The Impact Of Monetary And Non-Monetary Incentives On Employee's .

1y ago
32 Views
2 Downloads
908.51 KB
11 Pages
Last View : 4d ago
Last Download : 4m ago
Upload by : Ronan Garica
Transcription

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) Volume IV, Issue XII, December 2020 ISSN 2454-6186The Impact of Monetary and Non-MonetaryIncentives on Employee’s Motivation: A Case ofNon-Teaching Staff of Kumasi PolytechnicEunice Nkansah1, Joseph Owusu Amoah2*1Finance Directorate, Kumasi Technical University, Post Office Box 854, Kumasi, Ashanti Region, Ghana2School of Business and Law, Department of Banking and FinanceUniversity for Development Studies, Post Office Box UPW 36, Wa, Upper West region, GhanaCorresponding author*Abstract: Successful corporate strategies are those executed wellby management, however, the execution of the strategies itselfrest on the employees involvement in the processes of thebusiness. It is therefore important for management to have agood understanding of factors that influence employees to bemotivated in carrying out the necessary task and achieve orexceed management expectation. The study was conducted inKumasi Kumasi technical university among the non-teachingstaff. The sampling method used was the purposive orjudgmental sampling. Questionnaires were distributed to 144non-teaching staff. The data collected was analyzed using bothdescriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the studyshow that the monetary incentives used in Kumasi Polytechnicconsist of Merit Pay, Bonuses, Salaries and wages, Gain sharing,Accommodation Loan and Scholarship. Whiles the nonmonetary incentives consist of Job Promotion, CareerDevelopment, Recognition and Fringe Benefit. The study alsorevealed that generally, the non-teaching staff of KumasiPolytechnic are motivated. Furthermore, the study revealed thatboth monetary and non-monetary incentives have impact onmotivation, however those that have significant impact weresalaries and wages and Merit pay for monetary incentives andcrèche for non-monetary. In addition, the study revealed thatchallenges faced in employee motivation include management notknowing what motivate employee at each time therefore failingto provide what motivates them most. The study recommendedthat those monetary and non-monetary incentives that havesignificant impact on employee motivation should be reinforcedto enable employees give out their best.Key words: Monetary; Incentives; Motivation; Employee’sPerformance; KumasiI.INTRODUCTIONOrganizational Theorists have generally acknowledgedthat the key asset that an organization can ever have areits human resources, however the successful achievement ofthe goals of the organization will be subject to , organizational success rests on its employees,therefore the need to stress on elements that will impact onemployees’ motivation and performance from theperspectives of (Liao et al., 2007). Employees’ performancerelates to the concept of ability, opportunity andwww.rsisinternational.orgmotivation. Ability is the naturally acquired talent or skillthat helps an individual to successfully perform a giventask. Opportunity is a set of exploitable circumstancesthat have uncertain outcome and requires resourcecommitment and exposure to risk. Lastly, motivation is areason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way. Itis the responsibility of managers to ensure that theiremployees are motivated in such a way that organizationalgoals will be met in order to stay in competition. Motivationcan lead to better performance when other conditions aremet. It has a benefit above others in that whereas theopportunity and ability are likely to be constant andchallenging to change for the personnel, motivation hasversatility, meaning it can be changed when the need arises.It is worthy to note that the nonexistence of willingness tooperate; capacity and chance will not create the anticipatedresults. Both Public and Private organizations, needemployees who are motivated to be effective and efficientin their operations, in addition to the other reatively towards the achievement of organizationalgoals. They are the greatest inputs to organization’saccomplishment. Whenever the issue of motivation comesup, one important thing that comes into mind is incentive.Incentive is something that stimulate to greater action oranything that promise for greater action. It is also anythingthat is given to employees in addition to their wages. Italso serves as anything that gives recognition to anyemployee for any achievement or better work done. It isnatural that anybody acts without a reason behind thereforeknowing that there would be an incentive for anything doneis great enough to motivate them (Lumumba, 2012). Whenwe talk of incentives, most people or employers considermonetary benefits thus increasing employees’ salariesdisproportionately. It must be noted that there are otherfactors that encourage an individual to give off his orher best. These factors include Satisfaction of job, JobSecurity, Job Promotion, and Pride for accomplishmentamong others. Since these are not directly related to moneythey are known as Non-monetary incentives (Yavuz, 2004).Non-monetary incentive has a significant and distinct role thatPage 415

