Public International Law

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PUBLICINTERNATIONALLAWM. S. RAMA RAO B.Sc., M.A., M.L.Class-room live lectures edited, enlargedand updatedMsrlawbooks

PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW[PEACE ]Page1Texual & Reference BooksmsrlawbooksOppenheimInternational Law Vo.I PeaceStarkeIntroduction to International LawFen-wickInternational LawGreenInternational Law through CasesFreidmanThe Changing Structure of international LawBrierlyLaw of NationsSchwarzenbergerManual of International LawNussbaumA Concise history of the Law of NationsLauterpachtAnnual Digest & Report of PublicInternational Law CasesHarris.Cases and Materials on International LawPUB INT LAW .

INTRODUCTIONInternational Law' is one c f the finest subjects for studying, ‘as it opensup new horizons to navigate beyond the egg-shell enclosure of one’s mentalfaculties. It is our duty to know the law of our Country {Ignoranlia juris non.excusat!) but it is a privilege to know the Law of Nations. States are legalpersons and are subjects of International Law. It is impossible to imagine theStates today, carrying on their multifarious activities across the borders, on anunprecedented scale, in a legal vacuum! That ipso facto must justify theexistence of a large number of principles and rules governing the conduct ofthe States. In recent years the proliferation of International Institutions, hasgiven a new dimension to the Law of Nations. Moreover, there is so much ofInternational activity that hundreds of conferences and meeting are held roundthe year, speaking volumes to the fact, that International Law is in operation.In recent years a countless number of Conventions and treaties have beenconcluded so much so the corpus of the Law of Nations has grown in itsmagnitude Much credit goes to the "International Law Commission" whichhas toiled in chiseling & trimming to draft form the norms of InternationalLaw scattered in various forms often obscure and indefinite.The basic principles of the subject should be carefully studied with a broadoutlook, to understand the significance; Cases and Materials should beadroitly selected. Specialization should be attempted later.World Peace is the cherished objective of all Nations. International Law isa means to reach that.The sounding prophetic words' of Isaiah “States shall beat their swordsinto ploughshares and their spears into pruning hooks; Nation shall notlift sword against nation neither shall they learn war anymore,' became theroots of pacifism and has grown over the centuries into the concept of WorldPeace.2State is a composite body consisting of men. Let us then learn specialiseand endeavour to bring about World Peace and Security, Opportunity mayopen up to enable you to serve in a bigger capacity but until then there is noreason to get disappointed! They also serve who only stand and wait!Page MSRmsrlawbooksPUB INT LAW

PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW1. International law as law (legal basis.)2. Sources.3. Relationship between International Law & Municipal Law.4. Codification,4. History & development of the Law of Nations-Schools of Law- Positivists,Naturalists & Grotians. Contributions of Grotius, Gentili & others.6. Recognition-Theories-Practice-De facto-De jure-Monroe doctrine-'Stimson's doctrine of non -recognition.6. States-Personality-Vassal States, Neutralised State-Succession-Equalityof States.7. Self-Preservation- \Intervention: dictatorial and pure & simple.8. State Responsibility for International delinquency.10. Territory: (i) Modes of acquiring Territory (ii) Servitudes iii) Rivers (iv)Canals (v) Aerial Navigation.1 i. Open Sea-Freedom of the open sea-Jurisdiction-Fisheries, Maritime Belt,Contiguous zone. Economic zone, Continental Shelf- Piracy jure gentium,12. Individuals-Nationality- Double Nationality-Statelessness-Asylum-AliensExtradition & Non-Extradition of political criminals-Human Rights-12. Legation-Head of State-Right of legation, Appointment, powers privilegesand immunities of Ambassadors-Consuls-their appointment & functions-Page312. Termination of TreatiesRebus sic stantibus-Interpretation of treaties.msrlawbooksPUB INT LAW

