October 2021FOOD ENVIRONMENTS& EU FOOD POLICYDISCOVERING THE ROLE OFFOOD ENVIRONMENTS FORSUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS
FOOD ENVIRONMENTS & EU FOOD POLICYDISCOVERING THE ROLE OF FOOD ENVIRONMENTSFOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMSCONTENTS123WHY FOODENVIRONMENTS?WHAT ARE FOODENVIRONMENTS?45A VISION FORENABLING FOODENVIRONMENTSHOW TO CREATEENABLING FOODENVIRONMENTS?6SETTINGTHE STAGE1APPENDIX:THE MULTIPLEDIMENSIONS OF FOODSUSTAINABILITYSETTING THE STAGEFood environments are increasingly at the heartof deliberations about food systems change. Theconcept has been adopted by a range of leadingorganisations and incorporated in a number ofinitiatives, including the European Union’s (EU)Farm to Fork Strategy. 1,2,3,4But what are food environments? What addedvalue does the concept of ‘food environment’bring to efforts to transition to sustainablefood systems? And how do you change foodenvironments for the better?Food environments can be defined as the“physical, economic, political and socio-culturalcontext in which consumers engage with the foodsystem to make their decisions about acquiring,preparing and consuming food”. 5The aim of this policy brief is to further sharpenunderstanding about food environments andwhat a ‘food environment approach’ entails forEU food policy and the transition to sustainablefood systems.1World Health Organization. (2015) European food and nutrition action plan 2015–2020.2Grace (2016) Influencing food environments for healthy diets through food safety. UN Food and Agriculture OrganizationUnited Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, (2019) Protecting Children’s Right to aHealthy Food Environment, UNICEF and United Nations Human Rights Council, Geneva.34European Commission (2020) A Farm to Fork Strategy for a fair, healthy and environmentally-friendly food system. COM/2020/381 finalHLPE (2017) Nutrition and food systems. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee onWorld Food Security, Rome52
2FOOD ENVIRONMENTS & EU FOOD POLICYDISCOVERING THE ROLE OF FOOD ENVIRONMENTSFOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMSWHY FOOD ENVIRONMENTS?CONSUMPTION, A CRITICAL PILLAR OF SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMSThe challenge of shifting food consumptionpatterns looms large over the food systems debate.While major progress has been made in ensuringfood availability,6 the European food system is notsustainable.7,8 Current dietary patterns are deeplyimplicated in this state of affairs.Today’s diets9 are an important underlying causeof Europe’s burden of disease. 10 They also relyon, and help perpetuate production systemsthat drive the climate and biodiversity crises,reinforce social inequalities among producersand consumers, jeopardise access to food forcommunities in developing countries, contributeto global health problems and undermineanimal welfare.11,12Food demand patterns are an outcome of foodsystems, but can also be important levers ofchange. Eating well is a cornerstone of our physical,social, cultural and mental well-being. Eating is alsoan ‘agricultural act’ in that it can support demand forbetter supply chains and production models thatwork with nature, rather than against it, that value thelivelihoods of food producers and workers, and thattake the welfare of animals as their starting point.To make sure that food consumption patternscontribute to a sustainable food systems transitionand the success of EU political priorities,13 it isimportant to understand how eating patterns areestablished and what needs to be done to helpthem shift in an equitable and effective way.THE ‘CONSUMER RESPONSIBILITY’ NARRATIVE MISSES THE POINTOver the last decades, the dominant food policynarrative has focused on promoting ‘responsibleconsumer choices’.14 This approach is founded onthe idea that awareness raising and education aboutbetter food choices will make people change theirfood behaviours.15 This model largely absolves foodindustries and regulators, but places considerableresponsibility on citizens and consumers.16 The latterare expected to make the ‘right’ food choices – be itrelated to health, environmental, social or ethical goals– based on little else than information campaigns orprompts to adopt ‘green’ and ‘healthy’ lifestyles.Food availability is not to be confused with ‘food security’. While availability is a core pillar, food security also encompasses the key dimensionsof access, nutrition, stability, agency and sustainability. HLPE (2020) Food security and nutrition: building a global narrative towards 2030.A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security, Rome.6Scientific Advice Mechanism, Group of Chief Scientific Advisors (2020) Towards a sustainable food system. Scientific Opinion Nr. 8.European Commission78SAPEA, Science Advice for Policy by European Academies. (2020). A sustainable food system for the European Union. Berlin: SAPEA9Diet refers to a pattern of food consumption (the foods a person habitually eats), not to a regimented way of eating (being on a ‘diet’).Gakidou et al. (2017). Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, andmetabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet, 392(10159), 1923-19941011Tilman & Clark (2014) Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health. Nature 515, 518–522World Health Organization et al. (2021). The state of food security and nutrition in the world 2021: transforming food systems for affordablehealthy diets (Vol. 2021)12The European Green Deal, A Farm to Fork Strategy for a fair, healthy and environmentally-friendly food system, Europe’s Beating Cancer Plan,European Pillar of Social Rights1314SAPEA, Science Advice for Policy by European Academies. (2020). A sustainable food system for the European Union. Berlin: SAPEA.15The term ‘food’ includes both solid food and all non-alcoholic beverages.The terms ‘consumer’, ‘citizen’, ‘citizen-consumer’ and ‘people’ are used interchangeably throughout the document. This in recognition thatthe term ‘consumer’ may not fully capture the whole range of relationships between people and food systems. Likewise, ‘citizen’ is not entirelysatisfactory as it excludes persons without the citizenship of an EU country. For further discussion on this, see for instance: SAPEA, ScienceAdvice for Policy by European Academies. (2020). A sustainable food system for the European Union. Berlin: SAPEA, and: Micheletti & Stolle(2012) Sustainable citizenship and the new politics of consumption. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science163
FOOD ENVIRONMENTS & EU FOOD POLICYDISCOVERING THE ROLE OF FOOD ENVIRONMENTSFOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMSDaily food choices are nottypically based on the bestavailable informationBut, this is not how things work as people go abouttheir everyday lives. Evidence is overwhelming thatdaily food choices are not typically based on thebest available information.17 While the potentialto exercise individual agency is not in doubt, foodchoices are constrained and shaped by a wholerange of physical, economical, political and sociocultural influences, most of which are beyond anindividual’s control. 18,19The consumer choice model is not only scientificallyweak, it is morally questionable too. While oftenpresented as providing people with the ‘freedom ofchoice’,20 the flipside of this approach is that whenthe ‘right’ choices are not made, people are blamedas if their actions were purely due to their ownshortcomings. This is, for instance, too often visiblein the stigma attached to obesity,21,22 or to choicesmade by low-income households.23This model also fails to adequately account for the roleof food environments, the subject of this paper. Forinstance, a recent European consumer survey atteststo the willingness of many consumers to change tomore sustainable eating habits, but that they are findingit hard to do so in current circumstances. Challengessuch as price, lack of information, the issue of identifyingsustainable foods and their limited availability were themain perceived barriers to sustainable eating.24Moreover, there may be instances when offeringchoice can be undesirable and unethical in thefirst place. Such cases could include when foodsare produced under extremely exploitative workingconditions, when production results in the loss ofcritical ecosystems or intense animal suffering, orwhen another direct and significant hazard is posedto people and the planet. Offering consumers themarket-based option to avoid such foods is not anacceptable or effective strategy. Issues such as theseare better addressed through instruments that ensuresuch outcomes simply do not occur, thereby removinga major burden from the shoulders of individuals andpaving the way for a sustainable future.OVER TO THE ‘FOOD ENVIRONMENT APPROACH’In contrast to the consumer choice model, the‘food environment approach’ recognises that thechoices we make about food and the impactsthey have are, to a significant degree, shapedby the contexts within which they are made.Following from that, it recognises that the mosteffective and equitable way to change foodbehaviours is to change the