THE EFFECT OF INSURANCE AGENTS IN INSURANCEPENETRATION IN KENYAByRaphael Wachira NgoimaD61/68407/2011A Research Project Presented in Fulfillment of the Requirements forthe Degree of Master of Business Administration,University of NairobiNovember, 2013
DECLARATIONThis research project is my own work and has not been submitted for award of anydegree in any other university and where other people’s research work has been used,they have been duly acknowledged.Signed.Date.Raphael Wachira NgoimaD61/68407/2011This Research Project has been submitted with my approval as the University Supervisor.Signed.Date.Mr Joseph BarasaUniversity Supervisorii
ACKNOWLEDGENTI would like to thank my supervisor Mr Joseph Barasa for his intellectual guidancethroughout the period this study has been conducted. I would also like to recognize theinput of my parents who have been willing to make sacrifices to make this project and mygraduate studies a reality through their continued financial support. Special recognitionought to go to my employer WIAEA audit firm for accommodating my graduate studies.I would also like to recognize my work colleagues Peter Munyao and Nasumba Kizitowho have encouraged me throughout the period I was working on my project. Theirwords of encouragement have enabled me to continue on my project and see it tocompletion. For everyone who has made a positive contribution towards the completionof this project both big and small I say thank you and may God bless you.iii
DEDICATIONToMy Loving MotherRosalind Wambui Ngoima(Your comforting words have encouraged me to see this project to completion)My Caring FatherGeoffrey Kang’ethe Ngoima(Your words of counsel have guided me throughout my academic journey)iv
ABSTRACTThe insurance industry in Kenya is characterized by a high rate of failure. It is also one ofthe fastest growing industries in Kenya regulated by a semi-autonomous regulator IRAsetup in 2008.The industry has experienced growth in recent years due in part to thecontributions of intermediaries in their industry. Insurance penetration is the mostcommon measure of growth in the industry and is measured by the amount of insurancepremiums paid by all policyholders as a percentage of GDP.Innumerable environmentalinfluences affect the industry but for purposes of this study the researcher studiedinsurance intermediaries.This study looked into the effect of insurance intermediaries (agents/brokers) in insurancepenetration in Kenya. A descriptive research design has been employed with the use ofquestionnaires to enable the researcher describe and analyze data obtained. The resultstherefore will help the various stakeholders in the industry address the underlying issuesthat may impede the growth of the industry. Policy recommendations have been put forthpursuant to this and will help to mitigate against some of the issues identified.The study’s target population was the 45 insurance companies all of whom wereadministered questionaires.Out of the 45 administered questionnaires, 39 were filled andreturned.The results derived thereof indicate that the rolesof insuranceintermediaries(market maker, transformation agents, reduction of participation costs &service provision) show a goodness of fit as indicated by co-efficient ofdetermination(R2) to be 0.7338.This result therefore indicates that the aforementionedroles of insurance agents explain 73.38% of the insurance companies’ penetration inKenya.v
TABLE OF CONTENTSDECLARATION .iiACKNOWLEDGENT.iiiDEDICATION .ivABSTRACT. vABBREVIATIONS.viLIST OF TABLES.viiLIST OF FIGURES.viiiCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION. 11.1Background. 11.2 Research Problem . 51.3 Objective of the study. 61.4 Value of the Study . 7CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW . 82.1 Introduction. 82.2 Theoretical Literature Review. 82.3 Empirical Literature Review . 102.4 Summary of Literature Review . 13CHAPTER THREE:METHODOLOGY . 143.1 Introduction. 143.2 Research Design . 143.3 Target Population. 143.4 Sample Design . 153.5 Data Collection . 153.6 Data Analysis. 15vi
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATIONAND PRESENTATION . 184.1 Introduction. .184.2 Response Rate. .184.3 Use agents as an instrument for market penetration. .194.4 Role of insurance agents as market maker . .194.5 Role of insurance agents as transformation agents . 214.6 Role of insurance agents in reduction of participation cost . 224.7 Role of insurance agents as service providers. .234.8 Regression and Correlation coefficients of the effect of insuranceagents in insurance companies penetration in Kenya. 244.9 Regression Model Summary of the Coefficients of the effect ofinsurance agents in insurance companies penetration in Kenya . 264.10 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) . S . 285.1 Introduction. 285.2 Summary of Findings . 285.3 Conclusions. 305.4 Policy Recommendations . 325.5 Areas for further Research. 32REFERENCES . 34APPENDIX 1:QUESTIONNAIRE . 39APPENDIX II:LIST OF INSURANCE COMPANIES . 43vii
ABBREVIATIONSAIBKAssociation of Insurance Brokers of KenyaCBKCentral Bank of KenyaCBSCentral Bureau of StatisticsGDPGross Domestic ProductPSVPublic Service VehicleIFRSInternational Financial Reporting StandardsIRAInsurance Regulatory AuthoritySMESSmall and Medium-sized Enterprisesviii