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) Volume IV, Issue XII, December 2020 ISSN 2454-6186infuses enthusiasm in a worker to perform. A study byLawler (1973), which has been explained by Wiscombe(2002), has the ability of reinforcing the conception thatnon-monetary incentive has a significant outcome ofachieving organizational goals. With regards to increasingeconomic decline, most organizations are considering theuse of non- monetary incentives that are not valued inmonetary terms (Kepner, 2001). This has also increasedthe popularity of the usage of non-monetary incentives.There are lots of advantages to the organization when theyoffer employees with flexible hours, recognition andopportunity to contribute than when employees arerewarded with cash as posited by (Warren, 2007). Most oforganizations in Ghana have offered incentives to theiremployees to enable them achieve their objectives, howevermost believe in monetary incentives such as pay increases,bonuses and others as compared to incentives such asrecognition, opportunities to participate in organization’sdecision making as postulated by (Aktar et al., 2012).This study seeks to explore whether monetary and nonmonetary incentives actually have an impact in motivatingstaff at Kumasi Polytechnic specifically the Non-TeachingStaff. Many organizations are considering a strategicapproach to motivation management that will help improvetheir competitiveness, profit and sales. Some of thestrategies, according to Bateman and Snell (2007) that areused include ensuring organizational citizenship behavior,ensuring customer loyalty and appropriate incentives. One ofthe most difficult human resource tasks that are faced bymanagers is the design and management of motivationalincentive systems. Bagraim et al. (2007), says that there isthe need to investigate the needs and goals of employees tobe able to address them to get the needed motivation. Theperspective of Thompson et al (2000), indicates that aproperly designed motivational system is a powerful toolfor management to mobilize organizational commitmentin executing successful strategy and productivity.According to Arnolds et al. (2007), organizations have abig crisis of motivating employees. Their study showed thatbillions of money is spent on courses and incentives to helpincrease employees motivation each year; however it doesnot always give out higher levels of employees’ motivation.This is because there is a different perception betweenemployees and management on how the goals andobjectives of the organization must be attained.Management and employees give different importance to themany motivational incentives taking into consideration thesituation on the ground. According to Delany and Turvey(2007), managers want employees with high adaptabilityto change, speed and high productivity, whiles employeeson the other hand may want strong skill development,opportunities for growth, entrepreneurial environment andcompetitive compensation to be motivated. There has beenan organized body of experience, research and theory thathas been tasked to research motivational incentives. Aresearch conducted by Arnolds et al. (2007), on thewww.rsisinternational.orgstrategic importance of non-monetary incentive is a goodexample. Fredrick Taylor as far back as 1911 came up withthe fact that monetary incentive is the most important tool tomotivate staff to achieve higher productivity. There ishowever lack of conclusive substantiation on monetaryincentive impacting on motivation of employees. A studyby Arnolds et al. (2007), showed that employees mostly at thelower level give much importance to recognition thereforethe use of only money to motivate this caliber ofemployees will cause problems since different people aremotivated by different factors. Bagraim et al. (2007), alsoadded that there is a category of employees that aremotivated by financial goals, others that are motivated byprofessional goals and others that are motivated by personalgoals. In view of this one incentive cannot be used tomotivate all staff at all levels.Considering the above, there are debates on whethermonetary incentives should be used to motivate employeesdisregarding non-monetary incentives or vice versa. The studytherefore looks at the need to investigate whether bothmonetary and non-monetary incentives have an impact inmotivating staff (Non-Teaching) of Kumasi Polytechnic.II.LITERATURE REVIEWIncentivesIncentive is a deed or a potential possibility that will yield ahigher outcome. It is also known as a motivation forgreater achievement of an action. Incentives are thingsgiven to employees aside their earnings with the view tostimulating them to achieve an institutional objective or goal.It also stands for a reward given by the employer to theemployee in respect of better work accomplishment in anorganization (Lumumba, 2012). Incentive gives the neededenthusiasm of workers greater output. It is normal that thereis no smoke without fire because there is a reason for everyhuman action. Consequently, people’s expectation for areward is an influential incentive to stimulate workers. Itbecomes difficult to continuously give financial incentivesto workers and continually increase wages orremunerations excessively. There exist other driving forcesthat lead a person to perform better. This may consist ofcareer development, job promotion, work security andrecognition for work achievement (Lumumba, 2012).Incentives act effectively in motivating employees in diverseways. According to Whetten and Cameron (2007), theimportance of incentives is to institute a connectionbetween preferred comportment and the consequence thatmakes the worker have a sense of recognition.Incentives are significant elements which define aparticular work characteristic that adds meaningfulness tothe institution. According to Armstrong (2007), incentives aredivided into two groups; these are monetary and nonmonetary. The groups of incentives as mentioned above arediscussed below.Page 416

