Innovations In Ammonia - Energy

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Innovations in AmmoniaTrevor Brown, CFAAmmoniaIndustry.comUS DOE, Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Technical Advisory CommitteeWashington, DC, December 12, 20181

Ammonia: Hydrogen at Scale2017 Production(metric tons)AmmoniaHydrogen(17.8 %wt NH3)USA12.8 million2.3 millionWorld183 million32.6 millionHydrogen is captive: SMR / POX process; gas, coal, etc feedstockAmmonia is mostly captive: Urea, nitric acid, AN, UAN, etcMature markets: 80% fertilizer, 2% CAGR, 10% traded (16-17 million merchant tons)2

Innovations in Ammonia1) History of Innovation: Energy Efficiency2) Future of Innovation: Carbon Efficiency3) Low-carbon Ammonia: Available Today4) Carbon-free Ammonia: Electrolysis Haber-Bosch Pilot Plants5) Green Ammonia Markets: Hydrogen Carrier Technologies3

Ammonia Synthesis (Nitrogen Fixation): Energy Efficiency, 1910-2015Various sources /, November 2018120400Electric ArcMWh per metric ton ammonia30080250Cyanamid Process6020015040100Haber-Bosch Process20GJ per metric ton earCommercial Nitrogen Fixation Technologies: specific energy consumptionHaber-Bosch: Minimum Input Energy4

Ammonia Synthesis: Energy Efficiency, 2000-2050IFA Benchmarks /, November 2018MWh per metric ton ammonia1250Global average (high)IFA Benchmarking:Global averageIFA Benchmarking:25% global reductionpossible by 205010-20% from 199084030"Optimal" NewbuildGlobal average (low)-40%620-60%4Paris Agreement:80% EU reductionrequired by 20502020002010202020302040GJ per metric ton ammonia141002050YearIFA Benchmarking: Global AverageHaber-Bosch: Minimum Input EnergyParis Agreement: EU Emission Reduction Targets5

Ammonia Synthesis: Best Available Technologies, 2000-2050IFA Benchmarks / CEFIC /, November 2018MWh per metric ton ammonia1250Biomass: 11.67Coal: 11.67 MWh/tonHFO: 10.564010Naphtha: 9.728Electrolysis: 8.61SMR: 7.7830Electrochemical: 7.50 SMR-CCS: 7.50SMR: 7.226Nuclear: 6.94204GJ per metric ton ammonia1410202000201020202030204002050YearIFA Benchmarking: Global AverageIFA Benchmarking: 2009 Best Available Technology (BAT)CEFIC: Energy Roadmap 2050Haber-Bosch: Minimum Input Energy6

Ammonia Synthesis: Carbon Efficiency, 2000-2050IFA Benchmarking / CEFIC /, November 2018MWh per metric ton ammonia1250Electrolysis (early)BiomassGlobal Average 200320141086Coal40Heavy Fuel OilNaphthaElectrolysis (mature)SMR-CCSElectrochemicalNuclear205030SMR 2009SMR 2050204GJ per metric ton s (tons CO2) per metric ton ammonia3.504.00IFA Benchmarking: Global AverageIFA Benchmarking: 2009 Best Available Technology (BAT)CEFIC: Energy Roadmap 2050Haber-Bosch: Minimum Input Energy7

Low-carbon Haber-Bosch: Available TodayShowa Denko (Kawasaki, Japan) Plastic gasification since 2003 Ammonia capacity 175 tons per day 65% hydrogen feedstock from recycled plasticPremium for low-carbon technology in Japan Ecoann ammonia sold as deNOx product“Approved and rated high as ‘eco-friendly goods forprocurement’ by major electric power companies.”8

Low-carbon Haber-Bosch: Available TodayNutrien (Joffre, Canada) Byproduct hydrogen feedstock since 1987 Ammonia capacity 1,350 tons per day 25% reduction in carbon footprint v SMRPremium for low-carbon technology in Canada Alberta carbon tax hits both fuel and feedstockJoffre plant generates carbon credits that offsetemission cost of other plants in Nutrien’s fleet9

