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Khandesh College Education Society’sMoolji Jaitha College, JalgaonAn “Autonomous College” Affiliated toKBC North Maharashtra University, JalgaonSYLLABUSBotanyM. Sc. I(Semester I & II)Under Choice Based Credit System (CBCS)[w. e. f. Academic Year: 2019-20]1

Department of Botany M. J. College, JalgaonCOURSE CODE1. DSC-BOT-1012. DSC-BOT-1023. BOT 1034. BOT 1045. DSE-BOT-1056. SEC-BOT-1061. DSC -BOT-2012. DSC -BOT-2023. BOT-2034. BOT-2045. DSE-BOT-2056. GE-BOT-2061. DSC-BOT-3012. DSC-BOT-3023. BOT-3034. BOT-3045. DSE-BOT-3056. SEC-BOT-3061. DSC-BOT-4012. DSC-BOT-4023. BOT-4034. BOT-4045. DSE-BOT-4056. GE-BOT-406COURSE TITLESEM-IDiversity LowerCryptogamsTaxonomy of AngiospermsPractical’s based on DSCBOT-101Practical’s based on DSCBOT-102Cell and MolecularBiologyPlant BiotechnologySEM- IIDiversity HigherCryptogamsPlant Physiology &BiochemistryPractical’s based on DSC BOT-201Practical’s based on DSC BOT-202Environmental Botany andPhyto-GeographyTechniques in BiologySEM-IIIGymnosperms andPaleobotanyGenetics and PlantBreeding Special paper IPractical Based on DSCBOT-301Practical Based on DSCBOT-302Reproductive BiologyResearch MethodologySEM-IVGenetics and PlantBreeding Special paper IIGenetics and PlantBreeding Special paper IIIPractical Based on DSCBOT-401 and DSC-BOT402DissertationSeed TechnologyBiostatistics andBioinformaticsTOTAL 600460048hrs0404048hrs60602

SEMESTER – IDSC-BOT-101DIVERSITY LOWER CRYPTOGAMSALGAE (30 ims and Objectives:i)ii)iii)iv)To study the diversity of lower Cryptogams and Bryophytes.To study the salient features of lower cryptogams and BryophytesTo study the life cycle patterns in lower cryptogams and Bryophytes.To study different classification systems of lower cryptogams and nit-1: Introduction and Classification of algae(04L)i) Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic algaeii) Classification of algae according to F. E. Fritsch (1945), G.W. Prescott and Parker (1982)up to classes and subclasses.Unit -2: Cyanophyceae:(04L)i)General Charactersii)Ecology of Blue green algae, thallus Organization,iii)Ultra structure of Heterocyst, Nitrogen fixation and metabolismiv)ReproductionUnit -3: Chlorophyceaei)General characteristicsii)Range of thallus structureiii)Method of reproduction and life cycle patterniv)Phylogeny& interrelationship(05L)Unit -4: Phaeophyceaei)General charactersii)Range of thallus structureiii)Method of reproduction and life cycle patterniv)Phylogeny & interrelationship(05L)Unit -5: Rhodophyceaei)General charactersii)Range of thallus structureiii)Method of reproduction and life cycle patterniv)Phylogeny& interrelationship(05L)Unit -6: General characters of divisions with examples:i)Xanthophyta : General charactersii)Bacillariophyta: Cell structure, classification and reproduction.iv)Euglenophyta: General characters(04L)3

FUNGI AND LICHENS (30 Lectures)Unit-7: Introduction and Classification of fungi(03L)i) Present status of fungiii) Classification of fungi up to classes as per- Ainsworth et al., (1973).Unit-8: Myxomycotina:i)Distinguishing charactersii)Structure of thallus and reproductive bodiesiii)Life cycle pattern.(03L)Unit-9: -Mastigomycotina:i)Distinguishing charactersii)Thallus structure and reproduction (Asexual and sexual)iii)Life cycle patternUnit-10:-Zygomycotina:i)Distinguishing charactersii)Thallus structure, Heterothallismiii)Sexual reproduction, Evolution of Asexual reproductioniv)Life cycle stinguishing charactersThallus structure, structure of asci and ascocarpsLife cycle inguishing charactersThallus structure, fructificationsTypes of conidia, Life cycle ing charactersThallus structure, Types and Structure of Basidia and basidiocarpsLlife cycle pattern in Teliomycetes, Hymenomycetes andGasteromycetes.Unit-13:- Deuteromycotina:i)ii)iii)(03L)(03L)Types and Classification of lichens, Nature of associationMorphology and anatomy of lichen thallus, reproductionEconomic and Ecological importance.Unit-15:- Fungi of special habitats:i) Fungi in wood decayii) Mycorrhizaiii) Predacious fungiiv) Dermatophytes(03L)4