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) Volume IV, Issue XII, December 2020 ISSN 2454-6186Non-Monetary IncentivesNon-monetary incentives are the physical or perceptibleincentives, societal practices or work associated elementwhich are used in an institution to encourage workersdevoid of direct cash compensation. In categorizing thenon-financial enticements, analysis of on-the-job incentivessuggested by Meacham a n d Wiesen (1999), gives anoutline which is embedded in on- the-job incentives motivations denote physical substances which includecitations, gift, certificates, clothing, key holders anddiscounted tickets to access different facilities at theworkplace. They argue that Non-monetary incentive has theprospects to encourage workers devoid of cash rewards.Work related non-financial compensations have theprobability to induce workers inherently. Jobs powerment and career development prospects are veryessential in gratifying worker’s particular wants and mayarrive at a situation that makes the employee feel that thework in itself is noteworthy of putting more energydevoid of the necessity of any outside compensation.There are various types of non-monetary incentives used tomotivate staff in organizations.In the view of Robbins (2005), upgrading is the progressionof a worker’s level or position in an institution’shierarchical order. Advancement in work might bean individual’s compensation or motivation for a jobwell done. An event to upgrade or promote anindividual to a certain rank guarantees that, that individualemployee is capable of handling the extra duties. Careeradvancement can encompass promotion in terms of grade,income and compensations and in certain institutions theform of work accomplishment may revolve greatly. Theextent of pay rise connected with advancement differsgreatly among businesses and subdivision, and is contingenton fragments of the worker placement on the organizationalchart. In certain institutions or subdivisions there might onlybe a moderate rise in pay for upgrading and in otheremployment avenue an upsurge in advancement maygreatly affect an individual’s income. Identically, it isfactual with remunerations and other civil liberties. And insome organizations, career advancement alters onlydesignation and income, and no extra compensations areattached. The extent to which work actions alter or aremodified differs among organizations and subdivisions. Insome specific work areas, even after an individual has beenupgraded, their work activity does not change. The changesmay well be in the difficulty of the records that the person isapportioned to or in the thoughtfulness of the subjects thatthey are requested to perform. From the perspectives of Sigler(1999), there is a considerable modification to work, when anindividual has seen career advancement. Strempel (2003),posits that in certain areas of the private workingenvironment, senior members have much veto and controlover the preference to give upgrading or promote aswww.rsisinternational.orgemployee progress can be done with going through mostof the necessary requirements.Kirton (2003), as cited by evans el all., (2008) opines thatbeing extra conscious of an individual’s reasoning decisionmaking attribute may perhaps impact on self-reflection andself-controlled inducement to attention. As a characteristic, anindividual’s thoughtfulness behavior takes into accountaperson’s desired manner of reasoning and difficultyresolution. Kirton's philosophy of reasoning style symbolizescognitive managerial and resourcefulness transversely in asingle range from variation to modernization. People whohave the tendency to be extra responsive in style focus oncollective competence and in compliance with conventional,procedures and power. These personalities desire fulfillingtransformation by means of prevailing standards. Individualswho have the tendency to be adaptive like executing a duty ata time and do not accept uncertainty. Individuals who exhibitcreativity in their reasoning style have the tendency to createenormous and numerous novice notions or thoughts, operatevery well in crises situations, involve themselves in takingrisks and performs multiple tasks. Inventors becomeaccustomed to eagerly drastic alteration, in much enhancedmanner and create innovative standards. Associatingreasoning style philosophy with character, innovator isconnected with the behaviors of taking risk and pursuant ofsensation, conscientiousness as well as positivity whilstadaptors are concomitant to low level of self -confidence andlow forms of insight- detection.In the view of Moody (2003), characters of divergent classesmay perhaps require a challenging period functioningcollectively in groups, except supported in being extra carefulof the vice versa of problem resolution form of penchants andbecoming more aware of the opposite problem-solving stylepenchants and attitudes to thinking policymaking. Ramlall(2003), assesses that recognizing the comprehensive effects ofhaving emotional impact, disposition, behavior, thinking styleand mental policymaking relative to stimulus and the possibleinfluence on employees and motivation is very vital. Positiveemotional impact impacts on work stimulus and employees’ability to efficiently involve themselves in awareness-centeredpolicymaking in motivating employees. Giving a helping handto employees and work groups in being extra conscious oftheir differences is relative to emotional impact, character, andthinking styles which helps to improve joint effort and openfeedback in addressing difficulties. Relative to reasoning andsensitively centered inspirational elements affectingperformance of duty, autonomy, self-efficacy, and selfconfidence need a critical look since they function to sustainor challenge personal capability at the workplace.Types of Monetary IncentivesAccording to Herzberg et al. (1989), behind all ideas ofinspiration or motivation for effort was and still is the conceptof economic man. Kempner (1983), affirms that whiles thismethod is now perceived to be too rudimentary, financialmotivations continues to have a conclusive impact onPage 417