structural factorsthat drive food choice.In other words, the food environment approachprioritises root causes over symptoms. In doingThe most effective and equitableway to change food behaviours isto change the structural factorsthat drive food choiceso, it does not deny individual agency, reducechoice or ‘tell consumers what to eat’, rather,it enables and empowers people to exercisechoice in line with the much needed shift towardssustainable food systems.Scientific Advice Mechanism, Group of Chief Scientific Advisors (2020) Towards a sustainable food system. Scientific Opinion Nr. 8. EuropeanCommission17Swinburn et al. (2013) "INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring andAction Support): overview and key principles." Obesity reviews 14: 1-12.18Herforth & Ahmed (2015) The food environment, its effects on dietary consumption, and potential for measurement within agriculturenutrition interventions. Food Sec. 7, 505–5201920Thilo Bolde (6/05/2020) Farm to Fork: Consumer power Opinion piece in Euractiv - Opinion piece: Farm to Fork: Consumer powerSwinburn et al. (2019). The global syndemic of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change: the Lancet Commission report. The Lancet, 393(10173), 791-846.2122Emmer et al. (2020). The association between weight stigma and mental health: A meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews, 21(1), e12935.23Reutter et al. (2009) Who do they think we are, anyway?”: Perceptions of and responses to poverty stigma. Qualitative Health Research24BEUC (2020) One bite at a time: Consumers and the transition to sustainable food4
3FOOD ENVIRONMENTS & EU FOOD POLICYDISCOVERING THE ROLE OF FOOD ENVIRONMENTSFOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMSWHAT ARE FOOD ENVIRONMENTS?FOOD ENVIRONMENTS: THE INTERFACE BETWEEN PEOPLE AND FOOD SYSTEMSThe food environment, in a widely used definition,refers to the “physical, economic, political and sociocultural context in which consumers engage with thefood system to make their decisions about acquiring,preparing and consuming food.”25From a person-centric perspective, food environmentscan be seen as the spaces in which people makedecisions about food: what to take, where to buy it,where to cook it, and when, where and with whomto eat it.26IN ACADEMIC TERMS, FOOD ENVIRONMENTSCONSIST OF A COMBINATION OF: 27,28,29,30,31,32,33,341ABFOOD CHAIN DYNAMICS - themain focus of this briefing, andparticularly referring to:‘Food entry points’, or the settings inwhich foods are made available andpurchased, such as supermarkets,neighbourhood shops, localmarkets, digital apps, direct farmsales, canteens, schools, (fast food)restaurants, street food stalls, socialdining places, etc.The foods, beverages and mealsthemselves that are made available,and are accessible, affordable anddesirable as people go about theireveryday lives.234ASPECTS OF THE BUILTENVIRONMENT that affect accessto food entry points, includingthe distance to food outlets, theavailability of physical infrastructuresto access such entry points, such aspublic transport networks, etc.PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS thatinfluence food choices, includinglevels of income and education,attitudes, cultural values, skills, etc.THE POLITICAL, SOCIAL,ECONOMIC AND CULTURALCONTEXTS in which the aboveaspects are embedded.HLPE (2017) Nutrition and food systems. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee onWorld Food Security, Rome25Neve, K. et al (2021) Understanding Lived Experience of Food Environments to Inform Policy: An Overview of Research Methods. London:Centre for Food Policy, City, University of London.2627Idem28Glanz (2009) Measuring food environments: a historical perspective. American journal of preventive medicine29Glanz et al (2005) Healthy nutrition environments: concepts and measures. American Journal Health PromotionSwinburn et al. (2013) "INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and ActionSupport): overview and key principles." Obesity reviews 14: 1-12.3031Global Panel (2017) Improving nutrition through enhanced food environments. Policy Brief No. 7. London, UK: Global Panel on Agriculture andFood Systems for NutritionTurner et al. (2018). Concepts and critical perspectives for food environment research: A global framework with implications for action in lowand middle-income countries. Global food security, 18, 93-1013233Raza et al (2020). Conceptual framework of food systems for children and adolescents. Global Food Security, 27, 100436.Downs et al. (2020) Food environment typology: advancing an expanded definition, framework, and methodological approach for improvedcharacterization of wild, cultivated, and built food environments toward sustainable diets. Foods345
