and plenty offruit. Home-made soup is a great comfort food, especiallyon cold days. Freeze it in microwave-proof cartonsso they are easy to thaw out and reheat as needed. Get into the habit of carrying a bottle of water. It isimportant to drink at least eight cups of fluid eachday. Water can also help you feel full up betweenmeals.12
AlcoholIf you are serious about losing weight, you will bemore successful if you cut out alcohol altogether untilyou reach your target weight. Alcohol is high incalories, can make you more hungry and can weakenyour good intentions. Choose water or diet drinks every second drink. Ifyou really need to have an alcoholic drink, try whitewine spritzers or light beer instead of other drinks,and drink more slowly. Do not drink more than the recommended upperlimits: 17 standard drinks (SD) a week for men and11 standard drinks a week for women, spread outover the week with some alcohol-free days.One standard drink is 10g of alcohol one half pint of beer, stout or lager one small glass of wine one pub measure of spirits (whiskey, vodkaor gin).Support and reward Get support from your family and friends. They canhelp keep you motivated, become more active withyou and help you limit the high-fat snack foods youeat.13
Reward yourself when you make positive progress.To check your progress, use a measuring tape orweighing scales (remember that scales vary and ifyou’re retaining fluid for any reason they may notgive you a true picture of your progress), orconsider how your clothes fit. Weigh yourself once aweek at the same time in similar clothes. Choose anon-food treat for your reward – a magazine, a DVD,a CD, a film, a football match, a new haircut or evena top or shirt when you have lost some weight.Be active to lose weightRegular physical activity is as important as what youeat for losing weight and keeping your heart healthy.Being active helps burn calories, tone your musclesand control your appetite.To lose weight, you need to use up moreenergy (calories) than your body takes infrom food and drink. The best way to loseweight is through a combination of: Eating and drinking fewer calories, and usingup more calories by being more active. You should gradually build up to 60 to 75minutes of physical activity on 5 days a week. Your activity should be aerobic, which meansgetting the whole body moving - walking,cycling and swimming are excellent examples. Your activity should be at a moderate intensity,which- causes your heart to beat faster,- means you are slightly out of breath but stillable to talk, and- brings a little sweat to your brow.On any day, the amount of activity can be spread over2 to 3 shorter sessions, for example 45 minuteswalking and 15 minutes swimming or the total of 300or more minutes can be spread over the whole week.14
Walking is an excellent way to lose weight, especiallyif you have not been active for a while. You shouldaim to walk 3 to 5 kilometres (1Km 2/3 mile) at amoderate pace on most days of the week. A threekilometre walk should take 30 to 40 minutes tocomplete. Gradually increase the pace and durationand add in other activities such as swimming, cycling,dancing or football.Vigorous intensity, such as jogging; running,swimming laps or cycling at more than 10 mph canalso be effective in losing weight, provided you are fitand healthy enough. The advantage is that you needtake only half the time to achieve the same results asmoderate intensity. You can of course combineminutes of vigorous activity with minutes ofmoderate activity e.g. 30 minutes run or jog(vigorous) and 15 to 20 minutes gardening or briskwalking (moderate).The amount of time and type of activity will workdifferently for each person in losing weight. As youget more active and fitter by increasing time orintensity, or both, you should achieve steady weightloss and enjoy other health benefits such as increasedenergy or better sleep .General guidelines Choose an activity, sport or exercise routine thatyou enjoy and find a friend or family member tojoin you. If you have not been active, build more activity intoyour daily life, take the stairs, walk to the shop, walkthe dog or do some gardening. This way, beingmore active will become a lifetime habit. If you are not sure about your fitness level orgeneral health, or have a specific healthproblem, it is important to contact yourfamily doctor before you start exercising.15
Daily menu planRegular meals stop you feeling hungry and ensurethat you have a daily supply of essential nutrients.Try out the meal suggestions below.Breakfast One bowl of wholegrain cereal withchopped fruit and low-fat milk One slice of wholemeal bread or toastMid morning Fruit or raw vegetablesLunch Plenty of cooked or raw vegetables 25 to 50 grams (one to two ounces)of lean meat, poultry, fish (preferablyoily fish, such as sardines or salmon),eggs or low-fat cheese Two slices of wholemeal bread or a roll Low-fat yogurt or a glass of low-fat milk Fresh fruitMid afternoon Fresh fruit or raw vegetablesMain meal 75 to 100 grams (three to four ounces) of lean meat,poultry, fish (preferably oily), eggs, low-fat cheese ornine dessertspoons of peas or beans Plenty of vegetables One medium baked or boiled potato, or threedessertspoons of cooked pasta or rice Low-fat yogurt or a glass of low-fat milk Fresh, cooked or tinned fruit (in its own juice)Supper Fresh fruitHave about 8 to 10 glasses (1.5 litres) of fluids a day,preferably water.If you feel hungry between meals, try drinking aglass of water first. If you are still hungry, choosefresh fruit or raw vegetables to snack on.16
Please make a donation todayThe Irish Heart Foundation is Ireland’s national charitydedicated to the reduction of death and disability fromheart disease and stroke. Over 90% of our funding comesfrom public and business donations. We depend on yourgoodwill and generosity to continue our work.If you found this booklet useful, please helpour charity to continue to provide heart andstroke information by donating today.You can make your donation today:By post:Irish Heart Foundation,50 Ringsend Road, Dublin 4Online:www.irishheart.ieBy phone: 01 6685001Personal DetailsName:Address (required for direct debit) :Email Address:Phone:Mobile:Credit or debit card (one off donation)Amount: 250* 100 50 25Other Card Number:Signature:/Security Code**:Date://The Irish Heart Foundation is committed to best practice in fundraising andadheres to the statement of guiding principles for fundraisingpromoting transparency, honesty and accountability. Any personalinformation you provide will be held in accordance with theData Protection Acts 1988 and 2003.17AP00248Exp Date:
Direct debit (monthly donation)Amount: 21* 18 15Other 10per monthBank Name:Address:Account Name:Sort Code:Account No:Signature:Date:* If you donate 250 in one year (or 21 per month) we can claimtax back at no cost to you.** Last 3 digits on the signature strip on the reverse of your card.Do you need a postal receipt:YesNo(saves cost of postage)Would you like to hear about our events, activities,awareness campaigns and appeals? YesNo This is a guarantee provided by your own Bank as a Member ofthe Direct Debit Scheme, in which Banks and Originators ofDirect Debits participate. If you authorise payment by Direct Debit, then- Your Direct Debit Originator will notify you in advance of theamounts to be debited to your account- Your Bank will accept and pay such debits, provided that youraccount has sufficient available funds If it is established that an unauthorised Direct Debit was chargedto your account, you are guaranteed an immediate refund byyour Bank of the amount so charged where you notify your bankwithout undue delay on becoming aware of the unauthorisedDirect Debit, and in any event no later than 13 months after thedate of debiting of such Direct Debit to your account. You are entitled to request a refund of any Variable Direct Debitthe amount of which exceeded what you could have reasonablyexpected, subject to you so requesting your Bank within a periodof 8 weeks from the date of debiting of such Direct Debit to youraccount. You can instruct your Bank to refuse a Direct Debit payment bywriting in good time to your Bank. You can cancel the Direct Debit Instruction by writing in goodtime to your Bank.OIN 30632218
Irish Heart Foundation,50 Ringsend Road, Dublin 4Phone: 353 1 668 5001Fax: 353 1 668 5896Email: email@example.comHeart and Stroke Helpline:Locall 1890 432 787Monday to Friday 10am to 5pmWeb:www.irishheart.iewww.stroke.ieFunding:The Irish Heart Foundation is the national charityfighting heart disease and stroke and relies oncharitable donations for 90 per cent of its funding.We support, educate and train people to save lives,campaign for patients, promote positive healthstrategies, support research and provide vital publicinformation. We need your support - throughdonations, as a volunteer or on our training courses.This booklet is part-funded by the IrishHeart Foundation and part-funded bythe Health Service Executive.Published by the Irish HeartFoundation in 2011. For moreinformation, contact the IrishHeart Foundation or yourlocal HSE office:The information provided by the Irish HeartFoundation in this booklet was correct andaccurate at the time of publication to thebest of the charity’s knowledge.Registered Charity Number CHY 5507HPUT00372
To lose weight, you need to use up more energy (calories) than your body takes in from food and drink. The best way to lose weight is through a combination of: Eating and drinking fewer calories, and using up more calories by being more active. You should gradually build up to 60 to 75
lose weight. How much weight can I expect to lose on this medicine? You should lose 1 to 2 pounds a week. if you follow the recommended diet and exercise plan while taking this medicine. In the first 2 weeks, you may lose more weight. After 3 months, weight loss should be about 5% of your starting weight. For example, if you weigh 250 .
average ability to speak Irish.2 The following table illustrates the results of the Irish language question in the 2001 Census. Knowledge of Irish of all persons aged 3 years and over Northern Ireland Census 2001 All persons 1,617,957 Understands spoken Irish bu t cannot read, write or sp eak Irish 36,479 Speaks but does not read or w rite .
Irish-speakers were pushed westwards (Hickey, 2011, p. 17). By doing so, in the 18th century Irish speakers were living in rural areas, mostly poor and catholic. The English language was associated with township and property. Just two cities remand Irish-speaking, Galway and Drogheda (Leith, 1997, p. 169). Most of the Irish
Weight Loss Behaviors 43.9% of students are trying to lose weight. 13.1% of students have gone without eat-ing for 24 hours or more to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the past 30 days. 5.6% of students have taken any diet pills, powders, or liquids without a doctor's ad-vice to lose weight or to keep from gain-
What ways to lose weight were reported by adults who tried to lose weight in 2013-2016? Among adults who tried to lose weight, the most commonly reported ways were exercising (62.9%); eating less food (62.9%); eating more fruits, vegetables, and salads (50.4%); drinking a lot of water (44.7%); and eating less junk food or fast food (42.4%)
Those trying to lose weight Those not trying to lose weight 10 ‒ Globally, reducing sugar is identified as the top food-related strategy for weight loss, followed by reducing calories and carbohydrates. Reducing meat and unsaturated fats are least likely to mentioned. Those trying to lose weight are more likely
So, are you eating enough to lose weight? Are you eating enough natural, fiber-rich foods to lose weight? 4. Breakfast Power Up (2 minutes 29 minutes remaining) The eight sessions we'll experience in the Full Plate Diet Weight Loss Program will help us gradually shift how we're eating. The end result is steady, sustainable weight loss.
Gauge Field Theory Dr. Ben Gripaios CavendishLaboratory, JJThomsonAvenue, Cambridge,CB30HE,UnitedKingdom. January4,2016 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Contents 1 Avantpropos1 2 BedtimeReading2 3 Notationandconventions3 4 Relativisticquantummechanics5 4.1 WhyQMdoesanddoesn’twork5 4.2 TheKlein-Gordonequation7 4.3 TheDiracequation7 4.4 Maxwell’sequations10 4.5 .