REFERENCE BOOKS:Algae:, H and Wynne M. J. (1978) Algal structure and reproduction. Prentice Hall of IndiaPvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India.Chapman, V.J. and Chapman D.J. (1979) The Algae. English Language Book Society andMc. millan, Co, London, U.K.Fritsch, F.E.(1979) The Structure and reproduction of Algae Vol. I and II. Vikas Pub. HousePvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India.Gupta J.S (1981) A Text Book of Algae, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Mumbai, India.Khan M. (1970) Fundamentals of Phycology Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun,India.Lee, R.E. (1989) Phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.KMorris, I (1967) An Introduction totThe Algae, Hutchinson University Press, U.K.Prescott, G.W. (1969). The Algae. Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, Nashville, USARound, F.E. (1973) The Biology of the Algae. Edward Arnold, London, U.K.Sharma, O.P.(1950)A text book of Algae. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, India.Smith, G.M. (1950). Fresh water Algae of United States. McGraw Hill BookCompany, New York, USA.Sambamurty A. V. S. S. (2005) A Text Book of Algae. I. K. International Mumbai, India.Vashishta B.R. (2010) Botany Part- I Algae S. Chand & Company Ltd. New Delhi, India.Fungi:1.Ainsworth, Sussman and Sparrow (1973) The fungi. Vol IV A & IV B. Academic Press.London, U.K.2.Alexopolous C. J., Minms C.W. and Blackwell M. (1999) (4th edn) IntroductoryMycology. Willey, New York, USA.3.Dube H.C. (2004) An Introduction To Fungi. Vikas Publishers. New Delhi, India.4.Kendrick B. (1994) The Fifth Kingdom (paperback), North America, New York Publisher:3rd edn.5.Kirk et al. (2008) Ainsworth and Bisby’s Dictionary of fungi, 10th edn. CABI International,Walling ford.UK.6.Mehrotra R.S. and Aneja K.R. (1990) An Introduction To Mycology. New AgePublishers, New Delhi, India7.Sharma O.P. (2010) A Text Book of Fungi. S. Chand’s Publication, New Delhi, India8.Sharma, P.D. (1998) The Fungi. Rastogi Publications, Merrut, India.9.Udar, R.(1970) Introduction to Bryophytes. Shashidhar Malaviya Prakashan. Lucknow,India.10.Udar, R.(1975) Bryology in India. Chronica Botanica, New Delhi, India.11.Watson, E.V. (1971) Structure and Life of Bryophytes.3rd Edn. Hutchinson University12.Library, London, UK.Vashista, B.R., Sinha, A.K., Kumar, A.(2008) Botany for degree students-Bryophyta, S.Chand Publication, New Delhi, India.13.14.Eames, E.J. (1983) Morphology of Vascular Plants. Stanford University Press.USA.Webster J. and Rpland W. (2007) Introduction to Fungi (3rd Edn) Cambridge University,Press, U.K.15.Cavers, F. (1976) The interrelationships of the Bryophytes. S.R. Technic, Ashok Rajpath,5

Patana, India.16.Chopra, R.N. and Kumar, P.K. (1988) Biology of Bryophytes. John Wiley & Sons, NewYork, USA.17.Kashyap, S.R. (1929) Liverworts of the Western Himalayas and the Punjab Plain(illustrated): Part 2. Chronica Botanica, New Delhi.18.Parihar, N.S. (1980) Bryophytes: An introduction to Embryophyta. Vol.I.Central BookDepot, Allahabad, India.19.Prem Puri (1981) Bryophytes: Morphology, Growth and Differentiation. Atma Ram andSons, New Delhi, India.6

