OECD Studies on TourismTourism Policy Reviewof Mexico
OECD Studies on TourismTourism Policy Reviewof Mexico
This work is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. Theopinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the officialviews of OECD member countries.This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of orsovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundariesand to the name of any territory, city or area.Please cite this publication as:OECD (2017), Tourism Policy Review of Mexico, OECD Studies on Tourism, OECD Publishing, BN 978-92-64-26656-8 (print)ISBN 978-92-64-26657-5 (PDF)Series: OECD Studies on TourismISSN 2223-9790 (print)ISSN 2223-9804 (online)Photo credits: Cover vectomart/Shutterstock.comCorrigenda to OECD publications may be found on line at: www.oecd.org/about/publishing/corrigenda.htm. OECD 2017You can copy, download or print OECD content for your own use, and you can include excerpts from OECD publications, databases andmultimedia products in your own documents, presentations, blogs, websites and teaching materials, provided that suitableacknowledgement of OECD as source and copyright owner is given. All requests for public or commercial use and translation rightsshould be submitted to firstname.lastname@example.org. Requests for permission to photocopy portions of this material for public or commercial use shallbe addressed directly to the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) at email@example.com or the Centre français d’exploitation du droit de copie(CFC) at firstname.lastname@example.org.
PREFACE – 3PrefaceTourism plays a crucial role for Mexico's economy, and has performed strongly inrecent years. Tourism accounts directly for 8.5% of GDP and generates higher thanaverage value for the economy. It also provides employment for millions of Mexicans.While official data indicate that the sector directly supports 2.3 million jobs (5.8%), thereal figure is significantly higher when informal jobs are taken into account. Growth intourism has surpassed growth in many other advanced and emerging tourism economiesin recent years, and has contributed to a healthy travel balance, helping to compensate forweaker oil revenues.However, tourism's potential to promote inclusive and sustainable growth, as well aslocal and regional development in Mexico, remains largely unrealised and the sector isfaced with many competitiveness and sustainability issues. Key policy challenges includethe need to adapt the model of tourism development to make it more inclusive; strengthenthe governance of tourism; increase support to small and micro businesses; and connectnew markets and destinations.In this context, the OECD Tourism Policy Review of Mexico recommends that Mexico:strengthen the governance of tourism by promoting a more strategic and integratedapproach to tourism policy; boost air connectivity from high potential source markets tosupport market diversification, and develop a more integrated transport system to movevisitors around the country; adapt the model of tourism development to respond to markettrends and better spread the benefits of tourism by promoting inclusive tourism growth,product diversification and destination development; and target financing to innovativetourism projects offering the strongest potential, including to small and micro enterprises.Through this review, the Mexican authorities have engaged in a proactive and welcomeeffort to develop and further strengthen the contribution of tourism to the Mexican economyand society. The review prepared by the OECD Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, LocalDevelopment and Tourism as part of the Tourism Committee’s Programme of Work, is theresult of a rich and co-operative policy dialogue with the Mexican authorities. It is our hopethat it will provide inspiration to policy makers in other countries facing similar challenges,and help advance the policy debate on sustainable and inclusive tourism development inOECD member and partner countries.Angel GurríaSecretary-General of the OECDTOURISM POLICY REVIEW OF MEXICO OECD 2017
