Online Advertising: The Impact Of Targeted Advertising On Advertisers .

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STUDYRequested by the IMCO committeeOnline advertising:the impact of targetedadvertising on advertisers,market access andconsumer choicePolicy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life PoliciesDirectorate-General for Internal PoliciesAuthors: Niklas FOURBERG, Serpil TAŞ, Lukas WIEWIORRA,Ilsa GODLOVITCH, Alexandre DE STREEL, Hervé JACQUEMIN,Jordan HILL, Madalina NUNU, Camille BOURGUIGON,Florian JACQUES, Michèle LEDGER and Michael LOGNOULPE 662.913 - June 2021EN

Online advertising:the impact of targetedadvertising on advertisers,market access andconsumer choiceAbstractIn this research paper, we provide a comprehensive overview ofonline advertising markets and we analyse the challenges andopportunities concerning digital advertising. We review the degreeto which existing and proposed legislation at EU level addresses theidentified problems, and identify potential solutions, with referenceto experience from EU Member States and third countries. Weconclude with a synthesis and specific policy recommendations,drawing on stakeholder interviews.This document was provided by the Policy Department forEconomic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of thecommittee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).

This document was requested by the European Parliament's committee on the Internal Market andConsumer Protection.AUTHORSWIK-Consult: Niklas FOURBERG, Serpil TAŞ, Lukas WIEWIORRA and Ilsa GODLOVITCHUniversity of Namur: Alexandre DE STREEL, Hervé JACQUEMIN, Camille BOURGUIGON, FlorianJACQUES, Michèle LEDGER and Michael LOGNOULVVA: Jordan HILL and Madalina NUNUADMINISTRATOR RESPONSIBLEChristina RATCLIFFEDITORIAL ASSISTANTIrene VERNACOTOLALINGUISTIC VERSIONSOriginal: ENABOUT THE EDITORPolicy departments provide in-house and external expertise to support European Parliamentcommittees and other parliamentary bodies in shaping legislation and exercising democratic scrutinyover EU internal policies.To contact the Policy Department or to subscribe for email alert updates, please write to:Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life PoliciesEuropean ParliamentL-2929 - LuxembourgEmail: Poldep-Economy-Science@ep.europa.euManuscript completed: May 2021Date of publication: June 2021 European Union, 2021This document is available on the internet esDISCLAIMER AND COPYRIGHTThe opinions expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the authors and do notnecessarily represent the official position of the European Parliament.Reproduction and translation for non-commercial purposes are authorised, provided the source isacknowledged and the European Parliament is given prior notice and sent a copy.For citation purposes, the publication should be referenced as: Fourberg, N., Taş, S., Wiewiorra, L.,Godlovitch, I., De Streel, A., Jacquemin, H., Hill, J., Nunu, M., Bourguigon, C., Jacques, F., Ledger, M., andLognoul, M., 2021, Online advertising: the impact of targeted advertising on advertisers, market access andconsumer choice, Publication for the committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection, PolicyDepartment for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies, European Parliament, Luxembourg. Cover image used under licence from Adobe Stock

Online advertising: the impact of targeted advertising on advertisers, market access and consumer choiceCONTENTSLIST OF BOXES7LIST OF FIGURES8LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS9EXECUTIVE SUMMARY12HOW DO ONLINE ADVERTISING MARKETS WORK?161.1. Types of digital advertising161.2. The role of targeting in digital advertising181.3. Main actors and business models211.3.1. Ad-Networks221.3.2. Ad-Exchanges and advertising auctions241.3.3. The role of SMEs261.3.4. Consumers261.4. Evolution of the market and implications of COVID-1927CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES CONCERNING DIGITAL ADVERTISING312.1. Practices and their impacts312.1.1. Practices affecting consumers and SMEs as consumers/viewers of advertisement 312.1.2. Practices affecting purchasers of advertising including SMEs382.1.3. Practices affecting suppliers of digital advertising services (publishers and smallerSMEs functioning as Ad-Networks)422.2. Steps taken by consumers and commercial providers to address perceived challenges462.3. Analysis of costs and benefits of different practices48HOW FAR DOES EXISTING LEGISLATION GO IN ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM?533.1. Legal framework533.1.1. Overview of the legal framework533.1.2. Soft Law instruments553.1.3. Complexity of the legal framework553.2. How far do existing substantial rules address the problems and what are the gaps? 573.2.1. Processing of personal data and privacy573.2.2. Transparency obligations613.2.3. Internal market653.2.4. Prohibition of certain practices683.2.5. Many players involved and key role played by the platforms713PE 662.913