LIST OF TABLESTable 4.1: Response Rate . 18Table 4.2: Correlation Coefficients of the effect of insurance agents ininsurance companies penetration in Kenya . 26Table 4.3: Regression Model Summary of Coefficients of the effect ofinsurance agents in insurance companies penetration in Kenya . 26ix
LIST OF FIGURESFigure 4.1. Use Agents as an instrument for market penetration. 19Figure 4.2. The Role of Insurance Agents as Market maker. 19Figure 4.3. Insurance Companies expand due to use of Insurance Agents inreaching the clients . 20Figure 4.4. Role of Insurance Agents as transformation agents. 21Figure 4.5. The Extent Insurance companies value the Role of insuranceagents as transformation agents in insurance industry . 21Figure 4.6. If insurance agents reduce participation costs by insurancecompanies in Kenya. 22Figure 4.7. The extent that insurance companies use insurance agents toreduce participation costs . .23Figure 4.8. Role of insurance agents Service providers . 23Figure 4.9. If respondents agree that insurance agents play a crucial role inproviding service in insurance industry in Kenya . 24x
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 BackgroundThe Insurance Industry as we know it today evolved over several centuries based onchanges in need, laws, regulations, business practices and technology. Insurance is both arisk shifting & risk sharing device. It is an agreement whereby for a consideration (thepremium), an individual or organization (the insured) is guaranteed to be reimbursed bythe insuring organization (the insurer) (Lassan,Litan & Pomerleano,2011).In any economy insurance plays a vital role in that it covers economic & financial riskarising out of certain events. The buyer of insurance faces the daunting task of firstdeciding what sort of insurance protection is needed given the risks faced, and thencomparing policies offering alternative coverage at different prices from several insurerswith different levels of credit risk and varying reputations for claims settlement andpolicyholder services(Cummins & Doherty,2005).In most insurance transactions, there is an intermediary, usually an insurance agent orbroker, between the potential buyer and the insurer. In insurance markets, theintermediary plays the role of market maker helping buyers to identify their coverage andrisk management needs and matching buyers with appropriate insurers. The role of theintermediary is to scan the market, match buyers with insurers who have the skill,capacity, risk appetite, and financial strength to underwrite the risk, and then help theirclient select from competing offers (Cummins & Doherty, 2005).Price is important but is only one of several criteria that buyers consider in deciding uponthe insurer or insurers that provide their coverage. In addition to this, breadth of coverageoffered by competing insurers, the risk management services provided, the insurer’sreputation for claims settlement and financial strength, and other factors are equally as1
important. Within the past few months, controversy has arisen about the role ofintermediaries in insurance transactions. In particular, it has been alleged that thecompensation of agents and brokers through contingent commissions, often related to theunderwriting quality or volume of business placed with an insurer, constitutes an anticompetitive practice that is detrimental to buyers (Spitzer 2004, Hunter 2005).In the USA Insurance intermediaries are very large in number; currently there areapproximately 39,000 independent agencies and brokers. In 2003, the independentintermediaries (independent agents and brokers) controlled 67% of commercial linesproperty-casualty business and about 33% of personal lines business. The dominance ofindependent distributors in commercial lines reflects the fact that loss control, claimssettlement, and other services in these lines tend to be relatively complex, such thatindependent distributors have an important role in placing coverage’s and providingservices to buyers. In personal lines, where coverage’s and services tend to be simplerand more homogeneous, the exclusive agency and direct writing insurers have adominant market share due to lower distribution costs and other factors(Entin,2004).1.1.1 Insurance AgentsDistribution of insurance is handled in a number of ways. Insurers can market theirproducts directly or through distribution channels. The most common of thesedistribution channels are individual agents, corporate agents (including bancassurance) &brokers. Insurance intermediaries are often categorized as either insurance agents orbrokers. The distinction between the two relates to the manner in which they function inthe marketplace. Insurance agents sell exclusively the products of a certain insurancecompany whereas insurance brokers are legally independent from insurance companies.Insurance brokers are often referred to as the insured’s agent (Kogi & Maragia, 2011).This study will consider the effect of both insurance intermediaries (agents & brokers) ininsurance penetration in Kenya.2