QUESTIONS BANK"International Law is no Law at all' Discuss, Or "International Law is at thevanishing point of Jurisprudence" Discuss.2. Discuss the various sources of law with particular reference to their primacyunder the Statute of the I.C.J .Ref to leading cases.3. "International Law' is part of the law of the land' - Discuss. Refer to theleading cases & to the British & U.S .practice.4. State the importance of codification and the steps taken to codify InternationalLaw. Assess the contributions of the International Law Commission.5. "States only are the subjects of International Law' Discuss.6. (1) What is Recognition? What are the theories?What are the consequences of Recognition?(2) Distinguish between De facto & De Jure Recognition.7. (1) Distinguish Dictatorial intervention from Intervention Pure andsimple.When is a State empowered to Intervene in the affairs of another State.**'(2) Define Self Preservation. Is it allowed under the U.N. Charter? Explainwith illustrations how on grounds of necessity a State may resort to selfdefence measures.8. 'The Grotians stand midway between the Positivists and theNaturalists'.Explain with reference to the Schools of International Law.9. (!) Write an essay on the Freedom of the Open Sea.(2) Discuss the concept of 'Continental Shelf with reference to recentdevelopments.10. How are Ambassadors classified? What are their functions? Explain theprivileges & Immunities of the Ambassadors.Page411. What is the rationale for ratification of treaties? What is the effect ofreservation to treaties? Refer to the LCI's Advisory opinion on Reservationto Genocide Convention 1951.msrlawbooksPUB INT LAW

12. How are treaties terminated? Discuss Rebus Sic Stantibus.13. What is International Delinquency? Discuss how far a State is liable forInternational Delinquencies’14. State and explain the consequences that flow as a result of State Succession.15. Discuss the concept of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms & tracethe steps taken so far.16. Discuss 'Occupation' and 'Prescription' as two modes of acquiring territoryby a State.17. Discuss piracy as an International Crime.18. 'The Legal equality of States, has four important consequences' Discuss19. Discuss the concept of Non-extradition of Political Criminals Refer todecided cases.20. Write Short Notes on:1. Maritime Belt 2. Economic Zone. 3. Hijacking. 4. Diplomatic Asylum.5. Cobotage. 6.1nternational Canals. 7. Consuls. 8. Monroe doctrine. 9.Stimson's doctrine of non-recognition. 10. Double Nationality andStatelessness. 11. Neutralised State. 12. Outer Space. 13. InternationalServitude 14. Calvo Clause 15. Drago Doctrine.21. State the facts & the decision in:Page51. Corfu Channel Case. 2. Nottembohm's Case. 3. Asylum Case and Hayade la tarre Case. 4. Eichmann Case. 5-Savarkar's Case. 6.The Lotus Case.7.Mighell V.Sultan.of Jahore. 8. Palmas Island Case. 9.Piracy jure Gentium.10. Franconia Case. 11.West Rand Gold Mining Co .V.R. 12. AngloNorwegian Fisheries Case. 13. Barcelona Traction Case. 14. The I amAlone. 15.Chung Chi Cheung V the King. 16. Lawless Case. 17. NorthAtlantic Coast Fisheries Case. 18. North Sea Continental Shelf Cases.msrlawbooksPUB INT LAW

CONTENTS(International Law)Chapters79Chapters10. TreatiesStepsReservation.Termination11. Equality.1820xt12326.,Pages414512 Schools 4613. Nationality 4815 Nationality 50DoubleStatelessness15. Human Rights 5216. Territory 5417. AdditionalTopics571. Hijacking2. Hugo Grotius3. Monroe'Doctr4. Neutralised'St36Page61. Legal Basis ofInternationallaw2. Sources3. International Law V.Mun.Law134. Codification 165. States as Subjects6. Recongnition1. Recognition2. De facto, De Jure7. Intervention1. Intervention2. Self-Preservation8. Open Sea1. Freedom2. Territorial Waters3. Contiguous Zone4. EEZ.5. Continental ShelfPiracy9. Ambassadors1. Institution2. Privileges, ImmunitiesPagesmsrlawbooksPUB INT LAW