IPOL Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies3.2.6. Summary733.3. How far do existing enforcement measures address the problems and what are thegaps?733.3.1. Overview of the main enforcement measures733.3.2. Main issues and gaps743.3.3. Summary on enforcement753.4. What are the new measures proposed by the Commission in DSA and DMAproposals?753.4.1. DSA Proposal753.4.2. DMA Proposal77WHAT SOLUTIONS HAVE BEEN APPLIED?794.1. Comparison of national context794.2. Design and implementation of responses814.3. Evaluation of EU Member State and third country experiences85CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS875.1. Recommendations to better protect consumers875.1.1. Ensuring that data use and sharing in digital advertising conforms with privacy rules875.1.2. Informing consumers about the fact that they are being targeted and improvedconsent mechanisms885.1.3. Addressing “dark patterns” through GDPR guidelines895.1.4. Clarifying that digital targeted advertising must not breach rules on discriminationand improving algorithmic transparency895.1.5. Ensure that minors are not subject to harmful targeted advertising which exploitstheir vulnerabilities905.1.6. Dealing with multiple actors915.1.7. Clarifying the redress mechanisms915.1.8. Facilitating the functioning of the internal market915.2. Recommendations to better protect SMEs as publishers and advertisers925.2.1. Addressing exploitation by platforms which hold a dominant position in digitaladvertising925.2.2. Increase transparency concerning advertising auctions and the performance ofadvertising925.2.3. Tackling bundling and tying by gatekeeper intermediaries of premium advertisingspace935.2.4. Addressing asymmetric access to consumer data945.2.5. Counteracting the monopolisation of the browser market945.3. Summary of conclusionsPE 662.913954

Online advertising: the impact of targeted advertising on advertisers, market access and consumer choiceREFERENCES101ANNEX 1: LEGISLATIVE MEASURES AND PROPOSALS119Specific measures applicable to advertising in the digital environment119a)eCommerce Directive119b)P2B Regulation120c)DSA Proposal122d)DMA Proposal124e)ePrivacy (and Proposal)125General measures applicable to advertising126a)Unfair Commercial Practices Directive126b)Directive on misleading and comparative advertising127c)Consumer Rights Directive128d)GDPR129e)AVMS130Tables132ANNEX 2: CASE STUDIES135Australia1351.National context1352.Design and implementation of response1363.Analysis and Evaluation137Germany1381.National context1382.Design and implementation of response1383.Analysis and Evaluation139France1411.National context1412.Design and implementation of response1413.Analysis and Evaluation142Ireland1431.National context1432.Design and implementation of response1443.Analysis and Evaluation145United Kingdom1461.National context1462.Design and implementation of response1475PE 662.913

IPOL Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies3.Analysis and Evaluation147United States1491.National context1492.Design and implementation of response1503.Analysis and Evaluation151PE 662.9136

Online advertising: the impact of targeted advertising on advertisers, market access and consumer choiceLIST OF BOXESBox 1:Behavioural targeting and privacy concernsBox 2:Obfuscation and location based targeting of advertisements reduce consumer choice 34Box 3:Advertisement designs can exploit consumers’ behavioural biases and include darkpattern elements35Potential for discrimination and harmful targeting of vulnerable consumers throughReal-Time-Bidding (RTB)36The prevalence gives rise to threats to cybersecurity in the form of malvertising andspear-phishing38Box 4:Box 5:33Box 6:Factors that constitute large advertising providers can both harm and benefit advertisers40Box 7:Lack of transparency may lead to increased costs and fraud42Box 8:Asymmetric access to information and data44Box 9:Conducts like exclusive clauses, self-preferencing, bundling and tied sales as well asimpediments to interoperability are associated with large players45Box 10:Widespread advertising facilitates the adoption of ad-blocking software (AAT) by userswhich threatens the business models of publishers and advertisers47Box 11:Main issues and gaps: Processing of personal data and privacy60Box 12:Main issues and gaps: Transparency obligations65Box 13:Main issues and gaps: Internal market principles68Box 14:Main issues and gaps: Prohibition of some practices71Box 15:Main issues and gaps: Many players involved and key role played by the platforms72Box 16:Effect of COVID-19 on online advertising in France and Australia81Box 17:The path of online advertising regulation in Australia83Box 18:Ireland, an example of mixed regulatory systems84Box 19:The regulatory practice on online advertising in the United States857PE 662.913