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) Volume IV, Issue XII, December 2020 ISSN 2454-6186employees. In theory financial incentives have five mainconcepts of duties of money on impacting work behaviors.Firstly, money is a generalized conditioned reinforce in thatfinancial motivation normally works together with differentprincipal rein forcers such as attainment, accountability andrecognition. Again, money is a conditioned incentive becausemoney could repetitively go together with different elementsto generate encouraging work performance. Additionally,money as a motivator becomes an anxiety reducer in that itacts in association with some learned needs as an explanatoryinstrument for motivation.Pappas et al. (2006), observed the impact of establishmentenforced incentive scheme on the stimulus stages of salespersons and established that certain individuals arestimulated by commission centered salary whilst tions employ people in the event of effectivelyperforming duties of the procedures and setups of theirfirms. Workers who are well-organized and operational inaccomplishing responsibilities and objectives are worthy of abetter income packet. Workers who are seen at the lowerechelons of institutional income schemes generally portrayhigh prospects of career advancements. For example personsat the low level income attain advancements and income risesquickly as Gibbs and Hendricks (2004), accounts. Thedispersal of income has an impact on the level of incomeactivities of workers, which is progressive for juniorlevel workers and undesirable for those in higherpositions. If supervisors or managers are thoughtful overimpacting action and stimulus levels of workers via income,managers must raise the income greatly so that it can beseen as high.Demos (1988), tags money as a hygiene factor as Herzberg etal. (1989), maintained that cash is a hygiene influencewhich can possibly generate gratification when it is givenin huge quantities, but cannot contribute as a potentialmotivator. Money or cash is also being labeled as amechanism for attainment of anticipated outcomes. Moneyacquires valence – which is an effective coordination in thedirection of a specific accomplishments and subsequentlygains attainment, acknowledgment and status quo.Campbell (1982), asserts that cash and oral motivationsinfluence greatly on person’s inclination to employment onless difficult or hard objectives.Doyle (1983), describes gain sharing as a combined method tomanagement challenges since it takes an all-inclusivestandpoint, addressing the whole institute as a replacement ofits branches. Gain sharing consists of three valuable categorieswhich are management practices, employee participation andshared reward. Graham-Moore (1990), correspondinglyexplained these elements as values of teamwork, aninvolvement practices and a monetary incentive. The initialfactor, management values or practices, explains the ideaof the organization’s culture which functions as facilitatorfor superiority. Such forms are accomplished via thewww.rsisinternational.orgcommitment of the institute and sustenance. Lawler (1983),on the other hand explains the commitment to involvingsuperiors as a great participation method. These elementsaccording to, Welbourne and Gomez-Mejia (1988), denotesthe important of organization in leadership, assistance andresourcefulness in achieving institutional goals an essentialelement of gain sharing accomplishment. The secondcomponent, which emphasizes on employee involvement,discusses the strategy and the approach which acceleratesworker involvement in decision-making processes.Management distributes its activity by engagingworkers with the required facts, acquaintance andauthority to impact institutional enactment. Moreover, Ewing(1989), points that workers possess the capabilities toimpact alteration inside the institutional realms.Institutional objectives will never be complete without theassistance of individual workers and accordingly gainrecognition is an important achievement influence asCascio (1992), supports the same literature. The finalcomponent of the gain sharing process is what is termedas shared reward which describes the process whichregulates the standards and approach of incentivedispersal. Since individuals perform better on what theygain Berg (1991), asserts that incentives show equality andmakes the worker’s energy feel valuable as Theisen a n dPelfrey (1990), also recognize the same. Other authors,Hesterly a n d Sebilia (1986), presuppose that such actionis needed for surpassing the market environment in contrastto challengers. Mitchell (2002), explains that motivation is theemotional procedure that induces stimulation, way andperseverance of intended activities that are geared towardsachieving objective. All these diverse explanations suggest anumber of inferences around social or human actions. In thefirst place, there remain certain needs that propel people to actin the way they do, and secondly, individual actions areconcerned with an objective. Motivation, thus, becomes acontinuous form of procedures which begins with needs,continues with objective-oriented performance and ends withthe level of needs of fulfillment.Motivation of employees comes in several ways and salary isa major contributory factor to motivation. Bowen et al. (2008),support the notion that salary is a motivating factor. In theirresearch conducted on quantity surveyors in South Africa andtheir findings indicated that salary, advancement in career,individual satisfaction and acknowledgements were some ofthe factors that were motivating enough. The quantity of cashan individual gets at the end of the month has the potential ofbecoming the utmost forecaster of a person’s stimulus. AsKowitz (1967), puts it, cash or money has a resolutelyingrained status as the eventual influence or stimulus.Enthusiasm from income occurs between workers, thoughmay perhaps be inspired via contract or assignment besidesothers may possibly be stimulated by rise in permanent salary.Page 418

