DEGREE PROJECT IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGY,SECOND CYCLE, 30 CREDITSSTOCKHOLM, SWEDEN 2016Forwarding Strategies inInformation CentricNetworkingAHMED SADEKKTH ROYAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYSCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Forwarding Strategies inInformation CentricNetworkingAHMED SADEKasadek@kth.seExaminer:Prof. Viktoria FodorKTH Royal Institute of TechnologySupervisor:Börje OhlmanAdeel Mohammad MalikEricsson ABKT H RO Y AL I NS TI T UTE O F TE C HNO LO G YINFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
AbstractThe Internet of the 21th century is a different version from the originalInternet. The Internet is becoming more and more a huge distributionnetwork for large quantities of data (Photos, Music, and Video) with differenttypes of connections and needs. TCP/IP the work horse for the Internet wasintended as a vehicle to transport best effort Connection oriented data wherethe main focus is about transporting data from point A to point B regardless ofthe type of data or the nature of path.Information Centric Networking (ICN) is a new paradigm shift in anetworking where the focus in networking is shifted from the host address tothe content name. The current TCP/IP model for transporting data dependson establishing an end to end connection between client and server. However,in ICN, the client requests the data by name and the request is handled by thenetwork without the need to go each time to a fixed server address as eachnode in the network can serve data. ICN works on a hop by hop basis whereeach node have visibility over the content requested enabling it to take moresophisticated decisions in comparison to TCP/IP where the forwarding nodetake decisions based on the source and destination IP addresses.ICN have different implementations projects with different visions andone of those projects is Named Data Networking (NDN) and that’s what weuse for our work. NDN/ICN architecture consists of different layers and one ofthose layers is the Forwarding Strategy (FS) layer which is responsible fordeciding how to forward the coming request/response. In this thesis weimplement and simulate three Forwarding Strategies (Best Face Selection,Round Robin, and Weighted Round Robin) and investigate how they canadapt to changes in link bandwidth with variable traffic rate. We performed anumber of simulations using the ndnSIMv2.1 simulator. We concluded thatWeighted Round Robin offers high throughput and reliability in comparisonto the other two strategies. Also, the three strategies offer better reliabilitythan using a single static face and offer lower cost than using the broadcaststrategy. We also concluded that there is a need for a dynamic congestioncontrol algorithm that takes into consideration the dynamic nature of ICN.Keywords:Information Centric Networking (ICN), Name Data Networks(NDN), ndnSIM, Forwarding Strategies, Future Internet.1
Abstract2000-talets Internet är en annan version av det ursprungliga Internet.Internet blir mer och mer ett stort distributionsnät för stora mängder data(foton, musik och video) med olika typer av anslutningar och behov. TCP / IPär arbetshäst för Internet var tänkt som ett fordon för att transportera besteffort Anslutning orienterade uppgifter där huvudfokus handlar om atttransportera data från punkt A till punkt B, oavsett vilken typ av data ellervilken typ av väg.Information Centric Nätverk (ICN) är ett nytt paradigmskifte inomnätverk där fokus i nätverket flyttas från värdadressen till innehållets namn.Den aktuella TCP / IP-modellen för transport av data beror på att etablera enanslutning mellan klient och server (s.k. end-to-end). I ICN begär klientendata med namn och begäran hanteras av nätverket utan att behöva gå till enfix serveradress eftersom varje nod i nätverket kan besvara en begäran meddata. ICN arbetar på en ”hop by hop” basis där varje nod har överblick överdet begärda innehållet, vilket gör det möjligt att ta mer avancerade beslut ijämförelse med TCP / IP, där den vidarebefordrande nodens beslut fattasbaserat på källans och destinationens IP-adresser.Det finns olika implementeringar av ICN med olika visioner och en avdessa implementeringar heter Named Data Networking (NDN) och det är vadvi använder för vårt arbete. NDNs / ICNs arkitektur består av olika lager ochett av dessa lager är Forwarding Strategies (FS) där vi definierar de åtgärder vividtar på varje begäran / svar. I detta projekt implementeras och simuleras treForwarding strategier (Best Face Selection, Round Robin, och WeightedRound Robin) och undersöks hur de kan anpassa sig till förändringar ilänkbandbredd med konstant och variabel trafikhastigheten. Vi utfört ett antalsimuleringar med hjälp av ndnSIMv2.1 simulatorn. Vi drog slutsatsen attWeighted Round Robin erbjuder hög genomströmning och tillförlitlighet ijämförelse med de två andra strategierna. De tre strategierna erbjuder ävenhögre tillförlitlighet än att använda ett enda statiskt interface och erbjuderlägre kostnad än att använda broadcast strategin. Vi konstaterade också attdet finns ett behov av en dynamisk ”congestion control”-algoritm som tarhänsyn till ICNs dynamiska karaktär.Nyckelord:Information Centric Nätverk (ICN), Namn datanät (NDN), ndnSIM,Forwarding strategier, framtidens Internet.2
