IMS-100 Introduction To The Incident Management System (IMS) For Ontario

1y ago
656.66 KB
81 Pages
Last View : 1m ago
Last Download : 1y ago
Upload by : Camden Erdman

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSIMS-100Introduction to theIncident Management System (IMS) forOntarioDecember 2008IMS-100December 2008Page 1 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSIntentionally left blankIMS-100December 2008Page 2 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSContentsPreface . 4Purpose of this Course . 7General . 7Vision . 7Goal. 7Course Objectives . 8Using this course . 8What is the Incident Management System (IMS)? . 10How did IMS develop? . 12Scenario, Stage I – Simple incident, verbal Incident Action Plan . 15Key Concepts and Principles of IMS illustrated in Scenario I . 23Map of the incident in scenario I . 25Organization Chart of IMS Structure in scenario I. . 26Self-directed Test One . 27Scenario, Stage II – Complex incident, verbal Incident Action Plan . 30Key Concepts and Principles of IMS illustrated in Scenario II. 42Map of the incident in scenario II . 44Organization Chart of the IMS structure used in scenario II. . 45Self-directed Test Two . 47Scenario, Stage III – Complex incident, written Incident Action Plan . 50Key Concepts and Principles of IMS illustrated in Scenario III . 64Map of the incident in scenario III. 66Organization Chart of IMS Structure in scenario III. . 67Self-directed Test Three . 68Where to go from here . 72Self-Test Answers . 74Answers - Test One . 75Answers - Test Two . 77Answers - Test Three . 79IMS-100December 2008Page 3 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSPrefaceWelcome to IMS-100: Introduction to IMS in Ontario. This Self-Directed course isdesigned to teach you the basic functions, concepts, and principles of the IncidentManagement System (IMS). At the end of this course you will be aware of the majorfunctions within IMS, and be able to assume limited roles within an incidentmanagement team for simple incidents. This course is the first in the series of trainingcourses on IMS in Ontario. It comprises a downloadable reading package with selftests and an online exam.The training strategy for IMS was developed by a Working Group established in supportof the development of the IMS doctrine for Ontario. The training strategy includes fourlevels of IMS training: IMS-100: Introduction to IMS IMS-200: Basic IMS IMS-300: Intermediate IMS IMS-400: Advanced IMSThe training curriculum for these courses is shown on the next page. Other details areshown in the section “Where to go from here”. An IMS Instructor course (IMS-910) willbe run to provide instructions on how to teach the IMS-200.The training strategy supports the implementation of the IMS doctrine for Ontario. TheIMS doctrine for Ontario was developed by a multi-stakeholder Steering Committee,chaired by Emergency Management Ontario. This doctrine was developed to provide asingle, province-wide IMS that is capable of ensuring the effective, coordinatedresponse to all incidents by Ontario’s various response organizations. Lessons fromprevious emergencies demonstrated the need for such a standardized IMS to avoidconfusion and enhance response.The doctrine is recommended reading in conjunction with this trainingpackage. It may be found at 2008Page 4 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSIMS-100:IntroductionIMS-200: BasicIMS-300: IntermediateIMS-400: AdvancedFunctionwithin theOntario IMSInitiate IMS structuresand concepts forsimple incidents orduring the earlyphases of a complexincidentPerform leadership roleswithin an expanded IMSstructure during a complexincident involving multipleorganization responseCommand complexincidentsAllIndividuals potentiallyinvolved inimplementing IMS atsimple incidents orduring the earlyphases of a complexincidentIndividuals potentiallyperforming leadershiproles within an expandedIMS structure during acomplex incident otentiallyperforming thecommand functionat complexincidents.NilIMS-100IMS-200 and knowledge ofthe operations ofrepresented organizationand may be assigned to aCommand or General Staffposition during an incidentIMS-300 and may bedesignated toperform theCommand functionduring a complexincident4 hours (selfdirected); 4-8hours(classroom)8-16 hours3-4 days2-4 daysSelf-Directedor ClassroomClassroom (modular)ClassroomClassroomMultiplechoice TestWritten TestWritten and Performancebased TestingWritten ionPrerequisiteAudienceOutcomesCoursesIMS Training Curriculum Overview: This curriculum overview is applicable to allemergency response organizations and teaches the general principles of IMS. It doesnot replace the need for organization-specific IMS training.IMS-100December 2008Page 5 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSEmergency Management Ontario (EMO) wishes to recognize and thank the membersand organizations on the Training Working Group for their service on this project. Theyare listed below:Allen, Harmon - Durham Region: Harmon.Allen@region.durham.on.caBassirullah, Hafeeza - Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care ard, Andre - Region of Peel: info@peelregion.caBigrigg, Brad - Ontario Association of Fire Chiefs (OAFC):, Tim - Ontario Provincial Police (OPP): www.opp.caCrang, Larry - Office of the Fire Marshal pGeoffrion, Philippe - Emergency Management Ontario (EMO):, Tom - EMO:, Ray - EMO:, Glenn - The Township of Tarbutt & Tarbutt