1.1.2 Insurance PenetrationInsurance penetration is the amount of insurance premium in a country expressed as apercentage of the GDP.It can be worked out separately for life & general business or anyother class of insurance business. The penetration rate indicates the level of developmentof insurance sector in a country. The higher the penetration rate is the more developed theinsurance market in that particular country is. Insurance penetration in Kenya is still low& this has been attributed to low level of awareness in the market about its benefits & themisconception that insurance is only for the affluent members of society. In addition tothis, a general lack of a savings culture, inadequate tax incentives & a perceivedcredibility crisis of the industry in the eyes of the public particularly with regard tosettlement of claims have been cited as probable causes for a low insurance penetration inKenya (Kogi & Maragia, 2011).1.1.3 Insurance Agents & Insurance PenetrationThe marketing mechanism in the insurance industry revolves around the agent (Vaughan& Vaughan, 2008).Insurance agents, brokers especially often play the role of developingdifferent products especially corporate products which are then underwritten by insurancefirms, depending on the products on offer & the specialized line of business of insurancecompany. Therefore the theoretically expected relationship between insurance agents &insurance penetration is that an increase in input by insurance agents will be positivelycorrelated with increased insurance penetration.1.1.4 The Insurance Industry in KenyaThe history of the development of commercial insurance in Kenya is closely related tothe historical emancipation of Kenya as a nation (Throup, 1988).Kenya being a formerBritish colony had as its first insurers British underwriters. The first insurers includedSmith Mackenzie & Co who started out in 1901, Sydne & C.Fichart in 1905, ProvincialInsurance in 1949 & the East African Underwriters in 1954(Njenga, 2011).Some of themodern day insurance brokers in Kenya have their roots in pre-colonial days including3
Alexander Forbes Insurance Brokers (formerly Colin Hood Insurance) & AON MinetInsurance Brokers (formerly J.H.Minet & Co of United Kingdom) (Njenga, 2011).These early insurers were regulated by the Companies Act only which required allcompanies to keep books of accounts and have these books audited. The Insurance Actwas drafted in 1984 and operationalized 3 years later. The act made provision onminimum capital requirements, local incorporation, reinsurance arrangements, financialstatements, solvency and mergers. The role of insurance brokers i.e. intermediaries inKenya was recognized by the Insurance Act Cap 487 of 1984 later revised in the year2002.The eleventh schedule of the Act recognized the revenue earned by insurancebrokers as 25% maximum of the premium earned.The insurance industry in Kenya lags behind banking and capital markets. The industry isplagued by slow growth due to lack of innovation. The main source of premiums remainin the general insurance business lines such as motorvehicle,fire & burglarly.Insuranceagents deal with products from a sole insurer and often face stiff competition from thebancassurance mode of distribution of insurance products.Bancassurance describes ascenario whereby banks act as insurance intermediaries due to their wide customer base& branch network(Wanjala,2012).Insurance brokerage units are the key component of the underwriting business as theyhave the capacity to drive insurance uptake by offering a wide range of products. Allinsurance brokers in Kenya are under a professional indemnity cover which thereforeimplies that they can be sued in the event of breach of conduct. In addition to this allregistered insurance brokers must be a limited company & must submit three millionshillings to CBK as a guarantee to the IRA in case of misconduct (Wanjala, 2012).The insurance industry has of late began to be more creative and innovative bydeveloping new products and selling strategies. Gateway Insurance Company hasintroduced a pay as you drive product. This is a concept that has been successfullyadopted in other countries such as South Africa, Egypt, Israel & America. Under this4
agreement a motorist will pay insurance premium for the number of kilometers theydrive. Other examples of creativity within the industry include Jubilee Insurance inpartnership with Eagle East Africa introducing a student accident cover.CIC Insurancehas partnered with Micro-Finance Insurance Group, Kenya Women Finance Trust &National Hospital Insurance Fund to drive up its product uptake. The same company hasalso launched M-Bima an insurance premium payment instrument that rides on mobilemoney transfer platforms such as M-Pesa in a bid to reach the mass market. Theconcerted focus on microfinance is because it offers the greatest opportunity for theindustry to reach a wider population & contribute to poverty alleviation (Wahome, 2011).1.2 Research ProblemThe insurance industry in Kenya has often been characterized by the high rate of failure.Several insurers have gone under especially in the mid 1990s mostly due to what manytermed the PSV mess. Notable collapses include Access Insurance Company, LakestarInsurance Company, United Insurance Company, Invesco Assurance & United Insurancewere placed under statutory management, while the rest were liquidated (Njenga,2011).Insurance players have often blamed