Time Series Analysis With Aviation Data - George Mason University

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Time Series Analysis of AviationDataDr. Richard XieFebruary, 2012

What is a Time Series A time series is a sequence of observations inchorological order, such as– Daily closing price of stock MSFT in the past tenyears– Weekly unemployment claims in the past 2 years– Monthly airline revenue passenger miles in thepast ten years Time series analysis is useful when– No other data available– System too complicated to model in detail

Where to Get the Data?

What Information Are You Interested In? How the data changes from month to month, yearto year?––––Any trend?How fluctuated the curve is?Any seasonal effects?Any unusual years/months which have significantlysmall or large number? Can we forecast future value based on the timeseries?

Let’s Work on the Data But first, what tool will you use?––––––Pencil and quadrille pad (or back of an envelope)ExcelMatlab, Mathematica, MapleSAS, SPSS, STATA, RROOT, PAW, KNIME, Data Applied, etc.Others

Use R! R is free R is a language, not just a statistical tool R makes graphics and visualization of the bestquality A flexible statistical analysis toolkit Access to powerful, cutting-edge analytics A robust, vibrant community Unlimited possibilities

Where to Download R To download R– Go to http://www.r-project.org/– Choose a CRAN Mirror, such as http://cran.cnr.berkeley.edu/– Click the link to download R according to your operatingsystem (Linux, MacOS X, or Windows) Or Enhanced Version of R Distributed by 3rd Party– Revolution R cts/revolution-r.php)– Free academic version of Revolution R ucts/revolutionenterprise.php)CRAN: Comprehensive R Archive Network

R References An Introduction to R, W.N.Venables,D.M.Smith and R Development Core Team More Documents/Tutorials, go to– http://cran.cnr.berkeley.edu/other-docs.html

Start an R Project Recommend using RStudio as the console(http://rstudio.org/download/) Create a project folder for storing R scripts, data, etc.– e.g. C:/Users/xie/Documents/SYST460/R projects/airline timeseries Open RStudio, navigate to the project folder1. Use getwd() tofind out the currentworking directory2. Click andselect theproject folder3. Click here4. Current workingdirectory is changed

Work on Data, Finally! Use Ctr Shft N to create a new script rm(list ls(all TRUE)) to clear the existingvariables in workspace, if any rpm read.csv("System Passenger Revenue Passenger Miles (Jan 1996 - Oct2011).csv") Use Ctr Enter to run the current line orselection

What the Data Looks Like? ls(rpm) plot(rpm), equivalent to plot(rpm Total rpm YYYYMM)

Plot It As A Time Series rpm.ts ts(as.numeric(rpm Total), start c(1996,01),freq 12) plot(rpm.ts,ylab 'Revenue PassengerMiles')Commands to checkproperties of rmp.ts

Trends and Seasonal Variation layout(1:2) plot(aggregate(rpm.ts)) boxplot(rpm.ts cycle(rpm.ts))Overall trendof increasingover yearsMax valueUpper QuartileMedianLower QuartileMin value

Window Function Extract a part of the time series betweenspecified start and end points rpm.Feb - window(rpm.ts, start c(1996,02), freq TRUE) rpm.Aug - window(rpm.ts, start c(1996,08), freq TRUE) mean(rpm.Feb)/mean(rpm.Aug)

Modeling Time Series - Notations

Modeling Time Series – Decomposition Models

Time Series Decomposition in R rpm.decom decompose(rpm.ts) plot(rpm.decom)


AutoCorrelation and Correlogram rpm.acf acf(as.numeric(rpm.ts),lag.max 40)

Correlogram after Decomposition acf(as.numeric(rpm.decom random),na.action na.omit,lag.max 40)

Regression Trends: stochastic trends, deterministic trends Deterministic trends and seasonal variationcan be modeled using regression Deterministic trends are often used forprediction Time series regression differs from standardregression as time series tends to be seriallycorrelated

Linear Models

Fit A Linear Regression Model fit lm(rpm.ts time(rpm.ts)) plot(rpm.ts, type "o", ylab "RPM") abline(fit)

Diagnostic Plots hist(resid(fit)) acf(resid(fit)) AIC(fit)

Linear Model with Seasonal Variables

Linear Model with Seasonal Variables - R Seas cycle(rpm.ts)– Gives the positions in the cycle of each obsv. Time time(rpm.ts)– Creates the vector of times at which rpm.ts wassampled rpm.lm lm(rpm.ts 0 Time factor(Seas))– Fit rpm.ts to the linear model with seasonalvariables

Take a Look at rpm.lm summary(rpm.lm)ModelResiduals from fittingCoefficients

Correlogram of rpm.lm Residual acf(resid(rpm.lm),lag.max 40)It indicates strongpositive-autocorrelationResiduals are notpure randomnumbers, so itshould be furthermodeled

How Random is Random? - White Noise A time series {wt: t 1, 2, . . . , n} is discretewhite noise (DWN) if the variables w1,w2, . . .,wn are independent and identicallydistributed with a mean of zero. This implies that the variables all have thesame variance σ2 and Cor(wi,wj) 0 for all i j. If, in addition, the variables also follow anormal distribution (i.e., wt N(0, σ2)) theseries is called Gaussian white noise.