SEMESTER- IDSC BOT-102TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS(60 ------------------Aims and Objectives:i)To study conceptual development of ‘taxonomy’.ii)To study different systems of classifications of angiospermsiii)To study characters of biologically important families of angiospermsiv)To study range of variations in angiospermic familiesv)To study various rules, principles and recommendations of plant nomenclaturevi)To know modern trends in -----------------------Unit – 1: Introduction:(03 L)i)ii)iii)Taxonomy and Systematics : Conceptual DevelopmentAims and PrinciplesDiversity of angiosperms with respect to :a) Form, structure and functionb) Evolutionary status of AngiospermsUnit – 2:-Systems of classification:i) Artificial system: Linnaeusii) Natural system: de Candolle, Bentham & Hookeriii) Phylogenetic system: Engler and Prantl, Hutchinson and Dahlgren.(06L)Unit – 3: ICBN – Principles of priority and their limitation(10 L)i)ii)iii)iv)v)vi)vii)viii)ix)Scientific names and Common namesInternational Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)Principles of the code I-VType method (Typification )Author citationRejection of namesRetention of namesConservation of namesNew NameTaxonomic tools: Floras, Monographs, Herbarium (Major herbaria of the world and India)Unit-4:i)ii)iii)iv)v)General Evolutionary Trends in AngiospermsLeaf structure : Simple and compound, phyllotaxyEvolution of inflorescencePrimitive stamenPrimitive carpelNature of inferior ovary(07L)7

vi)vii)Evolution of gynoeciumEvolution of floral nectariesUnit-5: Study of diagnostic characters and economic importance of following families:(14 L)Oleaceae, Magnoliaceae, Tiliaceae, Sapindaceae, Boraginaceae, Bignoniaceae, Casuarinaceae,Amaryllidaceae, Orchidaceae, Rhamnaceae, Commelinaceae, Musaceae, Arecaceae, Cyperaceaeand Poaceae.Unit-6 : Discussion with respect to salient features and points of biological importanceof the following families:(14 nthaceae,Cuscutaceae,Orobanchaceae, Balanophoraceae, Refflesiaceae, Santalaceae, Loranthaceae,Podostemaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Cactaceae, Orchidaceae, AristolochiaceaeUnit-7: Taxonomic evidence:(06L)i) Chemotaxonomy – micromolecules - primary and secondary metabolites.Macromolecules –protein, nucleic acids, polysaccharides.ii) Taxonomy in relation to Anatomy, Embryology, Palynology, Ecology, Cytology andserology.iii) Molecular taxonomy – RFLPREFERENCE BOOKS1. Naik, V.N., 1984. Taxonomy of Angiosperms. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing CompanyLtd., New Delhi. 304pp.2. Singh, G 1999. Plant Systematics – Theory and Practice. Oxford and IBH PublishingCo. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 35pp.3. Sharma, O. P. 1958. Plant Taxonomy. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.,New Delhi.482pp.4. Gurucharan Singh. 2008. Plant Sytematics – Theory and Practices. Oxford and IBHPublishing Co. Pvt. Td. New Delhi.5. Michael G. Simpson. 2010. Plant Systematics. Elsevier Academic Press. USA.6. Pandey S.N. and Mishra. S.P. 2009. Taxonomy of Angiosperms. Ane Books Pvt. Ltd.New Delhi.7. Pandey, B.P. 2012. Taxonomy of Angiosperms. S. Chand and Company Ltd., NewDelhi.8. Rajkumar Gupta. 2006. Text book of Systematic Botany. CBS Publishers. New Delhi.9. Subrahmanyam, N.S. 1995. Modern Plant Taxonomy. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.New Delhi.10. Stuessy, T. F. 2002.Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. Edward Arnold, London.11. Porter. C. L., 1982 – Taxonomy of Flowering Plants, Eurasia Publications House, NewDelhi12. Cronquist, A. 1968. Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants. Thomas &Nelson (Pvt.) Ltd., London.13. Davis, P.H. and Heywood, V. M. 1963. Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver &8