Additional:www.tarbutttownship.comMcIsaac, Wayne - Ontario Fire College irecollege/default.aspMcLean, Jim - Toronto Police Service:, James - City of Ottawa: 311@ottawa.caMorton, Michael J. - EMO:, Jeff - Salvation Army - Ontario Central Divisional Headquarters:jeff noel@can.salvationarmy.orgOuttrim, Doug - ecollege/default.aspRajgopalan, Kalpana - EMO:, Greg - City of Toronto: oem@toronto.caTaylor, Brad - Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services (MCSCS):Brad.Taylor@ontario.caWelch, Fred - Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) 2008Page 6 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSPurpose of this CourseGeneralThe purpose of this module is to familiarize you with the structure, key functions andterminology used in the Incident Management System (IMS). Upon completion of thiscourse you will be able to function as a responder within Ontario’s IMS. Although IMScan be used for planned events, such as concerts or parades, the explanations andexamples in this module are focused on incidents, i.e. occurrences or events thatrequire an emergency response to protect life, property, and/or the environment.This course is based on the Ontario IMS doctrine developed by the IMS SteeringCommittee. Committee membership includes approximately 30 organizationsrepresenting municipalities, responder and emergency services associations, provincialministries, NGOs, the private sector, and federal departments. The IMS SteeringCommittee established the vision and goals for IMS.VisionOntario will have a standardized incident management system that provides functionalinteroperability at all levels of emergency management.GoalThe goal of the Incident Management System is to provide an efficacious, flexible, andconsistent structure and process that is scalable to manage incidents by all levels ofgovernment, emergency response organizations, communities, ministries, nongovernment organizations (NGOs), and the private sector.IMS-100December 2008Page 7 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSCourse ObjectivesUpon completion of the entire course package you will be able to: Give an outline summary of the history of IMS in North America, and thedevelopment of the IMS doctrine for Ontario. Define the purpose and scope of IMS, including what led to the current vision forIMS in Ontario. Explain the core concepts & principles of IMS in Ontario. Explain how IMS is implemented in simple and complex incidents. Explain the key terms, acronyms and symbols used in IMS. Explain the structure and key functions within IMS, including being able to nameand define the basic organizational terms and titles used in IMS. Describe the basic incident facilities used in IMS. Explain how resources are managed in IMS. Describe how information is managed and the different audiences that must beserved. Explain the types of command models and why, where and how each may beutilized. Explain the differences between command and support. Explain some common accountability responsibilities of individuals deployed toincidents.Using this courseThis course is based on the Ontario IMS doctrine that should be read and consulted asa reference tool for further clarification of the concepts in this course.There is one scenario with three stages in this course, and the stages evolve from asimple to a complex incident. The scenarios are entirely fictitious. They are providedfor training purposes to help explain the basic concepts, terms and functions of IMS topeople who may be unfamiliar with how emergency management operates in practiceor how the system as a whole operates in both simple and complex incidents. Thescenarios are not based on any real-life incident, location or personnel.IMS-100December 2008Page 8 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSTerminologies, responsibilities and important concepts of IMS are explained in textboxes throughout the narrative. Key principles of IMS are implicit throughout; explicitsummaries are provided at the end of each section. In addition, a map using IMSsymbols and an organization chart showing how IMS is organized at each stage of thefictional incident are included with each section.You are encouraged to fully grasp the concepts from each scenario prior to moving onto the next. The focus should be placed on the concepts. The scenarios, fictitious asthey are, are used only as a tool to highlight IMS concepts.At the end of each scenario there is a self-directed test. Each test is based on the IMSconcepts embedded in each scenario, and not on the scenario itself. The selfdirected tests are intended not only to allow you to check your knowledge of IMS butalso to stimulate you to think how IMS could be implemented in other types ofincidents. Answers to each test are provided in the back of the course.There is an overall IMS glossary that is available to support the course package as areference for the concepts & principles, terminologies and acronyms used, not only inthis course, but also for IMS in general. You are encouraged to use the glossary as anadditional learning tool to reinforce your familiarity and understanding of IMS.IMS-100December 2008Page 9 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSWhat is the Incident Management System (IMS)?The Incident Management System (IMS) is a standardized approach to emergencymanagement encompassing personnel, facilities, equipment, procedures, andcommunications operating