FOREWORD – 5ForewordThis publication presents the OECD country review of tourism issues and policies inMexico. It forms part of the programme of work of the OECD Tourism Committee andhas been prepared by the Secretariat of the OECD Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs,Local Development and Tourism. The report is part of a series of reviews on tourismissues and policies undertaken by the OECD in countries that express an interest in cooperating on an external assessment of their policy challenges. Tourism policy reviewsaim to: enhance tourism performance, competitiveness and innovation; increaseknowledge about tourism policy design and evaluation; diffuse evidence-based lessonsand good practices; and strengthen policy coherence and linkages. The present review hasbeen prepared at the request of the Government of Mexico.This review provides an assessment of tourism-related policies, programmes andplans to support a competitive and sustainable tourism development in Mexico. Thestructure, profile and performance of tourism are examined, along with the policy makingenvironment and governance arrangements for tourism. This report also includes chaptersof special relevance to Mexico: transport connectivity; inclusive tourism growth andinfrastructure development; and investment and SME financing. The OECD TourismCommittee peer-reviewed and approved the report at its meeting on 6 October 2016.The review has been possible thanks to the support and co-operation of the Mexicanauthorities, including the numerous officials, experts and representatives from Federaland state government and the private sector who provided valuable written and oralinputs, and in other ways participated in the review process. The OECD is particularlygrateful to Minister Enrique de la Madrid Cordero, Under Secretary María Teresa SolísTejo, Javier Guillermo Molina and officials at the Ministry of Tourism (SECTUR), andAmbassador Dionisio Pérez-Jácome Friscione and Aldo Aldama from the PermanentDelegation of Mexico to the OECD, and officials at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs(SRE), for their continuous support throughout the review process.Jane Stacey co-ordinated the review and led the drafting of the report, under thedirection of Alain Dupeyras, Head of the OECD Tourism Unit. Drafting contributions wereprovided by Alain Lumbroso, International Transport Forum (Chapter 3) and externalexperts Aidan Pender (Chapter 4) and Virginia Robano (Chapter 5). Peter Haxtonparticipated in the mission and provided feedback on early drafts. Laetitia Reille managedthe statistical component. María Castaño provided research and logistical assistance.Julie Pilato provided administrative support and prepared the manuscript for publication.TOURISM POLICY REVIEW OF MEXICO OECD 2017
6 – FOREWORDThe review has also benefitted from contributions, feedback and guidance from thepeer-review countries, represented by: Veronica Kunze, Ministry of Economy,Development and Tourism, Chile; Sérgio Guerreiro, Turismo de Portugal; and Isabel Hill,US Department of Commerce. The representatives of Portugal and the United Statesparticipated in the review mission.Lamia Kamal-ChaouiDirector, Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Local Development and TourismTOURISM POLICY REVIEW OF MEXICO OECD 2017
TABLE OF CONTENTS – 7Table of ContentsExecutive summary . 13Assessment and recommendations . 17Chapter 1 Profile and performance of tourism in Mexico . 31Tourism in the economy . 32Tourism profile and performance. 38Strengthening the tourism statistics and intelligence structure . 46References . 48Annex Statistical tables . 49Chapter 2 Towards an integrated approach to tourism policy in Mexico . 57Introduction . 58Strategic vision, policy framework and implementation of tourism policy . 58Institutional arrangements and governance . 68References . 79Chapter 3 Connecting tourists with destinations in Mexico . 81Introduction . 82Aligning transport and tourism policies . 82Promoting an intermodal, user friendly transport system for tourism . 84Air transport connectivity . 87Sea transport connectivity . 96Ground transport connectivity . 99Visitor arrivals experience . 109References . 112Chapter 4 Inclusive tourism development in Mexico . 115Introduction . 116Aligning policies to support more inclusive tourism development. 116Trends impacting tourism growth and development . 118Destination and product development . 121Developing a new industrial policy for tourism. 131References . 144Chapter 5 Financing tourism development in Mexico . 145Introduction . 146Aligning investment, SME financing and tourism policy . 146Mobilising investment to support infrastructure for tourism development. 150Supporting access to financing for tourism SMEs . 162References . 172TOURISM POLICY REVIEW OF MEXICO OECD 2017
