Glencoe Science - SGA Biology

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Glencoe ScienceCopyright by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproducethe material contained herein on the condition that such materials be reproduced only for classroom use;be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with theGlencoe Biology program. Any other reproduction, for sale or other use, is expressly prohibited.Send all inquiries to:Glencoe/McGraw-Hill8787 Orion PlaceColumbus, OH 43240-4027ISBN-13: 978-0-07-874599-7ISBN-10: 0-07-874599-3Printed in the United States of America1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 024 11 10 09 08 07 06

Table of ContentsTo the Student . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiDinah Zike’s Foldables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiiChapter 1 The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 The Nature of Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.3 Methods of Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology2.1 Organisms and Their Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.2 Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162.3 Cycling of Matter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems3.1 Community Ecology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.2 Terrestrial Biomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.3 Aquatic Ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Chapter 4 Population Ecology4.1 Population Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354.2 Human Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Chapter 5 Biodiversity and Conservation5.1 Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435.2 Threats to Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465.3 Conserving Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology6.1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.2 Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.3 Water and Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.4 The Building Blocks of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55596265Chapter 7 Cellular Structure and Function7.1 Cell Discovery and Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.2 The Plasma Membrane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.3 Structures and Organelles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.4 Cellular Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69727580Chapter 8 Cellular Energy8.1 How Organisms Obtain Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 838.2 Photosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 868.3 Cellular Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 939.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 969.3 Cell Cycle Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100iii

Chapter 10 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics10.1 Meiosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10310.2 Mendelian Genetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10910.3 Gene Linkage and Polyploidy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113Chapter 11 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11511.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11911.3 Chromosomes and Human Heredity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124Chapter 12 Molecular Genetics12.1 DNA: The Genetic Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.2 Replication of DNA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.3 DNA, RNA, and Protein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.4 Gene Regulation and Mutations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127132134139Chapter 13 Genetics and Biotechnology13.1 Applied Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14313.2 DNA Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14613.3 The Human Genome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152Chapter 14 The History of Life14.1 Fossil Evidence of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15714.2 The Origin of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164Chapter 16 Primate Evolution16.1 Primates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18316.2 Hominoids to Hominins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18916.3 Human Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193Chapter 17 Organizing Life’s Diversity17.1 The History of Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19717.2 Modern Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20217.3 Domains and Kingdoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208Chapter 18 Bacteria and Viruses18.1 Bacteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21318.2 Viruses and Prions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219Chapter 19 Protists19.1 Introduction to Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19.2 Protozoans—Animal-like Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19.3 Algae—Plantlike Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19.4 Funguslike Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223225229234Chapter 20 Fungi20.1 Introduction to Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23720.2 Diversity of Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24020.3 Ecology of Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244ivCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Chapter 15 Evolution15.1 Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16915.2 Evidence of Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17215.3 Shaping Evolutionary Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Chapter 21 Introduction to Plants21.1 Plant Evolution and Adaptations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21.2 Nonvascular Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21.3 Seedless Vascular Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21.4 Vascular Seed Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247251253255Chapter 22 Plant Structure and Function22.1 Plant Cells and Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25922.2 Roots, Stems, and Leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26322.3 Plant Hormones and Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267Chapter 23 Reproduction in Plants23.1 Introduction to Plant Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26923.2 Flowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27423.3 Flowering Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278Chapter 24 Introduction to Animals24.1 Animal Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28324.2 Animal Body Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28624.3 Sponges and Cnidarians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Chapter 25 Worms and Mollusks25.1 Flatworms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29525.2 Roundworms and Rotifers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29825.3 Mollusks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30125.4 Segmented Worms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305Chapter 26 Arthropods26.1 Arthropod Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30926.2 Arthropod Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31326.3 Insects and Their Relatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316Chapter 27 Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates27.1 Echinoderm Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32127.2 Invertebrate Chordates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326Chapter 28 Fishes and Amphibians28.1 Fishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32928.2 Diversity of Today’s Fishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33628.3 Amphibians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340Chapter 29 Reptiles and Birds29.1 Reptiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34529.2 Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350Chapter 30 Mammals30.1 Mammalian Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35530.2 Diversity of Mammals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362Chapter 31 Animal Behavior31.1 Basic Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36731.2 Ecological Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371v