CHAPTER 1Legal Basis of International Lawi) Definition : International Law is defined as a body ofprinciples & rules commonly observed by States in their mutualrelationship with each other. It ; includes the law relating to States& International organisations and also International Organisationsinter se. It also includes the rules of law relating to internationalinstitutions and individuals, and non-State entities and individuals.ii) Though there are theories on the legal basis. ofInternational Law, the Austinian theory has received wideattention. Austin opined that International Law was not law at ailand called it a 'Positive International Morality' and hence it hadonly moral force. He called ita set of opinions or sentiments current among nations generally and"laws improperly so called". Hobbes, Pufendrof, Bentham andHolland were of the same view. Holland said that it was at thevanishing point of jurisprudence.Austin defined law as a 'body of rules, set and enforced bya sovereign political authority. Hence when the rules do pot comefrom the sovereign, they would not be legal, but moral. Basing onthis positive law concept Austin declared International Law as acode of morality. .Page7iii) Reply to Austin by Oppenheim : This definition isinadequate and incorrect because there is no reference to unwrittenlaw (custom) as courts understand and apply them. Customary rulesor rules of morality are founded on conscience. Hence, law must bedefined to include the unwritten law. Neither the law makingsovereign authority nor the court is essential for a law to exist. Inthe primitive community that was the position. In the modern State,the common consent of the people is expressed through thelegislature (Parliament). But, there are unwritten laws as well.*.iv) Wider Definition : Law may therefore, -be defined 'as abody ofrules in a community framed by common consent, and enforced byan external power'. This definition answers the State-made law andthe customary law. Hence, in a State, the Parliament (representativesof the Community) is the law making body and that law isenforced by themsrlawbooksPUB INT LAW .

Community called the State. A custom is made by thecommunity and is enforced by the community itself (Courtsrecognise them as a source 6f law). Hence, this definition is wider.Applying this definition if we are to justify that International Lawis 'Law', we must prove the existence of : (a) An Internationalcommunity, (b) A body of International Rules and (c) A system ofenforcement (sanction),a)International Community: The States togetherform anInternational Community. There are common interests in thefield ofscience and technology. There is a 'world net-work ofcommunicationsthrough telegraphic, telephonic connections and radios. ThereareInter-State connections by railways, airways and ship navigation.Further,there is cultural co-operation and common interests on educationetc.,Establishment of Organisations like the United Nations and theSpecialisedAgencies, Regional Agencies etc., speak volumes to the fact thatthereis a World Community.b) Body of International Rules : Treaties & Internationalcustomsare the main sources of International law. Austin's views howeverrightfor his time, are not true of present dayInternational Law;Internationalcustoms are being formulated into treaties & conventions. There isgreatvolume of international legislation :«f Page8Eg. : Declaration of Paris 1856, Hague .Conventions of 1899& 1907, Peace Treaty 1919, Treaty for Renunciation of War1929, the U.N. Charter 1945, various conventions of the Law of theSea Conference 1958, Vienna Conventions on Diplomatic Relationsetc.,There are also a large number of International CustomaryRules, evolved from diplomatic relations and correspondence fromthe practice of international Organizations & State Practices, etc :These are formulated into treaties & conventions. The InternationalLaw Commission is playing its major role in this process. Thus,there is no legal vacuum, but a body of international law inoperation.msrlawbooksPUB INT LAW .