8 – TABLE OF CONTENTSTablesTable A.1. Direct contribution of tourism to the Mexican economy, 2005-14 . 50Table A.2. Travel-related exports, 2005-15. 51Table A.3. Tourism contribution to balance of payments, 2005-15 . 51Table A.4. Internal tourism consumption by type of tourism and product, 2014 . 52Table A.5. Number of people1 employed in tourism, 2005-15 . 53Table A.6. Number of paid jobs in tourism, 2005-14 . 53Table A.7. Inbound visitor arrivals, 2005-15 . 54Table A.8. Contribution of international visitors to foreign currency earnings, 2005-15 . 54Table A.9. Source markets based on air arrivals by country residence, 2012-15 . 55Table A.10. Exchange rates, 2005-15 . 56Table A.11. Number of domestic tourist arrivals and nights in hotels, 2005-14 . 56Table A.12. Number of international tourist arrivals and nights in hotels, 2005-14 . 56Table 2.1. Tourism public expenditure at federal1 level, 2016 . 77Table 3.1. Direct scheduled flight frequency from top source markets to Mexico’s main airports . 90Table 3.2. Weekly flight capacity from Mexico City with Aeroméxico, 2013 . 91Table 3.3: Status of air services agreement negotiations . 93Table 3.4. Cruise passenger traffic in Mexico’s main cruise ports, 2000-15 . 96Table 4.1. Mexico’s top 10 destinations by market1, 2014. 122Table 4.2: Regional supply of tourism services, 2014. 124Table 4.3. Hotel capacity and occupancy in main destinations, 2005, 2014-15 . 125Table 5.1. FONATUR historical investment in integrated planned development, 1974-2015 . 153Table 5.2. Alternative external financing techniques for SMEs and entrepreneurs . 166FiguresFigure 1.1. Direct contribution of tourism to the Mexican economy, 2014 . 33Figure 1.2. GDP contribution of tourism relative to other sectors, 2005-14 . 34Figure 1.3. Travel-related exports, 2005-15 . 34Figure 1.4. Tourism contribution to balance of payments, 2005-15. 35Figure 1.5. Internal tourism consumption by type of tourism and product, 2014 . 36Figure 1.6. Number of paid jobs in tourism, 2005-14 . 37Figure 1.7. Number of people1 employed in tourism, 2006-15 . 38Figure 1.8. Inbound arrivals to Mexico, 2005-15 . 39Figure 1.9. Visitor and tourist arrivals and spending, 2005-15 . 41Figure 1.10. Main source markets to Mexico, based on non-border visitor arrivals, 2005-2014 . 42Figure 1.11. Domestic and international arrivals in hotels by region, 2014 . 44Figure 1.12. Domestic and international nights in hotels by region, 2014 . 45Figure 2.1. Organisational structure of Mexico’s Federal Ministry of Tourism1 . 69Figure 2.2. Structure of the Federal Tourism Cabinet and its working groups . 75Figure 2.3. Federal expenditure for tourism sector development, 2007-16 . 78Figure 3.1. Air passenger arrivals, 1990-2015 . 88Figure 3.2. International air passenger arrivals by major airport, 2015. 89Figure 3.3. Domestic and international air passenger arrivals to Cancún and Mexico City, 1990-2015 . 89Figure 3.4. Cruise passengers and ship calls, Mexico and selected ports, 1985-2015 . 97Figure 3.5. Passengers per ship call, 1985-2015 . 98Figure 3.6. Mass transit infrastructure in selected Latin American countries, 2011 . 104Figure 3.7. Public and active transport share in selected Latin American cities, 2007 . 105Figure 5.1. Development bank financing, 1995-2014 . 149TOURISM POLICY REVIEW OF MEXICO OECD 2017