List of FiguresFigure 1: Multihoming and ICN . 2Figure 2: DONA Name Resolution . 9Figure 3: PURSUIT Network Architecture .10Figure 4: LSA format .11Figure 5: Packet types in NDN Architecture .13Figure 6: NDN and NFD Architecture .13Figure 7: NDN interest forwarding process.15Figure 8: TCP vs. MTCP vs. ICN .16Figure 9: Simulation Topology .29Figure 10: Data Rate and Accumulated Packet Sum for Best Face Selection .30Figure 11: Data Rate and Accumulated Packet Sum for Round Robin .31Figure 12: Data Rate and Accumulated Packet Sum for Weighted Round Robin .33Figure 13: Data rate and Accumulated Packet Sum for Best Face SelectionStrategy with changing Bandwidth .36Figure 14: Data rate and Accumulated Packet Sum for Round Robin Strategy withchanging Bandwidth .37Figure 15: Data rate and Accumulated Packet Sum for Weighted Round RobinStrategy with changing Bandwidth .40Figure 16: Data rate and Accumulated Packet Sum for Weighted Round RobinStrategy with changing Bandwidth and Delay .413
Table of Contents12Introduction . 18.104.22.168Thesis objectives . 3Research Methods . 4Outline . 4Background . 22.214.171.124.42.52.6Current Trends . 5Information Centric Networking . 5ICN Approaches . 6NDN Architecture .10Comparison between ICN and TCP/IP .16ICN Challenges .183Related Work . 194Simulation Environment . 235126.96.36.199Requirements .23Overview of ICN Simulators .23Description of ndnSIM .25Design . 275.15.2Forwarding Strategies .27Congestion Control .29Simulation and Results . 306.16.2Scenario 1 (Static Network): .30Scenario 2 (Dynamic Network): .367Conclusions and Future work . 458References . 47Appendix A . 1Appendix B . 14
1 IntroductionThe Internet is growing by the second, with increasing number of people whoget access to Internet and increasing size of content uploaded and streamed.The Internet has started as a network to connect a limited number of nodeswith simple applications such as file transfer and web pages serving and hasevolved with time into a distribution medium that transport billions ofimages, videos, music files between billions of nodes. This paradigm shift inthe Internet usage pattern and user needs require a similar paradigm shift inthe transport technology that is used by the Internet. A number oftechnologies have been deployed in the Internet to accommodate the newdemands for access to content such as Content Distribution Networks CDNs,Load Balancers, and Cloud Services.Information Centric Network ICN  is a new approach for networkingand content delivery that started as a research project in Palo Alto ResearchCenter (PARC) in 2007 and resulted in a paper published by Van Jacobson etal . It aims to change connectivity and content retrieval from host centricmethods to content centric method. In host centric architecture data isattached to fixed locations and servers and the Internet is the medium thatconnect us to those location through routers and switches. While in contentcentric architecture, data becomes independent from location since each nodein the Internet can become a serving node using ICN features such as innetwork caching and data replication. One of the expected benefits of ICN isbetter scalability in terms of bandwidth demand as content can be retrievedover multiple paths and from multiple sources, also more efficient usage of thenetwork resources as content become more spread over more number ofnodes.ICN aspire for a future Internet, where the network nodes have morestorage capabilities to cache the content and more visibility over the packetcontent and not limited by forwarding packets based only on source anddestination addresses. In ICN, the client node issues a request for content bysending an interest message with the name of the desired content. Thenetwork routes the interest based on the name using longest prefix match. Theinterest leaves state as it traverses the network. Each node takes a decision onwhether to forward the request or serve it locally if the content located in thecache so the request doesn’t need to be served from the same server over andover but can be served from a local cache or a nearby node.Another important motive for using ICN is the multi networkconnectivity available to most devices. Nowadays, each mobile/tablet/laptophas access to different network technologies such as WiFI, LTE, andBluetooth. However, clients can’t use those multiple interfaces in parallelsince TCP/IP doesn’t support this by default. Multihoming  is a mechanismthat allows a device to use the available network interfaces simultaneously, soinstead of using WiFi only or 3G only to load a file, the user can use thecombined bandwidth of the three interfaces to stream a video or transport afile. This mechanism enhances the throughput and reliability as we can see in1