Enforcement : States resort to : 1; Self-help.2. Intervention-pure & simple.3. Pacific Settlement under the U.N.CollectiveSecurity Measures of the Security Council.4.Charter-;AlsotoPunish ment of Offenders: e.g. : War Criminals. There arealsorules of'International. Community' based on goodwill,courtesy & reciprocity & Austin is correct when his 'code ofinternational morality'. *"'refers to them. But,legislation noted above. those are different from International5. Political questions may be resolved through the GeneralAssemblyor the Security Council. Judicial questions may be decided by theInternational Court of Justice. There is a frequent resort toArbitrationas well.,Hence, for enforcement there is the sanction (or force) of theInternational Community.Conclusion: As all the three elements are present,International! law is evidently law. Of course, the frequent violationsof International Law, show the weakness of the sanction ofInternational Law. But, as Oppenheim, rightly concludes,'Compared to Municipal Law, it is a weak law, but a weak law isstill a law.'CHAPTER 2SOURCESSourcesofInternational Law.Page9i) Meaning : 'Source', according to Oppenheim, means theultimate origin from which the law originates. When we see a riverand desire to know its source, we must go up the river until wereach a particular point where the water is oozing out naturallyfrom the soil. That is the source of the river. Similarly, in order tofind out the source of the principles of International Law we musttrack back to a particular point. That is the source.ii) The Statute of the I.C.J. in Art. 38, has enumerated thefollowing sources of International Law on the basic of primacymsrlawbooksPUB INT LAW .

before the court:a) International Conventions or treaties.b) International Customary Law.'.c) General Principles of law recognised by' Civilised Nations.d) Judicial Precedents.e) Juristic Writings.f) Ex aequo et bono. (Equity & good conscience)These are to be applied in the same order by the I.C.J.a) International Treaties :There is primacy for this source at the International Court ofJustice. Treaties are of two kinds :(i) Law-making and (ii) Treaty-contract.Eg.: Pact of Paris 1956; Hague conventions of 1899 & 1907,Peace Treaty 1919, Treaty for the Renunciation of War, 1929,Geneva Convention relating to Prisoners of War 1929.Conventions of the Law of the Sea Conference 1958 are examples.(ii) Treaty-contracts -are non-law making in nature. .:-.:'. .International Custom:This is the original source of International law. It manifests in (i)Diplomatic Correspondence of States, (ii) Practice of InternationalOrganisations (iii) State Court's decisions, (iv) State Practice &Administrative actions etc.Origin : Custom has its-origin in a usage.,If the usage iscontinuous, uniform and followed for a number of years it becomesa custom. Usage is the twilight zone of custom. But. twoconditions must be satisfied :(i) Corpus test : A material fact of the actual observance of aline of conduct by the States. This mus. be shown as a fact.Page10(ii) Animus test : There must be an intention to follow thecustom. It reaches a stage of approval 'opinio juris sivenecessitatis' (Jurists' opinion as of necessity). Then, the principle(usage) becomes an International Custom. This is the process of theconsummation of an usage into an International custom.In the Lotus Case, the Court (P.C.I.J.) held that the opiniojuris must be drawn from all the circumstances, & not merely fromthe facts on hand. In the Right of Passage case (Portugal Vs.India), the I.C.J. held that a particular practice between two Statesonly may give rise to binding customary law. It held that Portugalhad a right of passage for civilians but not for military officials.msrlawbooksPUB INT LAW .