TABLE OF CONTENTS – 9Figure 5.2. Financing tourism-related investments . 152Figure 5.3. Size of tourism enterprises by number of employees. 163Figure 5.4. INADEM finance options for tourism entrepreneurial projects . 166BoxesBox 1.1. Tackling informality in the tourism sector in Mexico . 38Box 2.1. Improving the tourism policy governance framework . 59Box 2.2. Tourism strategies in the National Development Plan 2013-18 . 60Box 2.3. Policy objectives, strategic actions in the Sectoral Programme for Tourism 2013-18 . 61Box 2.4. Tourism infrastructure projects in the National Infrastructure Plan 2014-18 . 63Box 2.5. Tourism and regional development in Mexico . 65Box 2.6. Innovative approach to financing tourism promotion in Mexico. 71Box 3.1. Improving the transport user experience for women . 86Box 3.2. Promoting tourism through aviation liberalisation and better connectivity in Morocco . 94Box 3.3. Improving road safety for tourists with Green Angels initiative . 101Box 3.4: Greying travellers and their accessible transport needs . 103Box 3.5. Public transport access for the new Mexico City Airport . 107Box 4.1. Providing a safe and secure environment for visitors . 121Box 4.2. Improving the quality of the tourism offer in Mexico . 129Box 4.4. Developing Sierra Mágica thematic routes in Puebla . 132Box 4.5. Culture and nature-based tourism development in the Tequila region . 133Box 4.6. Promoting cultural tourism in Magic Towns . 135Box 4.7. Tourism cluster development challenges . 137Box 4.8. Developing the medical tourism cluster and offer in Baja California. 138Box 5.1: Four main pillars of Mexico’s financial reform . 147Box 5.2. Using subsidies to finance tourism infrastructure . 148Box 5.3. Financing tourism to support regional development in Canada. 156Box 5.4. PPPs for infrastructure development at the sub-national level . 157Box 5.5. Mobilising investment for tourism development in France . 158Box 5.6. Tourism Investment Programme in Australia . 160Box 5.7: Institutional and financial characteristics of public development banks . 164Box 5.8. Fostering entrepreneurship and innovation in Portugal . 169Box 5.9: Financing and supporting registered tourism businesses . 170Follow OECD Publications on:http://twitter.com/OECD SM POLICY REVIEW OF MEXICO OECD 2017http://www.oecd.org/oecddirect/
10 – ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONSAcronyms and abbreviationsAPECForo de Cooperación Económica Asia-PacíficoAsia-Pacific Economic Co-operationBancomextBanco Nacional de Comercio ExteriorMexican Foreign Trade BankBanobrasBanco Nacional de Obras y Servicios PúblicosNational Bank of Public Works and ServicesBanxicoBanco de MéxicoBank of MexicoCDIComisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos IndígenasCommission for the Development of Indigenous PeopleCKDCertificados de Capital de DesarrolloCapital Development CertificateCNETConsejo Nacional Empresarial TurísticoNational Tourism Business CouncilCPTMConsejo de Promoción turística de MéxicoMexican Tourism BoardCOFEMERComisión Federal de Mejora RegulatoriaFederal Commission for Regulatory ImprovementCONANPComisión Nacional de Areas Nacionales ProtegidasNational Commission of Natural Protected AreasDATATURSistema Nacional de la Información Estadística del Sector Turismo deMéxicoNational Tourism Statistical Information SystemFDIInversión extranjera directaForeign Direct InvestmentFIBRAFideicomiso de Infraestructura y Bienes RaícesInfrastructure and Real Estate TrustFNDFinanciera Nacional de Desarrollo Agropecuario, Rural, Forestal yPesqueroNational Financial Institute for Agricultural, Rural, Forestry andFisheries DevelopmentFONATURFondo Nacional de Fomento al TurismoNational Fund for Tourism DevelopmentGDPProducto Interior BrutoGross Domestic ProductTOURISM POLICY REVIEW OF MEXICO OECD 2017
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS – 11INADEMInstituto Nacional del EmprendedorNational Institute for EntrepreneurshipINEGIInstituto Nacional de Estadística y GeografíaNational Institute of Statistics and GeographyMXNPeso MexicanoMexican PesoNAFINNacional FinancieraNational Financial InstituteNAFTATratado de Libre Comercio de América del NorteNorth American Free Trade AgreementPNDPlan Nacional de DesarrolloNational Development PlanPNIPrograma Nacional de InfraestructuraNational Infrastructure PlanPPPParticipación público-privadaPublic Private PartnershipProMéxicoAgencia para la Promoción de Inversión y ComercioTrade and Investment Promotion AgencyPROSECTURPrograma Sectorial de TurismoSectoral Programme for TourismPROMAGICOPrograma de Pueblos MágicosMagic Towns ProgrammePRODERMAGICOPrograma de Desarrollo Regional Turístico Sustentable y PueblosMágicosRegional Sustainable Tourism Development