Figure 1.A where a laptop can use its combined network cards to access Wi-Fi,3G and Bluetooth at the same time to connect to a server and transfer the dataover the three connections .For traditional TCP/IP clients using multihoming is not an option sinceTCP doesn’t support it. However, MultiPath Transfer Protocol MPTCP is anextension version from TCP/IP that support multihoming as it enables theclient to establish more than one path between two end points, the client andserver (One to One) . MPTCP handle the congestion control for the sameconnection over parallel links but it requires changes to the client side byinstalling MPTCP software and it doesn’t provide a case for the client toestablish multiple paths with multiple sources (One to Many) for the sameconnection so for example a client can stream a video from the a single serverusing Wi-FI and LTE but can’t stream a video from two different servers overWi-Fi and LTE. On the other side, ICN can handle both use cases (One to Oneand One to Many) natively; allowing it to take advantage of the availability ofmultiple interfaces to enhance throughput and reliability. Figure 1.b showsICN potential where Node A can request content from Node B throughmultiple paths.In this thesis work, we investigate the Forwarding Strategy FS layer inICN architecture. The Forwarding Strategy is responsible for making adecision on each interest request, to decide when and to which interface thisrequest should be forwarded. We implement three forwarding Strategies thatuse the multihoming capabilities and we evaluate their performance inregards to throughput and connection reliability.Having a better understanding of Forwarding Strategies in ICN willenable a better usage of the network resources and will enhance the userexperience.Fig 1. A. Multihoming - B.ICN2
1.1 Thesis objectivesThe objectives of this master thesis are summarized in the following points:1- Investigating the benefits of using client’s multiple interfaces in parallelby using ICN technology. Since most devices are equipped withmultiple network interfaces this brings the potential for using them inparallel to provide high throughput connectivity. Utilizing multipleinterface in parallel in traditional TCP/IP is not feasible by defaultsince TCP protocol is connection oriented and each connection isattached to a fixed IP address and port number. ICN is not connectionoriented as the data is requested by the client and the connectednetwork nodes try to serves the request either locally or by forwardingthe request to other nodes. Therefore, in ICN, the client node canrequest the content using all the available interfaces in parallel andhave higher throughput.2- Choose a simulation environment that would allow us to experimentwith the ICN networks with a focus on forwarding strategies. Thesimulation environment should provide a friendly user interface withthe capability to experiments with different configurations for linkbandwidth and delay easily.3- Design and implement three forwarding strategies that can enhancethroughput and reliability for the client. Considering the fact thatdifferent clients have different needs for example real time applicationssuch as video streaming are sensitive toward delay and connectioninterruption while file transfer applications are sensitive toward dataloss. Hence, there is a need to evaluate which forwarding strategy canserve which need optimally. For this project, the evaluation is focusedon finding which forwarding strategy that can offer better throughputand reliability.4- Considering the changing nature of the network where bandwidth, lossand delay can change with time, for example network quality of servicecan degrade during peak times. In this master thesis, the forwardingstrategies are evaluated in both static scenario where networkbandwidth is fixed during the simulation and dynamic scenario wherethe network bandwidth is changed during the simulation.Since ICN is a current research project, there are different componentsthat are still under continuous improvement and development such asthe routing protocols and congestion control protocols for that reason itwasn’t possible to consider more complex scenarios with highernumber of clients since fairness in sharing the link bandwidth resourcecan’t be guaranteed.3
1.2 Research MethodsTo investigate forwarding strategies in information centric networking, weneeded a framework that implements the ICN stack and allows us toexperiment with it easily to see the correlation between the forwardingstrategies and performance metrics. Running ICN on a number of networknodes is a difficult approach as it involves, configuring the nodes andconnecting them. On the other side, Simulation is much easier option since itallows us to focus on the forwarding strategies logic without spendingunnecessary time on network connections and nodes configurations. Thereare a number of simulator research projects in the ICN domain. The firstchoice was to use the CCNLite simulator which is built on the Omnet framework. After experimenting with it we decided to move to anothersimulator due to the lack of modularity and community support. The nextchoice was using the NDN project and the ndnSIM simulator for our worksince the simulation code has very similar code to the real NDN softwarewhich makes the gap very small between the simulation and real code and itwas design with modularity in mind.The next step after implementing the forwarding strategies was defining thesimulation scenario. In this case we did have two options. The first simulationscenario is simple application for a static network where we run theexperiment for the three forwarding strategies without introducing anychanges to the network bandwidth or delay to see the basic behavior of theforwarding strategy. The