FIGURE 1FOOD ENVIRONMENTS & EU FOOD POLICYDISCOVERING THE ROLE OF FOOD ENVIRONMENTSFOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMSTHE FOOD ENVIRONMENT AS AN INTERFACEBETWEEN PEOPLE AND FOOD SYSTEMSFood environments encompass both the personalcharacteristics and preferences that people bringto food systems, which may or may not result frompersonal choice, and the wider contexts within whichfood decisions are made. The individual factors aresometimes referred to as ‘personal food environments’,while the wider contexts as ‘external foodenvironments’.35,36 While all people engage with foodsystems bringing their own personal backgrounds,35food decisions are ultimately taken within a muchmore limited set of common contexts, which arestrongly shaped by dynamics in food chains.Food environments may differ depending oncountry, region and urban or rural setting, anddifferent people within one city or neighbourhoodcan be exposed to different environmentsdepending, for instance, on socio-economic status.37Raza et al (2020). Conceptual framework of food systems for children and adolescents. Global Food Security, 27, 100436.Global Panel (2017) Improving nutrition through enhanced food environments. Policy Brief No. 7. London, UK: Global Panel on Agriculture andFood Systems for Nutrition36Costa et al. (2019) Does access to healthy food vary according to socioeconomic status and to food store type? an ecologic study. BMC PublicHealth 19, 775376
FOOD ENVIRONMENTS & EU FOOD POLICYDISCOVERING THE ROLE OF FOOD ENVIRONMENTSFOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMSAt the same time, food environments create keycommon spaces, underlining their importance asstrategic points of intervention.Another common feature of food environments isthat they are, to a significant degree, commerciallydetermined, especially by actors in the ‘middle’of the food chain. Such actors include retailers,manufacturers, food service companies (e.g.restaurants, fast food chains, catering services),advertisers and other economic operators (e.g.delivery services), but also public procurers. A focusshould therefore be placed on these actors whendesigning strategies for reshaping food environments.Here it should be noted that measures such asmarketing regulations or pricing policies, which areimportant components of effective change strategies,are about setting the ‘rules of the game’ for food businessoperators, targeting food environments, not consumers.FIGURE 2THE MIDDLE OF THE FOOD CHAIN AS A STRATEGIC INTERVENTION POINT 38,39,40(FIGURES FOR EU-27)38Eurostat (2021) Population and population change statistics, Inhabitants: EU27 (2021)Eurostat (2020) Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics: 2020 edition. Data refers to EU27: retail and whole sale (2018), manufacturing (2018),food service (2018), farm holdings (2016), farm workers (2019), fishing fleet (2019).39European Commission (2015) You are part of the food chain. Key facts and figures on the food supply chain in the European Union. EUAgricultural Markets Briefs No 4407
FOOD ENVIRONMENTS & EU FOOD POLICYDISCOVERING THE ROLE OF FOOD ENVIRONMENTSFOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMSFood environments are not only critical in shapingpeople’s food choices. Food environments mediatebetween consumers and producers, translatingdemand patterns into production signals. Theyaffect which products are demanded, to whatstandard they should be produced and what thesales price should be.In turn, food environments are also shaped byfood production, which determines the broadavailability of foods and their environmental,social, health and animal welfare characteristics.However, orienting agricultural, fisheries and4Food environments mediatebetween consumers and producers,translating demand patterns intoproduction signalstrade policies to support healthy and sustainablefood production alone will not be sufficient toensure sustainable consumption patterns if foodenvironments do not make access to this food easyand affordable, as well as culturally appropriateand pleasurable.41A VISION FOR ENABLING FOOD ENVIRONMENTSESCAPING THE NEGATIVE SPIRALIt is widely understood that current foodenvironments are not making sustainablefood choices easy.42 On the contrary, today’sfood environments are said to “exploit people’sbiological, psychological, social, and economicvulnerabilities” 43 making it easier to adoptunhealthy and unsustainable