Simulate White Noise in R set.seed(1) w rnorm(100) plot(w, type "l") acf(w)

Random WalkLet {xt} be a time series. Then {xt} is a random walk if xt xt 1 wtwhere {wt} is a white noise series. Substituting xt 1 xt 2 wt 1 and then substituting for xt 2, followed by xt 3and so on gives: xt wt wt 1 wt 2 . . .In practice, the series will start at some timet 1. Hence, xt w1 w2 . . . wt

Simulate A Random Walk in R x - w - rnorm(1000) for (t in 2:1000) x[t] - x[t - 1] w[t] plot(x, type "l") acf(x)Your plot will bedifferent for sure!


Auto-Regressive (AR) Models The series {xt} is an autoregressive process oforder p, abbreviated to AR(p), ifxt α1xt 1 α2xt 2 . . . αpxt p wtwhere {wt} is white noise and the αi are themodel parameters with αp 0 for an order pprocess. The model is a regression of xt on past termsfrom the same series; hence the use of theterm ‘autoregressive’.

Fit an AR Model res.ar ar(resid(rpm.lm),method "ols") res.arxt 0.7153xt 1 0.1010xt 2 0.0579xt 3 wt acf(res.ar res[-(1:3)])OLS: Ordinary Least Square

Moving Average Model

Simulate an MA Process set.seed(1) b - c(0.8, 0.6, 0.4) x - w - rnorm(1000) for (t in 4:1000) {for (j in 1:3) x[t] - x[t] b[j] * w[t - j]} plot(x, type "l") acf(x)

Plot ResultsFirst 3 lags withsignificant correlationSimulated MA ProcessCorrelogram of the Simulated MA Process

ARMA Model

Fit An ARMA Model rpm.arma arima(rpm.ts,order c(1,0,1)) acf(as.numeric(rpm.arma resid))Strong seasonalinformation left inresiduals

ARIMA and SARIMA Model A time series {xt} follows an ARIMA(p, d, q)process if the dth differences of the {xt} seriesare an ARMA(p, q) process SARIMA is Seasonal ARIMA model whichextends ARIMA model with seasonal terms

Fit A SARIMA Model rpm.arima arima(rpm.ts,order c(1,1,1),seas list(order c(1,0,0),12))– First c(1,1,1): AR(1), first-order difference, MA(1)– Second c(1,0,0): seasonal terms on AR process, frequency12 acf(as.numeric(rpm.arima resid))

Forecast Predicting future values of a time series, xn m,using the set of present and past values of thetime series, x {xn, xn-1, , x1} The minimum mean square error predictor ofxn m is xnn m E ( xn m x) predict(model, newdata) method– model: a model object used for prediction– newdata: value of explanatory variables

Forecast in R new.t - seq(2011.750, len 2 * 12, by 1/12) new.dat - data.frame(Time new.t, Seas rep(1:12, 2)) rpm.pred ts(predict(rpm.lm,new.dat)[1:24],start c(2011,11),freq 12) ts.plot(rpm.ts,rpm.pred,lty 1:2)

Plot of Forecast

Forecast with SARIMA Model ts.plot( cbind( window(rpm.ts,start c(1996,1)), predict(rpm.arima,48) pred ), lty 1:2)

Homework Download and Install R with Rstudio Read An Introduction to R Download System Passenger - RevenueAircraft Miles Flown (000) (Jan 1996 - Oct2011) data from BTS Read the data into R using Rstudio Create a time series plot of the data, and plotits auto-correlation correlogram Decompose the time series and save the plot

Homework (Ctd.) Construct a linear regression model withoutseasonal factors, and plot the correlogram ofthe model’s residual data Construct a linear regression model withseasonal factors, and identifies thecharacteristics of the model residual. Fit an AR model to the model residual of theabove model Forecast the time series data into next 24months using the seasonal model

Exam Questions What are the data elements in a time series?What does auto-correlation mean?What are white noise and random walk?What are stationary models and non-stationarymodels?

Homework (Ctd.) Construct a linear regression model without seasonal factors, and plot the correlogram of the model's residual data Construct a linear regression model with seasonal factors, and identifies the characteristics of the model residual. Fit an AR model to the model residual of the above model

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