IPOL Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life PoliciesLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1:Main players of the online advertising value chain22Figure 2:Ad delivery process: impression, click and conversion24Figure 3:Global ad spending forecast in million USD in 202028Figure 4:Global CPM in USD – Metrics on Facebook & Instagram29LIST OF TABLESTable 1:Elements of an ad brokerage network (Ad-network)23Table 2:Cost-benefit assessment49Table 3:Nature and scope of the legal measures56Table 4:Summary table on gaps73Table 5:Summary table on enforcement75Table 6:Main piece of legislation in case study countries79Table 7:Breakdown of online advertising spending in 2020 (USD)80Table 8:Effect of COVID-19 on online advertising in France and Australia82Table 9:Summary of conclusions96PE 662.9138

Online advertising: the impact of targeted advertising on advertisers, market access and consumer choiceLIST OF ABBREVIATIONSAATAd-Avoidance TechnologiesACAudiovisual CouncilACCCAustralian Competition and Consumer CommissionACLAustralian Consumer LawACMAAustralian Communications and Media AuthorityADRAlternative Dispute ResolutionAIArtificial IntelligenceAPIApplication Programming InterfaceARPPAutorité de régulation professionnelle de la publicité (French regulatory authorityfor advertising)ASAAdvertising Standards AuthorityASAIAdvertising Standards Agency for IrelandAVMSAudiovisual Media Services sumerBBBNPBBB National ProgramsCAPCommittee of Advertising PracticeCCPCCompetition and Consumer Protection CommissionCJEUCourt of Justice of the European UnionCMACompetition and Markets AuthorityCNILCommission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés (French Data ProtectionAuthority)CPAConsumer Protection ImpressionCPMCost-Per-MilleCPSCore Platform ServicesCRDConsumer Rights DirectiveCSAConseil Supérieur de l’Audiovisuel (French Broadcasting Authority)9PE 662.913

IPOL Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life PoliciesDITRDCDepartment of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development andCommunicationsDMADigital Markets ActDPAData Protection ActDPIAData Protection Impact AssessmentDSADigital Services ActDSCDigital Service CoordinatorDSPDemand Side PlatformEASAEuropean Advertising Standards AllianceECEuropean CommissionEDPDEuropean Data Protection BoardEPEuropean ParliamentEUEuropean UnionFAQsFrequently Asked QuestionsFLoCFederated Learning of CohortsFTCFederal Trade CommissionGAAGerman Advertising AssociationGBPBritish pound sterlingGDPRGeneral Data Protection RegulationGMPGeneral Media PanelGPSGlobal Positioning SystemIABInteractive Advertising BureauICCInternational Chamber of CommerceICPENInternational Consumer Protection Enforcement NetworkIDIdentifierIPInternet ProtocolISBAIncorporated Society of British AdvertisersISPInternet Service ProviderMSMember StateNCANational Competition AuthorityNCIFNational Commission for Informatics and FreedomsNTSNational Trading StandardsPE 662.91310

Online advertising: the impact of targeted advertising on advertisers, market access and consumer choiceOAICOffice of the Australian Information CommissionerOBAOnline Behavioural AdvertisingODROnline Dispute ResolutionOECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentP2BPlatform to BusinessPIIPersonally Identifiable InformationQIDsQuasi-IdentifiersROIReturn on InvestmentRTBReal-Time BiddingSMEsSmall and medium-sized enterprisesSMSShort Message ServiceSRISyndicat des Régies Internet (Syndicate which aims to ensure the professionalisationand development of digital advertising in France)SSPSupply Side PlatformTVTelevisionUCPDUnfair Commercial Practices DirectiveUKUnited KingdomUSUnited StatesUSDUnited States DollarUWGGesetz gegen den unlauteren Wettbewerb (German Law against unfair competition)VLOPVery Large Online PlatformVSPVideo-sharing PlatformWFAWorld Federation of Advertisers11PE 662.913