Boyed London.14. Henry, A.N. and Chandra Bose, 1980. An aid to the International Code of BotanicalNomenclature, Today & Tomorrow’s Printers & Publishers, Delhi.15. Lawrence, G. H. M. 1961, Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. MacMillan and Co., NewDelhi.16. Street, H.E., 1978. Essay in Plant Taxonomy, Academic press, London.17. Bentham, G. 1988. Handbook of British Flora. (7th Ed., revised by A.B. Rendle in1930).Ashford, Kent.18. Cronquist, A. 1988. The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants. (2nd Ed.)New Delhi. 482pp.19. Darlington, C.D. and A. P. Wylie. 1955. Chromosome Atlas of Cultivated Plants. Allenand Unwin, London.20. Hutchinson, J. 1973. The Families of Flowering Plants. (3rd Ed.) Oxford Univ. Press.21. Lawerence, G. H. M. 1951. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. MacMillan, New York.22. Rendle, A.B. 1904. Classification of Flowering plants. Cambridge , England. 2nd. Vol.1930.23. Stace, C.A. 1989. Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics (2nd Ed.). Edward Arnold.London.24. Takhtajan, A.L. 1997. Diversity and Classification of Flowering Plants. ColumbiaUniv. Press. New York, 642 pp.9

DSC-BOT-103Practical’s based on DSC-BOT101ALGAE: (10 -----------------------Morphological observations, description and classification according to Fritsch with reasons.(at least two genera from each order)Practicals 1- 2:Cyanophyta: Any 10 formsPracticals 3-6: Chlorophyta: Any 25 formsPractical 7: Charophyceae- Chara, NitellaPracticals8: Xanthophyceae – Vaucheria, Botrydium Bacillariophycece- Navicula, Pinnularia,Fragillaria, Synedra, Nitzchia, Cymbella,Cyclotella, Pleurosigma, Gyrosigma, Coconeis,( any4 forms)Practical 9: Phaeophyta – Any 5 formsPractical 10: Rhodophyta- Any 4 formsFUNGI: (10 Practicals)Practical 11: Preparation of cotton blue, Lactophenol and culture medium – PDARepresentative Genera belonging to following subdivisions of fungi with respect tovegetative, reproductive structures and classification with reasons according to Ainsworth etal. (1973).Practical 12: Myxomycotina – (Any three genera)Practical -13: Mastigomycotina – (Any threer genera)Practical -14: Zygomycotina – (Any three genera)Practicals 15-16: Ascomycotina - (Any Nine genera)Practicals 17-18: Basidiomycotina- (Any Nine genera)Practical 19: Deuteromycotina - (Any Six genera)Practical 20: Visit to locality and observation of Algae and fungi in natural habitat andpreparation of field report.Note: i) Excursion tour is compulsory to observe algae and fungi in nature. Tour report alongwith photographs must be submitted at the time of practical examination. ii) Duly certifiedjournals are compulsory at the time of practical examination.10

DSC-BOT-104Practical’s based on DSC-BOT102Practical –IIANGIOSPERM TAXONOMY)(Total: 20 --------------------------Practicals1-15: Study of following families with respect to morphological characters usingbotanical terms, floral formula, floral diagram and classification giving reasons as per Benthamand Hooker’s system covering major groups of it (Any 20 families locally available as persyllabus)Practicals16-17: Identification of genus and species with the help of flora of the plantmaterials from the families mentioned in syllabus.Practicals18: Preparation of artificial, bracketed/indented dichotomous keysbased on vegetative and reproductive characters.Practicals19-20: Study of Morphological and biological peculiarities of the following:i) Insectivorous plants: Drosera, Utricularia, Nepenthesii) Parasitic plants: Striga, Cuscuta, Dendrophthoe, Viscumiii) Aquatic plants: Limnophila, Pneumatophoreiv) Inflorescences: Spadix, Cyathium, Catkinv) Flowers: Orchid and Cleistogamous Phyllode: Australian Acaciavii) Velamen tissue of Epiphytic OrchidNote: i) Botanical excursions and submission of duly signed scientific excursion reports fromOne locality is compulsory. Submission of at least 10 herbarium specimens (only common wildplants) is compulsory.ii) Duly certified journals are compulsory at the time of practical examination.Following floras may be consulted for practical purpose:1.Cooke, T. (1958) Flora of Presidency of Bombay Vol. I-II, Botanical Survey of India,Calcutta, India.2. Hooker, J.D.(1872-1897) Flora of British India, Vol. I-VII, Reeves & Co., London.3. Kamble, S.Y. and S.G. Pradhan (1988) Flora of Akola District, Maharashtra, BotanicalSurvey of India, Calcutta, India.4. Kshirsagar, S.R. and D. A. Patil (2008) Flora of Jalgaon District, Maharashtra, BishenSingh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India.5. Kulkarni, B.G. (1988) Flora of Sindhudurg, Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, India.6. Lakshminarasimhan, P. & B.D. Sharma (1991) Flora of Nashik District, Botanical Surveyof India, Calcutta, India.7. Naik, V.N. (1999) Flora of Marathwada, Vol. I-II, Amrut Prakashan, Station Road,Aurangabad, India.8. Patil, D. A. (2003) Flora of Dhule and Nandurbar District (Maharashtra). Bishen SinghMahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India.9. Shah, G. L. (1978) Flora of Gujarat State, Vol. 1-2, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India.11