International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) Volume IV, Issue XII, December 2020 ISSN 2454-6186Motivational ConceptsThe word motivation emanates from the expression“motive” which expresses an intention related to behavior.Enormous collection of works exists on exploring the idea ofmotivation within organizations or institutions. The word hasbeen used according to, Atkinson (1964), to mean themodern-day stimuli on the path, energy as well aspersistence of accomplishment. Jones (1955), posits thatmotivation is the way an action develops, isstrengthened, is continued, is focused, is motionless, and theform of personal or independent response which is inhibitedwithin organizations despite the fact all these are ongoing.From the perspectives of Higgins (1994), motivation isinbuilt stimulus to fulfill discontented or unsatisfied need.Motivation has also been defined from the viewpoint ofBaron (1983), as a set of procedures connected with thedynamism that strengthens an action and guides it in thedirection of achieving some form of objective. Also fromthe standpoint of Vroom (1964), motivation is a set offoremost selections made by individuals or lesser entities inthe midst of different practices of unpaid action. Mitchell(2002), explains that motivation is the emotional procedurethat induces stimulation, way and perseverance ofintended activities that are geared towards achievingobjective. All these diverse explanations suggest anumber of inferences around social or human actions. In thefirst place, there remain certain needs that propel people toact in the way they do, and secondly, individual actions areconcerned with an objective. Motivation, thus, becomes acontinuous form of procedures which begins with needs,continues with objective-oriented performance and endswith the level of needs of fulfillment. However, a commonmeaning of motivation can be known by means of the levelto which a person desires and decides on engaging in aparticular definite action. Motivation therefore, within theworking environs denotes the magnitude to which a personwishes and attempts to exert much effort to perform aspecified work within an organization, according to (Mitchell,2002). Motivation of workers or employees is the centraltheme for the reason that, it may well be a form to reducingand manipulating the space or gap that exists amongemployees tangible and preferred level or degree of beingcommitted to the institution or organization in addition toencouraging individuals to perform a duty or a tasksingularly or in teams. The problem associated withmotivation for an industry or organization is how todiscover what the work force needs and wants are and whereit intersects with the organization’s core values and objectives.Variables connected by the exceptionality of a person are inrelation to employees’ attitudes, level of interest and wants.There exists certain innate function that emanates from thekind of job, for example independence or autonomy, level ofconcern in the job and other functions. In addition, therealso exist various influences from the work surroundingswhich include team or group relations, controlling orregulatory practices, income and reward schemes, sinceritywww.rsisinternational.orgin the level of communication. For motivation to beaffective, one or more of these innate variables must bealtered or reformed if not all of these variables changed, asper the objectives or goals of this study is to ascertain ifmonetary and non-monetary incentives can be an effectiveway of motivating the Non-Teaching staff of KumasiPolytechnic. Principal to ascertaining the effectiveness ofmonetary and non-monetary incentive, it is essential to havea critical look into these forms of controlling variables whichhave an impact on motivational practices. It is vital for theorganization to have a consideration on the part of personalcharacteristics in those diverse personal desires, wants andneeds. Individuals are encouraged or motivated by needsthat cannot be met and there exist a variation amongpersons with regards to their specific conditions, moralsand philosophies, household, education, behavior, andwork experience and so on. Whereas some people maybe motivated by to seek value and encouragement inmore creative work over high-salaried work, otherindividual might be interested in working more to acquiremuch money in their work. These are demonstration thatdifferent inhibitions in employees have an effect ontheir work patterns. Variables emanating from the kindof work employees perform have an impact on theirlevel of motivation because employment associated featuresin the form of increased independence, the importance ofthe jobs, variation of accomplishments and joint effort orcollaboration have the impetus of improving motivation forparticular people. Nonetheless, it is significant to deliberateon the impact of personal features simultaneously,consequently not all employees want the same levelmotivation to have an enhanced employment, nor accomplishimproved work when allotted such an employment (Maslow,1993).The working surrounding is also essential for motivation withregards to the superiority of in-group relations, direction,styles, remuneration and incentive schemes. Managersin organizations can have a significant effect in themotivational practices. They have a pivotal part in puttingwork structure accomplishments and the capability andindependence of workers to undertake self-determinationobjectives on the work performance. Superiors have theability of providing effective feedback on workers’ output aswell as empowering them to take part in decision making.The level of interactions that exists amongst managers andtheir subordinates, usefulness of communication betweenthem similarly impacts the motivational development.Roethlisberger et al. (1999), put it that the work surroundings,the presence and the level of use of appreciation or rewardschemes have effect on employees’ level of action at thework place.Non-cash enticements have the advantage of seeing to theincorporation of most of these variations impactingmotivation. Further, as the categories of non-cash rewardswhich can be accessible in a government institution likeKumasi Polytechnic are many, such non-monetary incentivesP