and Magic TownsProgrammeSCTSecretaría de Comunicaciones y TransportesMinistry of Communications and TransportSESecretaría de EconomíaMinistry of EconomySEDATUSecretaría de desarrollo agrario, territorial y urbanoMinistry of Agrarian, Territorial and Urban DevelopmentSECTURSecretaría de TurismoMinistry of TourismSEDESOLSecretaría de desarrollo socialMinistry of Social DevelopmentSEGOBSecretaría de GobernaciónMinistry of the InteriorSEMARNATSecretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos NaturalesMinistry of Environment and Natural ResourcesSHCPSecretaría de Hacienda y Credito PúblicoMinistry of Finance and Public CreditTOURISM POLICY REVIEW OF MEXICO OECD 2017
12 – ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONSSMEsPequeña y Mediana EmpresaSmall and medium-sized enterprisesTNCTransport Network CompanyTSACuenta Satélite del TurismoTourism Satellite AccountUNESCOOrganización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia yla CulturaUnited Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific OrganizationUNWTOOrganización Mundial del TurismoUnited Nations World Tourism OrganizationTOURISM POLICY REVIEW OF MEXICO OECD 2017
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY – 13Executive summaryTourism is an important economic sector in Mexico, and the country plays aprominent role in tourism globally. The sector directly accounts for 8.5% of GDP, 5.8%of full-time paid employment (in the formal sector), and 77.2% of service exports. Itcontributes positively to Mexico’s Balance of Payments, and generates higher thanaverage value to the economy. A record 32.1 million international tourists contributedMXN 246.1 billion (USD 15.5 billion) to the economy in 2015, with growth in peopleand monetary flows to the country outstripping growth in many advanced and emergingtourism economies in recent years. This follows a prolonged period of more modestgrowth. Domestic tourism is also significant, contributing 88 of every 100 Mexican pesosconsumed by tourists in the country and supporting employment and development inregions which do not attract international visitors.The sector quickly adjusted and recovered to pre-crisis GDP growth levels followingthe impact of the international financial crisis and H1N1 influenza outbreak in 2009.International tourist arrivals have also performed strongly. However, tourism growth haslagged overall growth in the wider economy over the last decade. Mexico’s travel andtourism sector has faced several difficulties, including challenging economic conditionsin key source markets, natural disasters, health scares and security concerns. Tourism’spotential to promote local and regional development remains largely unrealised, and thesector faces competitiveness and sustainability challenges.This review focuses on priority areas to help strengthen Mexico’s tourism sector andtake advantage of opportunities with strong potential for economic growth, investmentand development, including: the policy making environment and governance; transport,mobility and connectivity; inclusive growth, regional and destination development, andproduct diversification; and investment and SME financing.Tourism is high on the policy agenda in Mexico, and is identified as one of sixpriority economic sectors in the National Development Plan 2013-18. The country has aremarkable range of well-articulated tourism plans and programmes which aim to spurinvestment and economic growth, promote balanced regional development and stimulatemore productive, inclusive and sustainable growth. Ensuring these plans and programmesare effectively co-ordinated and implemented will be vital to realising Mexico’s tourismdevelopment potential, and delivering on these objectives. This requires a stronger andmore efficient governance framework, and an integrated and well co-ordinated approachacross many government departments, at different levels of government, and with closerinvolvement of the private sector. Mexico would particularly benefit from a morestrategic policy approach to tourism development, and a stronger focus onimplementation. The recent public sector spending cuts makes this situation morechallenging, but also more necessary.Transport is a key enabler of tourism, and the Mexican transport system has a vitalrole to play in moving domestic and international tourists from their place of residence to,and around, their final destination. While the transport system appears to work well forTOURISM POLICY REVIEW OF MEXICO OECD 2017