second simulation scenario is for a dynamic networkwhere we introduce changes to link bandwidth and delay, to see how eachforwarding strategy will respond to these changes.Using testbeds such as PlanetLab to run the experiments can come as a futurestep to test the scalability of the system under different forwarding strategiesbut for us simulation was the first logical step.1.3 OutlineIn chapter 2 we present the model of Information Centric Networking,the main concepts behind it, the need for it and the main implementationprojects while focusing on the ICN/NDN project. In chapter 3 we discuss therelated research work done on forwarding strategies. In chapter 4 we presentthe simulation environment, a summary for ICN simulators and a descriptionfor ndnSIM simulator. In chapter 5 we discuss the design methodology for theforwarding strategies and a description for the congestion control mechanism.In chapter 6 we discuss the simulation scenarios and present our results forthe different forwarding strategies. Finally, in chapter 7 we present theconclusions and our suggestions for future work.4
2 BackgroundIn this chapter we introduce the concept of Information Centric Networking(ICN) and how it compares to the traditional host centric architecture. Wealso, compare the different ICN architectures.2.1 Current TrendsThe Internet is struggling between growing user demands for large sized, longsession content and the available capacity. Currently, the Internet supports farmore applications than what it was originally designed for, and it is movingtoward becoming a huge distribution network for digital content where anumber of content providers are streaming content to huge number of users.Current expectations are that by the year 2020, 1.6 billion users willstart using the Internet, new technologies like Internet of Things (IoT) willadd 26 billion connected device and 80% of mobile data traffic will becomevideo   . Also, content quality is increasing rapidly, as users demand8K videos, virtual reality communication and high definition multiplayergaming . This new demands require a new type of networking solutionsthat is not focused only on connecting a number of nodes but also onproviding scalable content distribution to deliver delay sensitive content tobillions of users.The current model of delivery uses solutions like Content DeliveryNetworks (CDNs) to increase the geographical availability of digital content.The CDN approach tries to solve the high demand for content problem byproviding the content as near as possible to the client however, it can’tanticipate which content will have high demand especially with user createdcontent and also it doesn’t change how networking and forwarding works as itstill uses the TCP/IP for delivery. When using CDN service the user getsrouted to the nearest server using DNS service which resolves the userrequested URL address into the nearest IP address to the user location. Afterfinding the local version of the content, a connection is established betweenthe client and the local CDN server using TCP/IP to transfer the content. Inthis type of overlay networks, the user doesn’t take advantage of in networkcaching if for example the content is available on nearby nodes also it doesn’tuse multiple paths forwarding as a single path is always used.2.2 Information Centric NetworkingThe main characteristic of the current Internet is host centrality; everythingstarts with an address and ends with an address. When user needs todownload a file, stream media or browse a web page, it needs to connect to theaddress of a fixed server node that can provide the digital content. If thisserver become unavailable or changes its address then the content becomesunavailable too. Information centric networking (ICN) offers a new model fordelivering digital content that shifts the focus from host centrality to contentcentrality. In ICN, the client requests the content by name and the networkhave the ability to find this content and deliver it.5
2.3 ICN ApproachesThe idea of content centric networking started with project TRIAD in StanfordUniversity  where the motivation was to focus on data object namesinstead of addresses by adding an additional layer so content can bedistributed in a scalable and secure way. After that came multiple projects toachieve the same target with multiple implementations and differentviewpoints. Currently, ICN is a title for a set of network architectures thatfocus on distributing and routing based on content name.In general the main differences between the different ICN implementationscan be summarized into the following points, note that all of them are stillresearch challenges that are still under investigation and improvement: Naming: The main data unit for ICN is Named Data Object (NDO),which can be any kind of digital content ranging from webpages tovideo files and live streams. Each NDO needs to have a unique namesince this name will be used to locate it. There are two main proposednaming mechanisms:The first approach is by using a hierarchical name space which issimilar to a URL, for example /movie1/ segment2/ chunk3. Thisnaming style has scalability advantages since routing information canbe aggregating. Route aggregation or summarization is when far awaynodes keep only information