within a common organizational structure. IMS is predicatedon the understanding that in any and every incident, there are certain managementfunctions that must be carried out regardless of the number of persons who areavailable or involved in the emergency response. Although this course is concernedwith incident response, IMS may also be used for managing planned events, such as aconcert or parade.An incident is an occurrence or event that requires an emergency response to protectlife, property or the environment.A simple incident may involve few resources, be located within a small geographicalarea and last for only a short period of time. For example, a single house fire, a watermain break, a call for medical assistance, or non-routine snow clearance.A complex incident may involve the coordination of vast resources from manyorganizations and from municipal, provincial and federal governments, for example inthe event of a major nuclear incident. The geographic location may be diffuse as, forexample, in a major computer virus alert wherein vulnerable equipment may be locatedthroughout the province. A complex incident may persist for weeks, for example, inextensive flooding; or even months, for example, in a medical epidemic.Organizations with vast resources may nevertheless be able to handle some complexincidents single-handedly.Some complex incidents may be declared as emergencies under Ontario’s EmergencyManagement and Civil Protection Act. Ontario defines an emergency as a situation orimpending situation that constitutes a danger of major proportions that could result inserious harm to persons or substantial damage to property and that is caused by theIMS-100December 2008Page 10 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSforces of nature, a disease or other health risk, an accident or an act whetherintentional or otherwise. The Head of Council of a municipality, the Premier, or theLieutenant Governor in Council (Cabinet), may declare emergencies.First Nations Chiefs may also declare emergencies within their communities.IMS is highly flexible and adaptable because it provides a standardized approach to themanagement of personnel, equipment and other resources, procedures, andcommunications within a common organizational structure. IMS can be quicklyexpanded or contracted according to changing circumstances and needs. It ispredicated on the understanding that in any and every incident there are certainmanagement functions - command, operations, planning, logistics andfinance/administration - that must be carried out, regardless of the scale or complexityof the incident.IMS-100December 2008Page 11 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSHow did IMS develop?The Incident Management System developed out of the need for the emergencyservices and other government and non-government resources to work together totackle large-scale incidents.In the early 1970's, southern California experienced devastating wildland fires thatdestroyed many hundreds of square kilometres of forest, over 800 homes and killedeight people. The fires cost more than 18 million per day in total expenses anddamages. Many services and levels of government were involved in tackling the firesand this created an impetus for the development of an improved inter-agencymanagement system. The result was the development of the Incident CommandSystem (ICS), based on command and control procedures developed by the military.Because ICS is flexible and highly adaptable, the system was introduced to tackle othertypes of emergencies and by jurisdictions outside the United States. In Canada, ICSwas adopted in the management of forest fires. Since then, it has been modified toincorporate common business principles and has gradually developed into a maturesystem for incident management.Most emergency situations are handledlocally using ICS. However, managing amajor incident may require assistancefrom other jurisdictions and disciplines.The Incident Management System (IMS)was developed so responders fromdifferent jurisdictions and disciplines canwork together better to respond toICS is primarily a command and controlsystem delineating job responsibilitiesand organizational structure for thepurpose of managing day-to-dayoperations for all types of emergencyincidents.IMS incorporates ICS, and provides amore comprehensive system formultiple jurisdictions to work together.incidents. While ICS, with its standardized command structures remains the platform ofOntario’s IMS, other benefits of IMS include a unified approach to incidentIMS-100December 2008Page 12 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSmanagement, emphasis on preparedness including standardized training, mutual aid,information, and resource management.In 1998, the Ice Storm prompted a revised approach to emergency management inOntario after the collapse of 1,000 steel pylons and 35,000 wooden utility poles that leftmore than 700,000 people in Ontario and Quebec without electrical power for morethan three weeks. Damage totalled more than 4 billion in all affected regions. Theimmense social and economic dislocation caused by the storm emphasized the need foran incident management system in which the many government and non-governmentorganizations that might be involved in a complex emergency could work togethereffectively.Since the Ice Storm, the development and improvement of emergency managementcapabilities