Chapter 32 Integumentary, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems32.1 The Integumentary System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37532.2 The Skeletal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37832.3 The Muscular System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382Chapter 33 Nervous System33.1 Structure of the Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33.2 Organization of the Nervous System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33.3 The Senses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33.4 Effects of Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385389392395Chapter 34 Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems34.1 Circulatory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39934.2 Respiratory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40534.3 Excretory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408Chapter 35 Digestive and Endocrine Systems35.1 The Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41135.2 Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41435.3 The Endocrine System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417Chapter 36 Human Reproduction and Development36.1 Reproductive Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42136.2 Human Development Before Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42636.3 Birth, Growth, and Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431viCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Chapter 37 Immune System37.1 Infectious Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43337.2 The Immune System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43837.3 Noninfectious Disorders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

To the StudentReading Essentials for Biology takes the stress out of reading, learning, andunderstanding biology. This book covers important concepts in biology, offersideas for how to learn the information, and helps you review what you havelearned. Understanding biology concepts will help you improve your criticalthinking skills, solve problems effectively, and make useful decisions.Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.The chapters of Reading Essentials for Biology include the following elements. Before You Read sparks your interest in what you will learn and relatesit to your world. The Main Idea and What You’ll Learn statements helpfocus on the most important concepts in the section. Read to Learn describes important biology concepts with words andgraphics. Next to the text you can find a variety of study tips and ideasfor organizing and learning information: Study Coach and Mark the Text offer tips for getting the main ideasout of the text. Foldables Study Organizers help you divide the information intosmaller, easier-to-remember concepts. Reading Checks ask questions about key concepts. The questions areplaced so you know whether you understand the material. Think It Over elements help you consider the material in-depth,giving you an opportunity to use your critical-thinking skills. Picture This questions relate to the illustrations used with the text.The questions will help get you actively involved in illustrating theimportant concepts. Applying Math reinforces the connection between math and science.vii

Dinah Zike’s FoldablesTMA Foldable is a 3-D, interactive graphic organizer. By using Foldables,you can quickly organize and retain information. Every chapter in ReadingEssentials for Biology includes a Foldable that can be used to organizeimportant ideas in the chapter. Later, the Foldable can be used as a study guidefor main ideas and key points in the chapter. Foldables can also be used for amore in-depth investigation of the key terms, concepts, or ideas presented inthe chapter.The Foldables for this book can be created using notebook paper or plainsheets of paper. Some will require scissors to cut the tabs. The Foldablescreated for this book can be stored in a plastic bag, a box, or sheet protectorsin a three-ring binder. By keeping your Foldables organized, you will have aready study tool. You will also be creating a portfolio of your work.Your teacher might ask you to make the Foldables found on the Start-UpActivities pages in the Student Edition, in addition to the Foldables you willmake for Reading Essentials for Biology. As you become familiar with Foldables,you might see other opportunities to use Foldables to create additional studytools. Keep together all the Foldables you make for a chapter. Use them as youreview the chapter and study for assessments.Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.viii

chapter1The Study of Life1section Introduction to BiologyBefore You ReadWhat does it mean to be alive? On the lines below, listcharacteristics that you think living things have. Then readthe section to learn what you have in common with otherliving things.-!). )DEAAll living things share thecharacteristics of life.What You’ll Learn the definition of biologypossible benefits from studyingbiology characteristics of living things Read to LearnBiology is the science of life. In biology, you will learn theorigins and history of life and once-living things. You will alsolearn structures, functions, and interactions of living things.Make Flash Cards Make aflash card for each key term inthis section. Write the term onone side of the card. Write thedefinition on the other side. Usethe flash cards to review whatyou have learned.What do biologists do?Biologists make discoveries and look for explanations byperforming laboratory and field studies. Some biologistsstudy animals in their natural environment. For example, JaneGoodall’s observations helped scientists know how best toprotect chimpanzees.Other biologists research diseases to develop new medicines.Many biologists work to develop new technology. Technologyis the application of scientific knowledge to solve human needsand to extend human capabilities. For example, Dr. CharlesDrew developed methods to separate blood plasma fortransfusions. His research led to blood banks.Some biologists study genetic engineering of plants. Theytry to develop plants

The Science of Life Biology is the science of life. In biology, you will learn the origins and history of life and once-living things. You will also learn structures, functions, and interactions of living things. What do biologists do? Biologists make discoveries and look for explanations by