14 – EXECUTIVE SUMMARYvisitors to coastal resort destinations, it gets more complex outside of these tourism zones.Closer inspection reveals areas requiring attention and policy co-ordination, includingtaking steps to strengthen air connectivity (particularly with emerging markets in Asia),make ground transportation more user-friendly for visitors, and improve inter-modalconnectivity. Mexico’s challenge is to develop a transport system that is both global andlocal in reach, and is safe, secure and simple to navigate, easy to understand andaccessible. Addressing this challenge of better connecting tourists with destinations, andon to various attractions, is necessary if Mexico is to diversify its tourism offer andsource markets, strengthen tourism in regional areas, and better spread the benefits.Mexico has a well-established model of tourism development, which has benefitedfrom significant public inv
This publication presents the OECD country review of tourism issues and policies in Mexico. It forms part of the programme of work of the OECD Tourism Committee and has been prepared by the Secretariat of the OECD Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Local Development and Tourism. The report is part of a series of reviews on tourism
RIGHTS@oecd.org, OECD, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France . Belge, aslen OECD tarafından İngilizce olarak aşağıdaki başlık altında yayınlanmıştır: OECD (2016), OECD Position Paper Regarding the Relationship between the OECD Principles of GLP and ISO/IEC 17025, Series on
OECD and non-OECD net electricity generation Trillion kilowatt-hours World electricity use by sector Quadrillion Btu Net electricity generation in non-OECD countries increases twice as fast as in the OECD with building use being a major contributor to growth in the EIA Reference Case 0 5 10 15 20 25 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 non-OECD OECD 0 .
Chapter 9. The culinary experience: A major pillar of Austrian tourism Chapter 10. Promoting Japanese food culture and products Chapter 11. Promoting food and lifestyle: The French experience Chapter 12. Innovations in Korean culinary tourism ISBN 978-92-64-11059-5 85 2012 02 1 P-:HSTCQE VVUZ Z: Food and the Tourism Experience THE OECD-KOREA .
2 Destination Geography World geography Tourism regions Cultural and social attributes 3 Advanced Tourism and Hospitality Tourism Tourism and the Tourist (Unit Three of T&T S4-5 syllabus) The Travel and Tourism Industry (Unit Four of T&T S4-5 syllabus) Attractions development Social tourism issues Food and Beverage Division
Tourism is one of the biggest job creators for women and youth. The tourism sector employs more women and young people than most other sectors. The age profile of workers in the tourism sector is young. Just under a half (47%) of people working in tourism in European OECD countries are between 15 and 34 years of age, compared to a third (32% .
5. Tourism and the UK economy 17 5.1 Economic output 17 5.2 Employment 18 5.3 International comparisons of tourism employment 19 6. Brexit and tourism 20 6.1 Opportunities 20 6.2 Challenges 21 7. Tourism policy 23 7.1 Tourism Sector Deal 23 8. The ‘tourism landscape’ in England 26 VisitEngland and VisitBritain 26File Size: 492KB
user-friendly format. 2003: Launch of OECD Health Care Quality Indicators (HCQI) project to develop a set of indicators measuring and comparing quality of care across countries. 2004: First OECD Health Ministerial Meeting in Paris to discuss the main findings from the OECD Health Project. Release of publication Towards High-Performing Health .
1.1 The Retail Banking sector performs a vital role in the economy. There are around 73 million current accounts and 4 million business accounts in the UK, and retail deposits – including current accounts, savings accounts and SME accounts – total around 1.5 trillion. Retail lending is a key driver of economic activity; UK households owe around 1.4 trillion in mortgages and 198 .