Low-carbon Haber-Bosch: Available TodayYara / BASF, Freeport, TX Byproduct hydrogen feedstock since 2018 Ammonia capacity 2,200 tons per day 25% reduction in carbon footprint v SMRNo premium for low-carbon technology in USA10

Green Ammonia: Back to the futureYara (Norsk Hydro), Glomfjord, Norway Hydropower ammonia, 1953 – 1991 The world’s biggest electrolyzers:2 x 135 MW units; 30,000 Nm3 per hour 100% carbon freeClosed because no market advantage,not competitive v SMR.But now, in 2018 electrolyzer costs down, efficiency up; andrenewable power input prices dropping11

Green Ammonia: Electrolyzer Pilot Plants University of Minnesota: Morris, MN, US Operational since 2013 R&D innovation:Scaling down Haber-Bosch to match wind12

Green Ammonia: Electrolyzer Pilot Plants13

Green Ammonia: Electrolyzer Pilot Plants FREA: Fukushima, Japan Operational since April 2018 R&D innovation:Catalyst development optimized for lowpressure electrolytic hydrogen1414

Green Ammonia: Electrolyzer Pilot Plants Siemens: Oxford, UK Operational since June 2018 R&D innovation:Business Models: ancillary grid services(DSM), energy storage, electrofuelproduction15

Green Ammonia: Electrolyzer Pilot PlantsImage not available for publishing16

Green Ammonia: Electrolyzer Pilot Plants ThyssenKrupp: Port Lincoln, Australia Announced 2018 for 2020 start R&D innovation:Market development for ammoniaexports as renewable energy commodity17

Green Ammonia: Electrolyzer Pilot Plants18

Green Ammonia: Electrolyzer Pilot Plants19

Green Ammonia: Electrolyzer Pilot Plants Haldor Topsoe: Denmark Announced 2018 for 2025 start R&D innovations:Solid oxide electrolyzer,SMR-ammonia plant revamp20

Green Ammonia: Electrolyzer Pilot Plants21

Green Ammonia: Electrolyzer Pilot Plants22

Japan: SIP “Energy Carriers” Gov’t-Industry-AcademiaR&D, launched 2015 Ammonia demonstrations: Green ammonia synthesisAmmonia SOFCAmmonia turbineAmmonia furnaceAmmonia co-combustion(coal power, cement) Ammonia cracking /purification on-site, forhydrogen stations (PEM FC) Ammonia safety, regulations,& public acceptance issues23

Japan: SIP “Energy Carriers” Cheaper to import anddehydrogenate ammoniathan to import hydrogen Economics improve if usingammonia as direct fuel Economics improve usingconventional process withsequestration (CH4 CCS)as bridge technology24

Japan: SIP “Energy Carriers” Demonstration projectsalready operational Imports of CO2-freeammonia planned to beginin 2024 (CH4 CCS) Imports of CO2-freeammonia planned to beginin 2030 (renewables) Signed into law by PM Abe,Hydrogen Basic Strategy,December 201725

Green Ammonia: Market Transformations Nitrogen Commodity Hydrogen Commodity Homogenous Commodity Heterogeneous CommodityPrice Premium Local Function[Carbon Footprint] Green Ammonia (Energy Markets) Green Ammonia (Ag Markets)Low-Carbon Leakage: supply creates demand26

Innovations in Ammonia1) History of Innovation: Energy Efficiency2) Future of Innovation: Carbon Efficiency3) Low-carbon Ammonia: Available Today4) Carbon-free Ammonia: Electrolysis Haber-Bosch Pilot Plants5) Green Ammonia Markets: Hydrogen Carrier TechnologiesQuestions? / https://ammoniaindustry.com27

IFA Benchmarking: Global average 40 IFA Benchmarking: 25% global reduction possible by 2050 Global average (low) "Optimal" Newbuild Global average (high) -20% from 1990 -40%-60% Paris Agreement: 80% EU reduction required by 2050 0 10 20 30 50 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 a a Year Ammonia Synthesis: Energy Efficiency, 2000-2050

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