In the Paquete Hebana Case the Court (U.S. Supreme Court)held that looking to all the facts & circumstances, there wasuniform practice of giving 'immunity to small fishing vessels frombelligerent action in times of war. This was recognised as anInternational Customary Law.In the Asylum casethere was a rebellion in Lima (Capital of Peru), and the rebelleader Haya de la tarre, sought asylum in the Columbian embassy,which it granted considering him as a political refugee. ThePeruvian Govt. contested this before the I.C.J. The ColombianGovt. relied on International custom., but in vain. As the custom ofgranting diplomatic asylum was not established, the court held thatthe grant of asylum was without legal authority. The Peruvian Govt.claimed for handing over of the rebel, from Colombian Embassy.The I.C.J. held in Haya de la Tarre's case, that this decision wasthat Colombian Govt. had no right to give asylum. It did not meanthat he should be handed over to Peru ! (He was safely taken toColombia).c) General principles of law recognised by CivilizedNationsThis is the third source of International Law according to theStatute of the I.C.J. (Art. 38). If there is no International Treaty orInternational Custom, the court applies this source. One of theessential duties of the Court is to decide the case and not to pleadits inability or helplessness on the ground that the law is silent orobscure. Hence, it may evolve a process to arrive at a generalprinciple by taking into consideration the Municipal laws of themajor countries of the World. A principle which is common inthese countries may be raised to International level. As LordPhillimore points out these are principles which are common in allCountries or jurisprudences like the principles of Res Judicata,Subrogation etc. Hence, if the Court finds that a rule has beenaccepted generally as a fundamental rule of justice by mostNations in their Municipal Law, it may be declared as a rule ofInternational Law.Page11(i) In Administrative Tribunal Case (I.C.J.) the court held that'res judicata' was a well-established & generally accepted rule. Itapplied 'res judicata'. (According to this, a judgment given by acompetent court, bars any suit by the parties on the same issue).(ii) In the Eastern Greenland Case the court applied the doctrineof Estoppel and held that the Norway Govt. had acceptedreferences to Danish Sovereignty over Eastern Greenland, 85 thushad estopped itself from questioning the Sovereignty of DanishmsrlawbooksPUB INT LAW .

Govt.(iii) In the Temple of Preah Vihear Case the I.C.J. held thatThailand was precluded by her conduct from questioningCambodia's sovereignty over the Temple.(iv) In the Mavrommatis Palestine Concessions Case theP.C.I.J. applied the doctrine of Subrogation.Comments : It is stated that the recognition of 'GeneralPrinciples' as a source of law would sound the deathknell ofpositivism. This statement is overdrawn, Positivits believe in thecommon consent of the States as the basis of International Law.Naturalists believe in the superiority of natural law only. Hence,these two are opposite schools. The; above comment is a reference tothis and believes that the recognition of 'General Principles' based onNatural law ended the positivists theory. But, this is not so. TheI.C.J. applies Treaties & Customs and only in their absence, resortsto the 'General Principles of Law recognised by Civilised Nations/Hence, priority is given to positive law.d) judicial Precedents:The decisions of the I.C.J., the P.C.I.J., the InternationalArbitration Tribunals and the National Supreme Courts form thefourth source of International Law. This is followed by the Courtsnot only as a source, but also as the best evidence available to showthe existence of rules of International Law referred to in thosedecisions, e.g. ( i ) I.C.J. decisions. The Fisheries Case (drawing ofstraight base- line to determine the territorial waters), theReparations case declaring the U.N. as successor to the League ofNations & that U,N. is an International Person have laid downnew principles of International law.ii) P.C.I.J. : Palmas Island Caseiii) International court of Arbitration : Savarkar's case, PiousFund case, North Atlantic Coast Fisheries case etc.iv) State Courts : Franconia case, Scotia case, Paqueta Habanacase etc.This is the source, next to the precedents. The I.C.J. mayrefer to the teachings of the most highly qualified; publicists of thevarious nations. In the 16th & 17th Centuries, writers onInternational law held a pre-eminent position as this system oflaw was in its slow ebb ofPage12e) Juristic Writings :msrlawbooksPUB INT LAW .