SEC-BOT-105PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY(60 -----------------------UNIT-1: Fundamental of plant tissue culture:(04 L)i) History, concepts of cell differentiation and totipotency.ii) Requirements of plant tissue culture laboratory. Requirement for basal media.iii) Growth hormones and their role, various media used for tissue culture technique.UNIT-2: In vitro Culture(09 L)i) Introduction and types of culture, its Importance and applicationii) Production of haploids and their application.iii) Somatic and Gametic Embryogenesis, Microporpagation, Meristem culture,Embryo rescue.UNIT-3: Cybrid production:(07 L)i) Isolation and culture of protoplasts, protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization.ii) Selection systems for somatic hybrids / Cybrids and their characterization.iii) Production of Secondary metabolites by plant cell cultures, commercialproduction of secondary metabolites synthetic seed production.iv) Somaclonal and Gametoclonal variations, cryopreservation and germplasmstorage.UNIT4: -Fermentation Technology(06L)i) Introduction, Scope and Importanceii) Principles of Microbial growth-Batch culture, Continuous culture andSynchronous cultureiii) Microbes, Substrate, Process, Optimum conditions, Product recovery and uses ofFollowing----a) Citric Acid, b) Alcoholic Beverages-Beer production c) Vinegar,d) Antibiotics(Penicillin), and e) VitaminsUNIT-5: -Biomass Production(05 L)i) -Introductionii) Concept of SCP, it’s need and applicationsiii) Mass culture of Algae for Proteiniv) Mushroom CultureUNIT- 6: -Biofertilizers(06 L)i) Introduction, definition and types and advantagesii) Mass cultivation of Rhizobium biofertilizer & it’s application in agricultureiii) Mass culture of BGA and its application in agricultureiv) Azolla Biofertilizerv) Mycorrhizal BiofertilizerUNIT- 7: Recombinant DNA Technology:(17 L)i) Introduction, Cloning vectors for recombinant DNA.ii) Expression vectors and shuttle vectors, Restriction enzymes for cloning.iii) Amplification of DNA and construction of Library: - Basics of PCR, Generationof genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YACvectors.iv) Alien gene transfer: Agrobacterium biology and biotechnology; Plant 12

Agrobacterium interactions; direct gene transfer methods: particle bombardment,electroporation, PEG- ediated. Transformation using pollen or pollen tube. Genelibraries- genomic libraries, cDNA library and its construction, Molecularmarkers-RFLP, RAPD, DNA finger printing.UNIT-8: Transgenic plants:(06 L)i) Transgenic crops in India, Resistance against Abiotic and biotic stress, Improvedcrops productivity, Nutraceutical improved crops, transgenic plants for ediblevaccine and antibodiesReference Books1. Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture: Prospects for the 21st Century edited by A. Altman,eBook ISBN: 97801238146782. Altman & Hasegava. (2012). Introduction to Plant Biotechnology. Academic Press.3. Ara Kirakosyan, Peter B. Kaufman, (2009.) Recent Advances in Plant Biotechnology,Springer Science & Business Media,4. P K Gupta, ( 2010).Elements of Biotechnology, Rastogi Publications,5. S. Srivastava, A. Narula,( 2006) Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Markers, SpringerScience &Business Media, Anamaya publishers , New Delhi,6. B. D. Singh (2006) Plant B

Unit-1: Introduction and Classification of algae (04L) i) Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic algae ii) Classification of algae according to F. E. Fritsch (1945), G.W. Prescott and Parker (1982)

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