IPOL Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life PoliciesEXECUTIVE SUMMARYBackgroundOnline advertising is expanding at a significant rate 1, and the sector is expected to take on increasedimportance as progress towards digitisation accelerates in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. In thiscontext, consumers and SMEs as “end-users” of advertising are likely to become increasingly exposedto online advertising which is targeted on the basis of their behavioural patterns, raising importantquestions about privacy, and the potential for misleading or exploitative marketing or discrimination.At the same time, concerns are emerging about the challenges faced by smaller companies which maybe seeking to provide or rely on these forms of advertising, but lack full information or the requiredbargaining power to ensure their products are fairly represented.AimThe European Commission has recently released two legislative proposals, the Digital Services Act 2 andthe Digital Markets Act 3, which include provisions which are relevant to online advertising. In addition,there are other legislative measures targeted towards digital services4, as well as horizontal rules5regarding consumer protection, privacy and advertising which apply to the sector.This study aims to inform the IMCO Committee about emerging challenges resulting from onlineadvertising practices, as well as identifying potential areas where legislative proposals could beimproved, or new initiatives taken.How do online advertising markets work?There are three main types of online advertising: search advertising, display advertising and classifiedadvertising. Online advertising has created a unique opportunity to tailor advertisements to reflect theinterests or needs of consumers. Targeting can be done based on the content of the visited website orsearch query. However, targeting can also be based on information gathered about the consumer e.g.via cookies or other tracking technologies. This type of targeted advertising - called behaviouraladvertising - can involve extensive processing of consumers’ data. The provision of advertising caninvolve a number of different players, including not only the advertiser and the consumer, but also the“publisher” (the party which provides advertising space) and potentially an intermediary which acts toprovide a matching service between the advertiser and the publisher, often with the aid of dataanalysis.Challenges and opportunities concerning digital advertisingOnline targeted advertising can generate benefits for both consumers and SMEs, specifically bytailoring advertisements to match consumers’ interests and even by enabling the protection of certain12345In 2019, Europe accounted for 19.9% of the global market for online advertising. Recent trends include a shift from desktop to mobilecontent and associated advertising. Source: Statista, 2020, Digital Advertising Report.European Commission, 2020, Proposal of the Commission of 15 December 2020 for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of theCouncil on a Single Market For Digital Services (Digital Services Act) and amending Directive 2000/31/EC, COM(2020) 825 final, 2020/0361(COD).European Commission, 2020, Proposal of the Commission of 15 December 2020 for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of theCouncil on contestable and fair markets in the digital sector (Digital Markets Act), COM(2020) 842 final, 2020/0374 (COD).For example, the Platform to Business Regulation, and ePrivacy Directive and its proposed successor for an ePrivacy Regulation.These include the UCPD, Directive on misleading and comparative advertising, CRD, GDPR and Better Enforcement Directive.PE 662.91312