development. Even today in areas where the law is uncertain theclassics of the jurists are referred to by the State's before the I.C.J. andArbitration Tribunals in support of their arguments. The judges payregard to the juristic writings as they are persuasive in nature.The classical works of Gentili, Hugo Grotius, Zouche, Pufendorf,Bynkershoek, Moser, Van Martens, Vattel, etc., are relied upon.References are made to Oppenheim's treatises, and Lauterpacht'swritings, and to the texts of the International Law Commission.f) Ex aequo et bonoThis is the final source. This means equity & goodconscience. This saves the situation of helplessness of the Court.One of the fundamentals of the judiciary is to solve the .disputeon hand and not plead its helplessness or non- availability of anydefinite law. In such a case, as a last resort, the court relies on itsown concept of equity and good conscience & decides the case onhand, if the parties agree e.g., The P.C.I.J in the Diversion ofwater from the River Meuse case said 'He who seeks equity mustdo equity'. Hence, one party by non-performance, cannot takeadvantage of a similar non-performance by the other party.In the Rann of Kutch Arbitration (India V. Pakistan), bothparties relied on equity as part of International law, in deciding theboundary dispute between the two parties the Tribunal found thetwo deep inlets of Nagar Parkar as part of Pakistan, on groundsof equity.In the Continental Shelf Cases and in the Barcelona TractionCase, the I.C.J has applied equitable principles to solve thedisputes.CHAPTER3International Law Vs. Municipal Lawi) Introduction :Page13Two aspects are to be noted in the relationship betweenMunicipal Law & International Law. One is the theoreticalquestion whether both laws are part of a Universal legal order, or,are two different systems. The other is the conflict between them inthe Municipal courts as to the primacy of Municipal Law overInternational Law, or vice versa.msrlawbooksPUB INT LAW .

ii) Two Schools:.The two schools are the Dualistic &the Monistic schools:Monistic School : According to Anzilotti and Triepel,International Law & Municipal Law are two separate & distinctsystems of law-one is the antipode of the other. The reasons are :Sources : Municipal law has Acts of Parliament arid localcustom as sources of law, whereas International law has treaties andInternational customs as primary sources. Thus they aredifferent. Secondly : Individuals are subjects in Municipal law,whereas the States are subjects in International law. Thirdly :Under Municipal law the State has its sway over the individuals,whereas International law is between or among Sovereign States.Dualistic School : Dualists school has been opposed by theMonistic school (also called Vienna School) which holds thefollowing views : (founder Kelsen).Firstly : Ultimately it is the conduct of the individual thatis regulated in both the systems of Municipal 86 International law.Secondly : Law is a command on the subjects (Individuals orStates) independently of their will.Thirdly : Both the systems are the manifestations of a single,conception of law. Two .branches of the same tree.From the above schools it is evident that International lawand Municipal law are separate according to the Dualists but oneand the same according to the Monists.iii) Practice of States : In U.K.: Primary Rule :International Customs : According to Blackstone, CustomaryInternational Law is part of the law of the land. The BritishCourts follow this rule but subject to two conditions ;1. That such a rule should not be against any BritishStatute.2. That once the Court decides, it is followed thereafter.Page14The Blackstone's Theory was confirmed by judicialdeterminations (Dolder V. Hunting field, Nevello V. Toogood etc.).msrlawbooksPUB INT LAW .

Leading cases : 1. R.V. Keyn (Franconia Case) 1876Franconia, a German ship, collided with a British vessel withinthe British Maritime Belt. The British Vessel sank and oneperson -died. The British Court convicted the master of theGerman ship for manslaughter. Question arose about thejurisdiction of the Court as the incident had happened within theBritish territorial waters. The House of Lords, held that the EnglishCourt wa, bound by Municipal Law and Municipal Law had notprovided for the Jurisdiction hence no jurisdiction.This was neutralized by the Parliament which passed theTerritorial Jurisdiction Act 1878 by extending the jurisdiction.2. West Rand Gold Mining Co .V. King 1905.This was a Company working a gold mine in South Africa.The Govt. officials seized gold belonging to the Company &according to laws they were to pay compensation or return the same.South Africa was defeated by the British, and, the gold wasbrought to England. Thereupon, the Company sued the EnglishGovt. for return of the gold or for compensation.The Crown made a Declaration which stated that the BritishGovt. as a successor would not respect the commitments of theSouth African Govt.The Court held that the Company was not entitled to thegold or for compensation, as the Crown Declaration was MunicipalLaw. binding on Municipal CourtsHence, municipal Law prevailed.3) Chung Chi Cheung V. King (Privy Council).C was a cabin boy on board a Chinese vessel. 'When theVessel was in Hongkong Territorial Waters, he shot & killed theCaptain. & another person. C was duly committed. But. thequestion was whether the Court of Hongkong (a British ' Colonythen) had jurisdiction to try the case. The Privy Council held thatthe Court had jurisdiction. The conviction was affirmed.Page15Rules of Interpretation . The rules emerge from British practice . *A rule of construction that the Parliament did not intend-to deviatefrom international law. This is a presumption.msrlawbooksPUB INT LAW .