diets. This in turnreinforces preferences for nutritionally poorfoods and entrenches unsustainable supplychains (see Appendix for a description of themultiple dimensions of food sustainability).For example, increasingly sophisticated andmanipulative ways are used to promote andmarket foods across multiple channels, includingthrough their packaging, in-store environments,social media and television. Today’s proliferationof digital marketing, based on the gathering ofextensive personal data, is enabling ever moretailored and persuasive approaches. TechniquesCurrent food environmentsare not making sustainablefood choises easymade possible by evolving technologies includefood brands engaging young people throughimmersive experiences and encouraging themto share their campaigns with friends. Peerto-peer sharing enhances the effectivenessof underlying messages that mostly link to thecreation of demand for nutritionally poor food.44,45Another example of unhealthy food environmentsis the existence of ‘food deserts’ – areas wherehealthy foods are insufficiently available andaccessible, and ‘food swamps’ – areas wherefood is abundant, but dominated by foods andbeverages whose excessive consumption is41Garnett et al (2015). Policies and actions to shift eating patterns: what works. Food Climate Research Network. Foresight, 515(7528), 518-52242SAPEA, Science Advice for Policy by European Academies. (2020). A sustainable food system for the European Union. Berlin: SAPEA.Swinburn et al. (2015). Strengthening of accountability systems to create healthy food environments and reduce global obesity. The Lancet,385(9986), 2534-25454344Tatlow-Golden et al, (2016) Tackling food marketing to children in a digital world: trans-disciplinary perspectives. World Health Organization(WHO)Tatlow-Golden, M., Tracey, L., & Dolphin, L. (2016). Who's Feeding the Kids Online? Digital food marketing to children in Ireland: Advertisers’tactics, children’s exposure and parents’ awareness. Irish Heart Foundation458
FOOD ENVIRONMENTS & EU FOOD POLICYDISCOVERING THE ROLE OF FOOD ENVIRONMENTSFOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMSdetrimental to health and other sustainabilitydimensions.46 Imploring people living in suchsettings to ‘make healthy and sustainablechoices’ is totally missing the point.children and adolescents, for whom good nutritionis critical for determining their future well-beingand life-chances, and whose right to a healthyfood environment requires special protection.48,49Turning this negative spiral into avirtuous cycle requires firm anddedicated action to reshape foodenvironments so they enable theuptake of sustainable dietsTurning this negative spiral into a virtuouscycle requires firm and dedicated action toreshape food environments so they enablethe uptake of sustainable diets. Sustainablediets are defined as those diets “with lowenvironmental impacts which contribute to foodand nutrition security and to healthy life for presentand future generations.” 50 This comprehensiveunderstanding of sustainable diets means it isimportant to consider the multiple dimensionsof food sustainability,51 some of which are furtheraddressed in the Appendix below.These considerations attest to the vulnerability ofcitizen-consumers in the face of powerful forcesin the food system and their low ability to actuallyinfluence them.47 This especially holds true forA VISION FOR ENABLING FOOD ENVIRONMENTSCreating enabling food environments means ensuring that foods,beverages and meals that contribute to sustainable healthy diets are themost available, accessible, affordable, pleasurable and widely promoted.Such environments make the healthy and sustainable choice the defaultand most desirable choice, while limiting the availability and promotionalopportunities for foods associated with unhealthy and unsustainable diets.Sustainable food environments, furthermore, drive demand for sociallyjust supply chains and production models that work with nature, ratherthan against it, that are climate-proof, and that take high levels of animalwelfare as their starting point.46Surfood Foodscape research project (2021-2027) Sustainable Urban Food Practices47SAPEA, Science Advice for Policy by European Academies. (2020). A sustainable food system for the European Union. Berlin: SAPEA.United Nations Children’s Fund and United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, (2019) Protecting Children’s Right to a HealthyFood Environment, UNICEF and United Nations Human Rights Council, Geneva.4849Garde et al, (2018) A Child Rights-Based Approach to Food Marketing: A Guide for Policy Makers. UNICEFThe definition continues that “Sustainable diets are protective and respectful of biodiversity and ecosystems, culturally acceptable,accessible, economically fair and affordable; nutritionally adequate, safe and healthy; while optimizing natural and human resources”.Burlingame & Dernini (2012). Sustainable diets and biodiversity directions and solutions for policy, research and action. FAOHeadquarters, Rome.5051Garnett et al. (2014). What is a sustainable healthy diet? A discussion paper. Food Climate Research Network.9