Online advertising: the impact of targeted advertising on advertisers, market access and consumer choiceconsumers e.g. by screening out advertisements which may be unsuitable for minors. However,targeted advertising can also raise a number of concerns. Issues impacting consumers include: A lack of understanding by consumers that their data are being used to target advertising; Targeting which exploits the vulnerability of certain groups of consumers; Consent forms and other design features which seek to steer consumers to make decisionsagainst their interests (dark patterns); Challenges to seek redress in cases where advertising or data collection / consent methods areinappropriate due to the range of bodies involved; and The potential for the algorithms used to target advertising to result in intentional orunintentional harmful discrimination.Meanwhile the significant reach of the largest platforms, their access to extensive datasets (whichenable targeting) and participation at multiple levels of the advertising value chain (which can beassociated with bundling or self-preferencing practices) can create challenges for SMEs seeking toadvertise or develop a competing advertising platform.How far does existing EU legislation go in addressing the problem?Digital advertising is covered by a wide range of existing EU legislation including legislation specific todigital platforms and services such as the eCommerce Directive, P2B Regulation, ePrivacy Directive andAudiovisual Media Services Directive as well as horizontal measures such as the Unfair CommercialPractices Directive, Directive on misleading and comparative advertising, Consumer Rights Directiveand General Data Protection Regulation. Moreover, competition law applies to all digital platforms.However, the diversity of measures can make the legal framework complex to understand and apply.Moreover, the legal framework is also fragmented across the EU27, especially since the older Directivessuch as the eCommerce Directive are minimal harmonisation instruments, and some Member Stateshave introduced more far-reaching rules. Important gaps remain. For example, there are no obligationsto ensure that consumers are informed that they are being subject to targeted advertising, and to allowthem to change the parameters under which they are being targeted or to opt out. In addition, thereare no general rules which prevent minors from being subject to harmful targeted advertising.Moreover, the complexity of the rules and diversity of players along the value chain risks creating avacuum in which the different players may not be aware of their responsibility to meet certainobligations.Some of these issues may be addressed within the proposed Digital Services Act (DSA) and DigitalMarkets Act (DMA) as well as the proposed Artificial Intelligence Act (AIA). However, gaps remain,notably regarding the treatment of “dark patterns”, algorithmic discrimination, how to ensure that therelevant players take responsibility for their content and targeting methods, and how to enableconsumers to seek redress in an increasingly complex system. The DSA, the DMA and the AIA do includeprovisions which aim to increase transparency towards consumers and purchasers of advertising.However, these could be further strengthened and extended.Conclusions and recommendationsBased on an analysis of the problems and their causes, as well as legislative gaps, we have identifiedthe following potential solutions that may be relevant to protect consumers and SMEs and facilitatethe development of the single market for advertising in the context of the DSA and DMA as well asother legislative and soft law instruments.13PE 662.913

IPOL Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policiesa. Informing consumers about being targeted and improved consent mechanismsThe DSA could contain a requirement for meaningful transparency concerning the existence oftargeted advertising, alongside a requirement that information about targeted advertising should beconveyed in a manner which is clear to consumers. If these measures are insufficient, an opt-in totargeted advertising could be encouraged through the self and co-regulatory measures provided forin Article 36 of the DSA.b. Addressing “dark patterns” through guidelinesEDPB guidelines cover the issue of “dark patterns” to some extent. However, further action could betaken such as defining design guidelines, among others, for cookie banners and consent forms andproviding a user-friendly tool enabling consumers to report websites that may not comply 6.c. Preventing discrimination and improving algorithmic transparencyThe DSA could further contribute to ensuring that rules regarding discrimination are adhered to in thecontext of digital advertising by enforcing greater meaningful transparency concerning the existenceof targeted advertising and the parameters used. In addition, regular vetting of systems and trainingdata by accredited researchers could offer new insights on how to mitigate systemic risks and reduceinformation asymmetries.d. Ensure that minors are not subject to targeted advertising which exploits their vulnerabilitiesThe AVMS Directive already includes obligations to protect minors from harmful content inadvertising 7. However, the provisions apply only to video sharing platforms. The DSA could include asimilar provision to that in Article 28b, paragraph 3 AVMS, to clarify that minors (and potentially othervulnerable customer groups) should be protected from harmful targeted advertising.e. Ensuring responsibility for targeted advertising when multiple actors are involvedActors which are responsible for targeted advertising solutions may not fall under the scope of the DSA,which is limited to intermediation services. A possible solution may be to clarify that Article 5.3 of theDSA proposal, which removes the liability exemption of the hosting platforms, could also apply toplatforms which may lead a reasonably well-informed consumer to believe that advertising is providedby the online platform itself or by a recipient of the service who is acting under its authority or control.This would ensure that the platform has an incentive to comply with all the transparency rules.f.Improving consumers’ access to redressThe proposed DSA sets out a generic mechanism for users to flag illegal content and to seek redress.However, this may not help consumers to identify how to make complaints and ensure that they reachthe right enforcement body. The Digital Service Co-ordinators could be tasked with providinginformation to consumers on how to seek redress in relation to online advertising (among other areas).Another option would be to adopt a sector-specific directive addressing all consumer protection issuesrelated to online advertising.67In the US, users can report websites to their respective Attorney General if they feel they are subjected to a dark pattern. Available at: 9(1) of AVMS Directive.PE 662.91314