ii) A rule of evidence according tonotice of International law.whichcourts takeb) Treaties : Negotiation, signatureratification are matters,belonging to the prerogatives of the Crown. But legislation isnecessary, if treaties4are :*1. Affecting the rights of subjects (citizens).2. Modifying a statute.*3. Vesting additional powers on the Crown.4. Imposing financial burden.Legislation is also necessary, if there is a provision forcession of the territory.Hence in case of treaties, incorporation is necessary,otherwise, Muncipal law will prevail.Practice of States : In U.S.A.i) International Custom : The procedure is the same as inU.K.ii) International Treaties : The practice Is different- a s the U.S.Constitution in Art. 6(2) provides that treaties are The Supreme –Law of the land'. There is a clear distinction between self executingand non-self executing treaties. Self executing treaties operatewithout legislation. In case of non- self- executing treaties. they willhe operative only after legislation,INDIA : Art. 51, of Directive Principles of State policy, providestor respect for International Law'. This provision is a reference tothe State Policy only. Broadly speaking the practice of U.K. isfollowed in India, (Beruberi Union Case).CHAPTER 4 CODIFICATIONTo provide definite laws to the International Courts. NationalCourts. and Tribunals and to stimulate the willingness of States tosubmit International disputes, codification gained momentum.The idea ofPage16CodificationmsrlawbooksPUB INT LAW .

codification first came from Bentharn. The declaration of rights of Nations--of1792 of France was the first attempt. Abhe Gregorie drafted 21 articles forthis purpose. However, the convention was not a success.The first successful attempt was made at the First Hague Conferenceconvened by Emperor Nicholas II of Russa in 1899, This showed thepossibility of codification. The conference .codified inter alia :,i) Pacific settlement of disputes : and ii) Law and custom of war on land.The second Hague Conference of 1907 passed 13 conventions. Theyrelate to Maritime Navigation, rules of war. Neutrality and opening ofHostilities, etc., A parallel development in the ‘field was the peace Treaty of 1919. Itprovided for the League of Nations and the ILO and PCIJ. The League providedfor an International Law Commission consisting of 15 .Jurists. Subjects whichwere ripe for codification were selected by them. Codification relating tonationality, territorial waters, privileges and immunities of Ambassadors etc., weresuccessfully made.The convention declared the renunciation of war as an instrument ofNational Policy (1929). The codification of International Law conference met in 1930 provided forconflict of Nationality laws; and Statelessness. etc.Under the United Nations, the International Law Commission is charged withthe duty of codification and progressive development of International law. Thereare now 34, members. Since 1948, the International Law Commission hasconducted its deliberations and submitted its drafts.Codification has been made on many main topics .e.g., Privileges andImmunities of Ambassadors. & of consuls andtreaty law,etc. ,TheCommission has endeavored to give clear expression where there is a commonmeasure of agreement or uniform practice.Codification has been viewed as systemization & codification of principlesagreed upon and (ii) agreement on hitherto divergent issues and practices.Codification exposed the States to dangers of unanimity Rule. It alsoshowed that certain States did not like to commit in

3. "International Law' is part of the law of the land' - Discuss. Refer to the leading cases & to the British & U.S .practice. 4. State the importance of codification and the steps taken to codify International Law. Assess the contributions of the International Law Commission. 5. "States only are the subjects of International Law' Discuss. 6.

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