their lackluster performance to lack of professionalinput. This means that insurance intermediaries ought to be innovative and aggressive topush insurance uptake.Agency theory has been significantly expanded during the last several years. However,the central identified functions of insurance agents in the literature all have one thing incommon: they incorporate only economic aspects. Other, non economic functions,particularly social functions, have not been dealt with, even though social functions playan important role, especially in the agent-customer relationship. Allen and Gale, (1997)point out, for example, that the complex problems involved in delegating decisions to anagent, when the client does not fully understand the nature of the problem being solved,can be overcome by long term relationships. The trustworthiness and independence ofagents, and personal relationships built on trust, may become very important in an agentcustomer relationship, especially in the long run. However such social functions dependvery much on individual customer needs and expectations.5
This leads to a second limitation of current intermediation research. The research to dategenerally focuses on the general concept of intermediation, describing or developingproducts and services from a supply-oriented perspective. The customer’s view of theagent’s performance, and all the implications thereof, has been ignored. To fill this gap,the study will examine insurance intermediation by including the customer’s perspectiveregarding relevant and future functions of insurance agents. The theoretical concept ofcustomer value is an approach that can help identify and analyze such functions from acustomer point of view.Large-scale changes in the market point out the challenges the future will bring for agentsin the insurance industry. On the one hand, inefficiencies in insurance markets arepartially defused by the global emergence of modern information and communicationtechnology, which, at least theoretically, should lead to a reduced demand forintermediation. On the other hand, other contextual changes in the industry, such as thederegulation and liberalization of insurance markets, have resulted in greater productdifferentiation and correspondingly lower market transparency, which in turn increaseddemand for agents. Hence agents still play a decisive role in facilitating the exchangebetween consumers and providers of insurance services. However, debates such as thediscussion about new fee-based payment systems indicate that agents need to reconsidertheir function in order to provide added value beyond direct exchange. Focusing on therelationship between agents and the insured this study seeks to determine the effect ofinsurance agents in insurance penetration in Kenya.1.3 Objective of the studyi. To determine the effect of insurance agents in insurance market penetration inKenya.6
1.4 Value of the StudyThe study sought to find out the various challenges facing insurance companies’ marketpenetration in Kenya. The study will show how insurance intermediaries have helped toenhance insurance penetration by reaching the frontiers that wouldn’t have been reachedhad it not for their input. This will increase and build on the existing theory andknowledge and update this theory on the changes that insurance firms are going throughas it develops by the day.This study will also be important in policy formulation. The Kenyan government willfind the findings of this research particularly useful in its efforts to help the insuranceindustry grow. The government may modify the regulatory framework to further enhanceinsurance intermediaries’ participation.In practice, this study will be of importance to the insurance firms because they willknow how much they are gaining through their exclusive agents by reaching that extraperson they would not have reached had they not engaged agents.7
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.1 IntroductionThis chapter discusses the various theories relevant to insurance agency, gives anoverview of insurance agency including the rationale for the same. It addresses andreviews past studies on the subject and critically reviews relevant literature on this area.2.2 Theoretical Literature ReviewThis study will be based in the following theories that the researcher deems necessary forhis research.2.2.1 Principal-Agent TheoryThe study is based on principal agent theory developed by Logan, (2000) which is basedon the separation of ownership and control of economic activities between the agent andthe principal. He explains further stating “the focus of the agency theory is on developingthe most efficient contract governing the principal-agent relationship assuming selfinterested people & corporations.”The assumptions of the agent theory about the agent’sbehavior are negative. The principal is assumed to be risk neutral since they can diversifytheir risk through their investments. The principal therefore adopts various incentivessystems i.e. outcome based e.g. rewarding agents upon reaching set targets by offeringthem stock options or behavior based incentives. The principal can also use threat ofhostile takeover as a means of realigning agent’s interest to their own.The theory postulates that various agency problems may arise, such as asymmetricinformation between the principal and the agent, conflicting objectives, differences inrisk aversion, outcome uncertainty, behavior based on self-interest, and boundedrationality. The theory further argues that the contract between the principal and the agent8