within Ontario has been an ongoing process. Significant amendments tolegislation have been made. A Deputy Minister for Emergency Planning andManagement now has overall responsibility for Emergency Management throughout theprovince. Ontario’s Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act reflects some ofthe strongest pieces of emergency management legislation in North America and setsout formal program standards as contained in Ontario Regulation 380/04.In the aftermath of the September 11th, 2001 terrorist attacks, the strategic aim hasbeen to ensure that Ontario has a proactive, coordinated and comprehensive approachto managing emergencies to reduce the risks faced by communities whether from fires,diseases, terrorism, toxic materials, weather-related or other threats to people,property, economic stability or critical infrastructure. Within emergency management,the tragedy of 9/11 clearly demonstrated the need for common tools to manage largescale/complex incidents.Other major public emergencies in North America have reinforced the need for effectiveplanning, procedures and preparedness.IMS-100December 2008Page 13 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSOther major incidents include: The 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that killed 43people in the Greater Toronto Area and had a widespread impact on tourism andtravel. The failure of electrical power on August 14th, 2003 which knocked out suppliesto more than 50 million people in eastern Canada and the USA, including 10million people in Ontario. The 2003 summer of fires in British Columbia burned over 260,000 hectares offorest, and destroyed 334 homes and many businesses at an overall estimatedcost of 700 million dollars. More than 45,000 people had to be evacuated. At itsheight, more than 7,000 personnel were deployed daily on the fires, requiringmulti-organizational coordination. Hurricane Katrina that devastated New Orleans in August 2005 and led to thelargest evacuation of people in the history of North America. A total of 1,836people lost their lives and the hurricane caused more than 81.2 billion worth ofdamage.Although not all of these incidents occurred within Ontario, the lessons learned fromthem emphasized the need for Ontario to have a robust and standardized system ofemergency response applicable to all levels of government and at every scale ofresponse. The current Incident Management System (IMS) is a new tool to help usmeet these challenges.IMS-100December 2008Page 14 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSScenario, Stage I – Simple incident, verbal Incident Action PlanLearning objectives: Functions/structures: Command; Support; Emergency Control Group (ECG);Strike Teams The planning process: The Incident Action Plan Concepts and principles: Unity of Command; Modular & Scalable; Simplicity &Flexibility; Accountability Facilities: Incident Command Post (ICP); Staging AreaScenario:The summer has been hot and dry across much of North America, including Ontario.Major forest fires in Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, the Yukon and the westernUnited States have stretched fire-fighting resources to the limit.On a hot Saturday afternoon in August, two hikers see thick smoke drifting through thetrees. When they investigate, they discover a wild fire inside a small clearing. Theyimmediately call the local Fire Department on their cell-phone and return to the road toawait the arrival of the fire trucks. As thick smoke begins to drift between the trees,carried by the breeze, they decide to retreat down the road towards the town.What is Command? Command is the act of directing, ordering or controllingby virtue of explicit statutory, regulatory or delegated authority.Incident Command is responsible for managing all responses to an incident. Itmay consist of a single person or a team. It is the first and primaryorganizational component of IMS, to which all other functions report.Responsibility for establishing Incident Command is not restricted to anyorganization or jurisdiction and may include emergency services, First Nations,municipal, provincial or federal governments, or the private sector. Generally,the first organization to respond establishes Incident Command. However,responsibility for Incident Command may change from one organization orjurisdiction to another, based on required expertise or the scale of the incident.IMS-100December 2008Page 15 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSThree pumpers soon arrive. A fire captain establishes I NCIDENT C OMMANDimmediately and directs the crews into position. The Fire Captain orders the hikers toleave the area.Aided by the dry condition of the undergrowth and the breeze, the fire spreads beyondthe clearing. The fire captain, now called theResponsibilities of theIncident Commanderinclude:I NCIDENT C OMMANDER (IC), decides to call foradditional support. establish communications ensuring the safety of allresponders, assessing and reassessingthe situation, determining objectives,strategies, tactics andpriorities appropriate tothe level of response, approving an IncidentAction Plan (see later), coordinating all activitiesto manage an incident, authorizing the release ofinformation to the public,safeguard the properties and the people who mayauthorizing demobilization(see later).explains this course of action, called the I NCIDENT Evolving Organizational