5FOOD ENVIRONMENTS & EU FOOD POLICYDISCOVERING THE ROLE OF FOOD ENVIRONMENTSFOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMSHOW TO CREATE ENABLING FOOD ENVIRONMENTS?SEVEN ENTRY POINTS TO RESHAPE FOOD ENVIRONMENTSFood environments can be directly re-shapedby food policies and actions that address ‘foodentry points’, and the availability, affordability,accessibility and desirability of foods. The tablebelow identifies seven action areas for the creationof sustainable food environments, accompaniedby several examples of associated policies.52TABLE 17 ENTRY POINTS FOR ACTION ON FOOD ENVIRONMENTS7 DIMENSIONS OFFOOD ENVIRONMENTSSOME OF THE MAINQUESTIONS ADDRESSEDEXAMPLES OFPOLICIES AND ACTIONSFOODCHARACTERISTICSWhat is the nutritionalcomposition of foods?What specific (regulatory)standards exist to ensurethe safety, environmental,social and animal welfarecredentials of food products?How is food packaged? (indicative and non-exhaustive) FOOD LABELLINGAre foods labelled in a wayto make better choiceseasily and transparentlyidentifiable? Does it make thebetter and more sustainablechoice more appealing? Marketing standardsEnvironmental product-specificregulations and standardsRegulatory standards on thelevels of certain nutrients in foodProduct reformulation policiesAntibiotics use regulationsLegislation to end the use ofcages in animal agricultureFisheries regulationsPesticides regulationsMinimum wage and labourregulations for food workersFood safety regulatorystandards, including on foodcontact materialsActions to promote bulkpurchasing for retailSimplified nutrition labellingLabels highlighting socioeconomic, climate andenvironmental sustainabilitythroughout the value chainOrigin labellingAnimal welfare ‘tiered’ methodof production labellingAdapted from: Swinburn et al. (2013) "INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research,Monitoring and Action Support): overview and key principles." Obesity reviews5210
FOOD ENVIRONMENTS & EU FOOD POLICYDISCOVERING THE ROLE OF FOOD ENVIRONMENTSFOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS7 DIMENSIONS OFFOOD ENVIRONMENTSSOME OF THE MAINQUESTIONS ADDRESSEDEXAMPLES OFPOLICIES AND ACTIONSFOOD PROMOTIONHow are foods marketed andadvertised? Are foods thatdrive ill health and undermineother sustainability objectivesfreely and widely promoted,or are restrictions in place?Are systems in placeto ensure healthy andsustainable options arepromoted? What are the characteristicsof the menus and foodson offer through publicprocurement, including inschools, canteens, hospitals,and in restaurants andother out-of-home or homedelivery settings? How isurban planning organised,for instance in terms of thedensity of fast food outletsand the availability of spacesthat build community througheating food? How is the availability offoods associated withsustainable healthy dietsin retail outlets? How arein-store environmentsorganised? Is food retailedin a way that adds furthervalue to the socio-culturalexperience of food? Areshort food supply chains anddirect producer to consumerdistribution systemsavailable, accessible andaffordable? FOOD PROVISIONFOOD RETAIL(indicative and non-exhaustive) Rules restricting the marketing,advertising and salespromotion, including online, ofnutritionally poor foodRules against misleadingadvertising and claims,including ‘greenwashing’Criteria to ensure public moneyis only spent on promotingfoods associated withsustainable diets, excludingfoods with high negativeenvironmental and animalwelfare footprintsMinimum sustainability criteriafor public food procurement,including with a view to promotemore healthy, plant-rich and lessmeat-heavy menusTarget for organic food in schoolsQuick service restaurants applynutrition and sustainability labelsMore healthy plant-based optionsin take-away mealsCommercial urban planningstrategies to reduce the density offast food outletsSupport for social restaurants forvulnerable groupsPolicies supporting mission-ledfood business models, to achievesocial as well as economicimpacts, such as throughcommunity supported agricultureinitiatives and short supply chainsStore layouts improve positioningof food associated with sustainablehealthy diets, such as healthy andenvironmentally-friendly plantbased foodsPolicies to support local marketinfrastructuresNutritionally poor foods areremoved from sale near checkout counters11