governs the relationship between the two parties, and the aim of the theory is to design acontract that can mitigate potential agency problems. One of the early tests of this theorywas done by Fredrick Taylor who made observations’ that workers in repetitive tasksincreased their productivity when piece rate compensation system was adopted asopposed to salaries. This thus represented the most efficient contract that aligns theagent’s interests (workers) to that of the principal (shareholders).The “most efficient contract” includes the right mix of behavioral and outcome-basedincentives to motivate the agent to act in the interests of the principal (Logan, 2000). Thealignment of incentives is an important issue in insurance agency. Misalignment oftenstems from hidden actions or hidden information. However, by creating contracts withinsurance intermediaries that balance rewards and penalties, misalignment can bemitigated (Narayanan and Raman, 2004).This inability to monitor constantly what the agent is doing leaves some freedom for theagent to act on his/her own behalf. Thus, the firm’s management might be tempted to dothings that enhance their prestige, extend their personal tenure, or simply redirect moneyand resources to themselves, rather than creating value for the shareholders. This theoryis particularly relevant to this study since insurance brokers act as the insured’s agentwhereas insurance agents act on behalf of their principals(insurance companies).Thecompensation brokers receive in the form of insurance commissions helps to realign theirinterests to those of the insured. It is essential that this principal-agent relationshipbetween the insured and broker is maintained so as to drive insurance uptake.2.2.2 Financial Pricing TheoryFinancial pricing theory was developed by Myers and Cohn, (1987). Financial theoryassumes that insurers operating in competitive insurance and financial markets willcollect premiums sufficient to cover the expected losses and expenses from issuinginsurance policies as well as a profit loading sufficient to cover the cost of capital (i.e.,the economic cost of bearing risk). Expenses that are passed along in this model include9
all commissions, administrative expenses, and taxes, including corporate income taxes.Thus, under financial pricing theory, the pass-through rate for all types of commissionswould be 100%, and insurers on average would earn a fair competitive rate of returnequal to the cost of capital.The financial pricing result hinges on the hypothesis that insurance markets arecompetitive, such that insurers do not on average earn profits in excess of the cost ofcapital. Most economists who have evaluated insurance markets have concluded thatproperty-casualty insurance markets are competitively structured. Thus, the prediction ofthis theory is that 100% of the commissions would be passed through to buyers. There arefew if any early tests of this theory.The amount of the commission that actually is passed along to buyers depends uponwhether conditions in the insurance market more closely resemble those assumed in themicro-economic tax incidence literature, where commissions represent deadweight costsand there are some monopoly profits earned by insurers, or those assumed in the financialpricing literature, where commissions are expenses for services rendered and insurancemarkets are competitive. This theory is particularly relevant to the current study as ithelps in evaluating the competitive structure of the insurance industry in Kenya.2.3 Empirical Literature ReviewRejda, (1995) in his study on market imperfections in insurance market argues thatinsurance markets are characterized by various market failures, which arise to a greatextent from uncertainty and information asymmetries between the two market sides. Mostresearch in this field deals with the economic consequences of adverse selection andmoral hazard phenomena due to private information on the side of the insured parties.This study is of great importance since it illustrates the need for intermediation in theinsurance industry to reduce information asymmetry hence uptake of insurance products.Chiappori & Salanie, (2000) described a set of positive correlation tests for asymmetricinformation. In their study they compared claim rates for consumers who self selected10
into different insurance contracts. They found out that consumers who selected moreinsurance coverage have higher claim rates conditional on all information available toinsurers. This was interpreted to mean that either consumers had prior information abouttheir exposure risk(adverse selection) or purchasers of greater coverage took less c
Insurance agents sell exclusively the products of a certain insurance company whereas insurance brokers are legally independent from insurance companies. Insurance brokers are often referred to as the insured's agent (Kogi & Maragia, 2011).
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