structure:Incident CommanderPumperPumperPumperFrom personal knowledge of the area, the ICknows two isolated cottages stand by the lake atthe top of the road. The IC quickly determinesobjectives, strategy and a tactical plan tobe in them and to contain the fire. The IC verballyA CTION P LAN to the fire crews.Incident Action Plan (IAP)Every incident must have an IAP that may be spoken or written. It provides allincident supervisory personnel with objectives and the strategies, tactics, anddirections for achieving them. It may also include (among others) resources,structures, as well as safety, medical and telecommunications instructions.IMS-100December 2008Page 16 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSThe IC takes a moment to reflect on the potential IMS organizational structure based onthe doctrine. At this stage of the incident there is not enough to suggest the need toestablish a Command and General StaffIncident CommandPlease see the doctrine for afull description of the IMSCommand and General StaffstructureCommandStaffEmergency InformationOfficerSafety OfficerLiaison OfficerThe General StaffOperationsSection ChiefPlanningSection ChiefLogisticsSection ChiefFinance/AdministrationSection ChiefNor are there enough indicators to suggest that any of the Sections (for example theOperations Section) would need to be staffed from a small to a full-blown structure(Please see Chapter 2 of the doctrine for a full description of the structure of IMSSections).Operations SectionStaging Area(s)BranchGroupDivisionTask ForceSectorStrike TeamTask ForceSingleResourceAir Operations BranchBranchAir SupportGroupHelibaseAirBaseAir TacticalGroupHelicopterFixedWingStrike TeamSingleResourceIMS-100December 2008Page 17 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSKnowing that only thoseModular and Scalable Organizationcomponents that are required forThe IMS framework is modular and scalablein terms of structure and processes, withdiscrete but interrelated functionalcomponents. Components may expand orcontract without losing their distinctfunctions. This makes it scalable to matchthe size and complexity of any incident.the task at hand need beestablished (M ODULAR &S CALABLE ), and knowing that thestructure should be kept as simpleas possible, yet able to react to achanging scenario (S IMPLICITY &F LEXIBILITY ), the IC decides tofollow IMS doctrine and build theincident management structurefrom the bottom up.To get operations underway, two ofthe pumpers are designated as theSimplicity and FlexibilityThe simplicity and flexibility of the IMSstructure make it suitable to expand andcontract. This flexibility means that only therequired components need be activated toprovide the functions needed as the situationunfolds. This keeps the IMS structure asuncomplicated and minimalist as possible.C OTTAGE S TRIKE T EAM to move up the road totry to get ahead of the fire. The third pumperstays in position adjacent to the small clearing.Two members of the Cottage Strike Team checkto see if the cottages are inhabited and toevacuate anyone who might be in them.A Strike Team is a functionalcomponent within Operations,composed of the same kindand type of resources,assembled to accomplish aparticular purpose. A StrikeTeam is headed by a L EADER .As the smoke rises in the clear sky, people arrive to gaze at the flames shooting abovethe trees. The IC requests emergencyEvolving Organizationalstructure:medical services (EMS) to stand by incase of responder or civilian injuries.Incident CommanderThe IC also notifies Ontario's Ministry ofNatural Resources (MNR) through anCottage Strike TeamIMS-1003rd PumperMNR Representative in the town aboutthe extent of the fire and its locationDecember 2008Page 18 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSadjacent to Crown Lands. Thinking about the incident’s logistics requirements, the ICfears that people will block the only access road and that they will be in danger if thefire changed direction. Police assistance is requested to direct onlookers away from thearea and to close the road and a section of the highway.With the arrival of the police, and recognizing that incident response is quicklyexpanding, the Incident Commander decides to move the I NCIDENT C OMMAND P OSTIncident Command Post (ICP)Location from which the Incident Commander overseesincident management. It is the headquarters ofIncident Command only.There is only one ICP per incident.A vehicle, trailer, tent or a building may serve as theICP, according to what is available and appropriate.The ICP may change location during an incident.from the cab of his firetruck, where he hasbeen directingoperations, to an unusedoffice in a small stripmall at the junction ofthe dirt road and thelocal highway. It islocated away from theimmediate dangers of the flames and smoke but close enough to the area to maintaincontact with all personnel and resources.Four police officers, in twovehicles,CHECK - INto the ICPand, after a short briefing, areassigned to control traffic andthe crowd of onlookers.Check-InAll operational resources must check in onarrival at an incident. This may be as simple asannouncing a unit’s arrival by radio,approaching the Incident Commander orcompleting a sign-in sheet.Enforcement Strike Team.At complex incidents, check-in staff may beassigned and a variety of check-in locations maybe established.IMS-100December 2008They are designated as the LawPage 19 of 81