disregarding non-monetary incentives or vice versa. The study therefore looks at the need to investigate whether both monetary and non-monetary incentives have an impact in motivating staff (Non-Teaching) of Kumasi Polytechnic. II. LITERATURE REVIEW Incentives Incentive is a deed or a potential possibility that will yield a

Related Documents:

Silat is a combative art of self-defense and survival rooted from Matay archipelago. It was traced at thé early of Langkasuka Kingdom (2nd century CE) till thé reign of Melaka (Malaysia) Sultanate era (13th century). Silat has now evolved to become part of social culture and tradition with thé appearance of a fine physical and spiritual .

May 02, 2018 · D. Program Evaluation ͟The organization has provided a description of the framework for how each program will be evaluated. The framework should include all the elements below: ͟The evaluation methods are cost-effective for the organization ͟Quantitative and qualitative data is being collected (at Basics tier, data collection must have begun)

̶The leading indicator of employee engagement is based on the quality of the relationship between employee and supervisor Empower your managers! ̶Help them understand the impact on the organization ̶Share important changes, plan options, tasks, and deadlines ̶Provide key messages and talking points ̶Prepare them to answer employee questions

Dr. Sunita Bharatwal** Dr. Pawan Garga*** Abstract Customer satisfaction is derived from thè functionalities and values, a product or Service can provide. The current study aims to segregate thè dimensions of ordine Service quality and gather insights on its impact on web shopping. The trends of purchases have

On an exceptional basis, Member States may request UNESCO to provide thé candidates with access to thé platform so they can complète thé form by themselves. Thèse requests must be addressed to esd rize unesco. or by 15 A ril 2021 UNESCO will provide thé nomineewith accessto thé platform via their émail address.

Chính Văn.- Còn đức Thế tôn thì tuệ giác cực kỳ trong sạch 8: hiện hành bất nhị 9, đạt đến vô tướng 10, đứng vào chỗ đứng của các đức Thế tôn 11, thể hiện tính bình đẳng của các Ngài, đến chỗ không còn chướng ngại 12, giáo pháp không thể khuynh đảo, tâm thức không bị cản trở, cái được

Food outlets which focused on food quality, Service quality, environment and price factors, are thè valuable factors for food outlets to increase thè satisfaction level of customers and it will create a positive impact through word ofmouth. Keyword : Customer satisfaction, food quality, Service quality, physical environment off ood outlets .

The term 'monetary integration' presents some definitional difficulties in international monetary theory. It has been described as a generic term connoting various categories of cooperation on monetary matters between or among countries.2 The International Monetary Fund (IMF) describes these categories of monetary integration as Exchange