about the top level hierarchies of NDOsavailable in faraway networks, this minimize the number of routes inneeded to be saved in the routing table by consolidating routes thathave similar top hierarchies together into a single route .The second approach is by using flat and self-certifying namespacewhere the name takes the form P:L where P contains the cryptographichash of the publisher’s public key and L is the unique object label. Routing and Forwarding: In ICN there are currently two mainapproaches for routing the request to find the NDO:The first approach isstores bindings fromobject ID to a list ofProtocol IP addressesthe NDO.by using a name resolution service (NRS) thata location independent identifier such as thelocation dependent identifiers such as Internetthat point to server nodes which store copies ofThis approach has three phases:1- The requester sends a request message to the NRS nodeasking for a specific NDO.2- The NRS node matches this NDO to a number of sourcesaddresses and sends the address information to therequester.6
3- The requester sends requests directly to the source servers toget the NDO.One of the weak points of this approach is that the NRS itselfbecomes a point of failure, so if the NRS becomes unavailablethen many of the NDOs will become unreachable. This approachis a hybrid between ICN networking and other location basednetworking since it can use IP addresses to reach the content.The second approach, Named Based Routing NBR which directlyroutes the request message from the requester to one or multiple datasources in the network based on the NDO. This approach depends onthe properties of the namespace used for the NDO. There are a numberof protocols suggested for this type of routing which have differentways in disseminating routing updates and information on how toreach NDOs. Techniques used range from flooding interest requests to,using link state advertisement in NLSR protocol and using DistributedHash Table DHT to provide a lookup and routing service. In the nextsection a summary for NLSR protocol which is a link state routingprotocol used in NDN. Content Integrity: To confirm the correctness and source of the datathere are two approaches:The first approach, Depending on Public Key of the publisher wherethe publisher sign the NDO with its own secret key and the requestercan verify the integrity of the data using the publisher public key. Thisapproach needs a secure infrastructure to exchange keys.The second approach is by using self-certifying names and embeddingthe hash of the content closely to the object’s name as in flatnamespace. This allows the requester to verify the integrity of thecontent without the need to exchange keys.There are a number of projects following the ICN model and have beensummarized in a number of surveys   .The most recent implementation projects for Information Centric Networkingare the following:1- Content Centric Networking (CCN) , which started at the XeroxPalo Alto Research Center (PARC) in 2009. The data format for CCNincludes two packet types:1- Interest packet to request data and it consists of prefix and uniquename to identify “Object Name”.2- Data packet that carries the data object plus signature forauthentication.CCN adapts a hierarchical naming structure for NDO prefix names.7
In CCN each node has three main functionalities represented by thefollowing three data structures FIB table, PIT table and cache.The Forwarding Information Base (FIB) is used to match interfacename to content names, allowing it to recognize a route toward contentsource. Based on FIB, Interest request is forwarded toward theoutgoing interface with the longest matching prefix name.The Pending Interest Table (PIT) is used to keep reverse path state andmatch interest sent to interface name, this way the same interest willnot be sent multiple times on the same interface and once the datapacket is received, it will be served to all the pending interests.Each node in CCN has a caching policy by default Cache EverythingEverywhere.For Routing and disseminating NDO updates in CCN, a name basedrouting protocol is proposed that is called Distance-based ContentRouting DCR protocol.Content integrity is achieved by signing the NDO object with thepublisher’s secret key.2- Named Data Networking (NDN) , is a project funded by a grantfrom the National Science Foundation (NSF) and development teamfrom UCLA which started with a code base from CCN and then forkedfrom the CCN project and continues to pursue its own researchquestions. The packet types in NDN are similar to CCN with theaddition of “Interest NACK” Negative Acknowledgment to indicate thatData could not be retrieved in response to an interest. Also, NDNintroduced a new routing protocol called Secure Named-data Link StateRouting protocol (NLSR) which uses interest/data packets todisseminate routing updates. NLSR is discussed in more details
Information Centric Network ICN  is a new approach for networking and content delivery that started as a research project in Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in 2007 and resulted in a paper published by Van Jacobson et al . It aims to change connectivity and content retrieval from host centric methods to content centric method.
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