FOOD ENVIRONMENTS & EU FOOD POLICYDISCOVERING THE ROLE OF FOOD ENVIRONMENTSFOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS7 DIMENSIONS OFFOOD ENVIRONMENTSSOME OF THE MAINQUESTIONS ADDRESSEDEXAMPLES OFPOLICIES AND ACTIONSFOOD PRICESDo relative prices favour foodsthat contribute to sustainablehealthy diets, while reducingthe attractiveness ofnutritionally poor food andfood with a heavy climateand environmental burden?Do non-stigmatising fiscalinterventions exist to supportaccess to good food forpeople in low-incomegroups? Do food pricessupport decent incomesfor producers who employmethods that are better forconsumers, climate, theenvironment and animals? Do international trade andinvestment agreementshave provisions in place toprotect and foster enablingfood environments? Are thereinternational agreements toimprove the sustainabilityof food? Do EU internalmarket trade rules enablesustainable food systems? FOOD TRADE ANDINTERNATIONALAGREEMENTS(indicative and non-exhaustive) The seven dimensions above have been adaptedfrom the INFORMAS network to include wider foodsustainability components beyond nutrition.53 Forthe nutritional component of sustainability, theseseven dimensions are being used to analysethe achievements and gaps in food policiesPricing policies to align foodprices with the true cost of foodand to lower the relative priceof the more sustainable foodoptionsFiscal incentives for peopleliving on low incomesMinimal VAT for fruit andvegetables, pulses and nutsImport standards at the samelevel as EU environmental, socialand animal welfare standards,coupled with assistance to nonEU producers from lower incomecountries to fulfil these standardsA food sustainability chapter intrade agreements that is bindingand enforceableFood sustainability impactassessment before negotiationsAction to tackle dual quality offood within the EUAllowing public food procurersto purchase from local supplierswithin the EUthrough the Food Environment
2 Grace (2016) Influencing food environments for healthy diets through food safety. UN Food and Agriculture Organization 3 United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, (2019) Protecting Children's Right to a Healthy Food Environment, UNICEF and United Nations Human Rights Council, Geneva.
PSI AP Physics 1 Name_ Multiple Choice 1. Two&sound&sources&S 1∧&S p;Hz&and250&Hz.&Whenwe& esult&is:& (A) great&&&&&(C)&The&same&&&&&
Argilla Almond&David Arrivederci&ragazzi Malle&L. Artemis&Fowl ColferD. Ascoltail&mio&cuore Pitzorno&B. ASSASSINATION Sgardoli&G. Auschwitzero&il&numero&220545 AveyD. di&mare Salgari&E. Avventurain&Egitto Pederiali&G. Avventure&di&storie AA.&VV. Baby&sitter&blues Murail&Marie]Aude Bambini&di&farina FineAnna
The program, which was designed to push sales of Goodyear Aquatred tires, was targeted at sales associates and managers at 900 company-owned stores and service centers, which were divided into two equal groups of nearly identical performance. For every 12 tires they sold, one group received cash rewards and the other received
College"Physics" Student"Solutions"Manual" Chapter"6" " 50" " 728 rev s 728 rpm 1 min 60 s 2 rad 1 rev 76.2 rad s 1 rev 2 rad , π ω π " 6.2 CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION 18." Verify&that ntrifuge&is&about 0.50&km/s,∧&Earth&in&its& orbit is&about p;linear&speed&of&a .
Types of food environments Community food environment Geographic food access, which refers to the location and accessibility of food outlets Consumer food environment Food availability, food affordability, food quality, and other aspects influencing food choices in retail outlets Organizational food environment Access to food in settings
6" syl 4" syl 12" swgl @ 45 & 5' o.c. 12" swchl 6" swl r1-1 ma-d1-6a 4" syl 4" syl 2' 2' r3-5r r4-7 r&d 14.7' 13' cw open w11-15 w16-9p ma-d1-7d 12' 2' w4-3 moonwalks abb r&d r&d r&d r&d r&d r&d ret ret r&d r&d r&d r&d r&d 12' 24' r&d ma-d1-7a ma-d1-7b ret r&d r&d r5-1 r3-2 r&d r&r(b.o.) r6-1r r3-2 m4-5 m1-1 (i-195) m1-1 (i-495) m6-2l om1-1 .
s& . o Look at the poem’s first and last lines (first and last lines may give readers important . it is important to read poems four times. Remind them that the first time they read is for enjoyment; rereads allow them to dive deeper into poems .