Online advertising: the impact of targeted advertising on advertisers, market access and consumer choiceg. Facilitating the functioning of the internal marketThe risk of legal uncertainty deriving from the potential application of national rules to advertisingservices could be mitigated by clarifying the meaning of common terms and enforcing cooperationmechanisms between Member States. This could be done, for instance, by amending the eCommerceDirective (possibly through the DSA) by introducing precise deadlines and procedural conditions forthe implementation of derogations by Member States 8. Adopting EU-wide Codes of Conduct whichcould be ‘vetted’ by the European Commission to define which types of national restrictions would becompatible with the internal market clause might also be helpful.h. Addressing exploitation by platforms which hold a gatekeeper position in digital advertisingSmaller firms in particular may be reliant on large gatekeepers to reach consumers, potentially allowingexploitation. The proposed DMA includes provisions which aim to shine a light on potentialexploitation by requiring information on advertising prices and performance to be shared withadvertisers. Alongside approving the DMA provisions, potential exploitation could be addressed bytaking advantage of this information to pursue case by case enforcement under competition law.i.Increase transparency concerning advertising auctions and the performance of advertisingThe distribution of ads via ad-auctions is marked by a lack of transparency towards both advertisersand publishers. The current DMA proposal provides for some useful transparency provisions, but couldbe extended to require transparency for the criteria used by the ad-tech platform services in the auctionprocess, including details of the price components as well as other factors which are taken into accountin the auction process and their weighting.j.Tackling bundling and tying by gatekeeper intermediaries of premium advertising spaceAd-inventory of vertically integrated large intermediaries (e.g., Facebook, YouTube, Google) isconsidered very valuable from an advertiser’s perspective but is often exclusively marketed via theirown Ad-Network or Ad-Exchange. This could raise entry barriers and impede competition in theprovision of advertising intermediary services. It may be appropriate to encourage the EuropeanCommission to closely monitor competition across the online advertising value chain, and if necessaryconsider separating intermediary services from the ad-inventory of their publisher’s sites.k. Addressing asymmetric access to consumer dataLarge providers of advertising services like Google and Facebook can access a huge amount of datathat other companies do not have access to. Large providers may directly prohibit or introduceconsiderable obstacles to the use of the data via a competitor’s advertising services. The prohibitionon bundling and self-preferencing in the DMA proposal may address the issue to some degree, butfurther analysis could be conducted to understand whether other measures may be necessary.8Such recommendations are inspired by the mechanisms laid down in Article 3 of the AVMS Directive (as amended as amended byEuropean Parliament and the Council of the European Union, 2018, Directive (EU) 2018/1808 of the European Parliament and of theCouncil of 14 November 2018 in view of changing market realities, OJ L 303/69 of 28.11.2018).15PE 662.913

IPOL Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life PoliciesHOW DO ONLINE ADVERTISING MARKETS WORK?Online advertising involves the interaction of a number of different players. In addition to the firms thatwish to advertise their products and services and the consumers and businesses at the receiving endof the process, the market also involves a number of intermediaries, such as website operators(publishers) and advertising networks.In this chapter, we provide an overview of the different types of digital advertising, and the mainplayers in the market, as well as on the role played by “targeting” in digital advertising.1.1.Types of digital advertisingThere are three main types of digital advertising: search advertising, display advertising andclassified advertising 9.Advertising firms engaging in search advertising pay search engine operators to link their website (onwhich they sell products or services) in a user’s search results. When a user enters a search query, thespecific advert (or sponsored link) is then shown together with the organic search results. Thesponsored link is typically presented in short form so as to resemble a search result, however they areusually highlighted as advertisements by a short text identifier or additional colour highlights 10. Theoperator of the search engine usually determines which sponsored link is shown to an individual user,and advertising firms compete to receive priority for display based on specific keywords and usersegments. Typically, with this advertising method, the dependence on user data is relatively lowbecause the selection of advertisements for presentation is mainly determined by the specific searchquery. However, in some cases user data can be used to support the matching process 11.Search advertising is one of the most successful forms of online advertising in terms of conversion rate,i.e. the percentage of visitors to a website that complete the desired goal of clicking on an ad (aconversion) out of the total number of visitors

online advertising markets and the challenges and we analyse opportunities concerning digital advertising. We review the degree . Design and implementation of responses 81 4.3. . Obfuscation and location based targeting of advertisements reduce consumer choice 34 Box 3: Advertisement designs can exploit consumers' behavioural biases and .

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