IMS-100: Introduction to IMSEvolving Organizationalstructure:Incident CommanderCottage Strike Team3rd PumperLaw EnforcementStrike TeamEven with the arrival of the police, the Incident Commander is able to handle thedecision-making by himself and so continues to maintain the S INGLE C OMMANDMODEL .(Note: For a fuller discussion on command models, see Chapter 3 of thedoctrine)Single CommandThis is the most common model of command. It exists when incident decisionmaking in relation to directing, ordering or controlling the response to anincident is straightforward and independent. A Single Comman

IMS-100: Introduction to IMS . IMS-100 December 2008 Page 4 of 81 . Preface . Welcome to IMS-100: Introduction to IMS in Ontario. This Self-Directed course is designed to teach you the basic functions, concepts, and principles of the Incident Management System (IMS). At the end of this course you will be aware of the major

Related Documents:

May 02, 2018 · D. Program Evaluation ͟The organization has provided a description of the framework for how each program will be evaluated. The framework should include all the elements below: ͟The evaluation methods are cost-effective for the organization ͟Quantitative and qualitative data is being collected (at Basics tier, data collection must have begun)

Silat is a combative art of self-defense and survival rooted from Matay archipelago. It was traced at thé early of Langkasuka Kingdom (2nd century CE) till thé reign of Melaka (Malaysia) Sultanate era (13th century). Silat has now evolved to become part of social culture and tradition with thé appearance of a fine physical and spiritual .

On an exceptional basis, Member States may request UNESCO to provide thé candidates with access to thé platform so they can complète thé form by themselves. Thèse requests must be addressed to esd rize unesco. or by 15 A ril 2021 UNESCO will provide thé nomineewith accessto thé platform via their émail address.

̶The leading indicator of employee engagement is based on the quality of the relationship between employee and supervisor Empower your managers! ̶Help them understand the impact on the organization ̶Share important changes, plan options, tasks, and deadlines ̶Provide key messages and talking points ̶Prepare them to answer employee questions

Dr. Sunita Bharatwal** Dr. Pawan Garga*** Abstract Customer satisfaction is derived from thè functionalities and values, a product or Service can provide. The current study aims to segregate thè dimensions of ordine Service quality and gather insights on its impact on web shopping. The trends of purchases have

region. IMS determines, from DBD, that a Segment Edit/Compression exit is required, so IMS loads the exit. 2. IMS retrieves encrypted segment from the database. 3. IMS then calls the exit and passes it the encrypted segment. The exit invokes ICSF services, which passes the user-defined data encryption key label (provided by exit) and the

IMS Open Transaction Manager Access (OTMA) is a transaction-based, connectionless client/server protocol. By using OTMA, each client (z/OS application) can s ubmit transactions to IMS or issue IMS commands and receive output from IMS application programs and from IMS itself.

Zoo Animal Nutrition IV Zoo Animal Nutrition IV (2009) was edited by M. Clauss, A. Fidgett, G. Janssens, J.-M. Hatt, T. Huisman, J. Hummel, J. Nijboer, A. Plowman. Filander Verlag, Fürth ISBN-13: 978-3-930831-72-2 To obtain a copy of the book, contact Filander Verlag at Dierenfeld, E. S. Conservation collaborations: nutrition .