Landscape And Fragmentation Analysis Patch Analyst Patch Analyst (Grid)

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Landscape andFragmentation Analysis Patch Analyst Patch Analyst (Grid)

Crash Course in .L dLandscapeEEcologyl Study of landscape patterns Interaction among patches within alandscape Dynamics and change in landscape patternsover time FlowsFloff energy, nutrients,t i t andd speciesiamong landscape elementsREM429

Landscapep - a mosaic of ppatches

P t h can represent .Patchest Cover typesHabitat typesStructural stages of cover typesUrban developmentPhysiographic features etc

Landsat 5 imagery, July 1992CurrentCreekSmith CreekRed CanyonCreekHurry Back Creek116 W Long,g, 43 NLatElevation 800-2500mPrecip. 250 – 1000mm130,000 ha

Succession in a Western Juniper CommunityGrassland after fireMountain bigsagebrush steppeOpen young juniper(Phase 2)Young multistory juniper(Phase 3)Stand initiation juniper(Phase 1)Mature juniper woodland

From Air Photo toGIS Vegetation Layer

From Satellite Imageg toGIS Vegetation Layer

Photo interpretationSatellite data

Landscape Characteristics PatchPt h sizei andd EdEdge ddensityitPatch richnessShapePatch diversityPatch evennessS ti l diSpatialdistributiont ib ti / IInterspersiontiNearest neighbor / ProximityCore area metrics

Landscape and FragmentationAnalysis Software Fragstats 3.333– GUI interface– Works with many input formats includingArcGIS Grids (rasters)– Landscape,L dClClass anddPPatcht h analysesl– Allows the user to select output metrics– Moving window analysis– Batch agstats/fragstats.html

Landscape MetricsNearest taposition

Patch SizeMPS 8.5 haMedPS 4.0 haPSSD 13.1 haMPS 30.3 haMedPS 4.0 haPSSD 74.7 ha

Edgeg DensityyTE 104 kmED 0.0190 019 m/m2TE 56 kmED 0.010 m/ m2

Patch RichnessPR 12PR 5

Patch ShapepMSI 1.93AWMSIS 1.74MPAR 4419 m/haMSI 1.26AWMSI 1.411 41MPAR 1147 m/haMean ShapeMShIndexI d isi 1 whenh allll patchest h are circulariland increases as the patches become more irregular.

Patch Shapep byy classMSI1.221.311 381.381.522.003.047.777.251.441.40MPAR m/ha2846627335209142926813 slivers11286632361298

Patch Diversity and EvennessSDI 2.16SEI 0.94PR 12SDI 1.66SEI 0.94PR 5Diversity varies with Patch Richness whileEvenness is independent of Patch Richness.

Patch Diversityy and EvennessSDI 2.33SEI 0.94PR 12SDI 2.00SEI 0.81PR 12Shannon’sSh’ DiDiversityit andd EvennessEIndexI d bothb th reflectfl t thethrelative distribution in area between patch types.Spatial distribution is not accounted for.

Patch Isolation / FragmentationgMNN 9696.33MPI 86.0MNN 7171.44MPI 49.5Mean Nearest Neighbor Index is the average of the shortestdistances between patches of the same type within thelandscape.

InterspersionpJuxtapositionpIndexIJI 7575.55IJI 6969.11IJI measures patcht h adjacency.djIJI approachesh 100when all patch types are equally adjacent to each other.

Landscape LevelsLandscape –metrics are computed for the entirelandscape.Class – metrics are computed by landscape class(e.g. cover types or habitat types)Patch – metrics are computed for each patch. Alimited numbern mber of metrics are available.a ailable

Patch Analyst Statistics SummaryArea MetricsClass AreaTotal Landscape AreaShape MetricsMean Shape IndexArea Weighted Mean Shape IndexMean Perimeter-Area RatioMean Patch Fractal DimensionArea Weighted Mean Patch FractalDimensionPatch Density & Size MetricsNo of PatchesNo.Mean Patch SizeMedian Patch SizePatch Size Coefficient of VariationPatch Size Standard DeviationEdge MetricsTotal EdgeMean Patch EdgeContrasted Weighted EdgeDiversity & Interspersion MetricsMean Nearest Neighbor DistanceMean Proximity IndexInterspersion Juxtaposition IndexShShannon’s’ DiversityDiit IndexI dShannon’s Evenness Index

Fragstats User Interface

Connectivityy Rules4 cell rule4-cell88-cellcell rule

Moving Window Analysis

Moving Window AnalysisA circular or square moving window movesacross theth inputit gridid andd selectedl t d metricst i arecalculated for the center cell of the window

Shrub cover

Landscape scale habitat characteristicsDo animals use areas of high or low shrub cover?Does the amount of ‘edge’ between low and high coverareas affect habitat selection?Are areas within home ranges homogeneous orheterogeneous with respect to shrub cover?Does patch size matter?etc. .

Total edge within a 100 m radiuscirculari l movingi windowi d

Batch Processing Possible!!Batch File.--If Batch mode is selected, then FRAGSTATS willrun the batch file specified in the Input File text box andproduce outputpp for all of the landscapesp designatedgin thebatch file. See Step 4 on Working with Batch Files for detailson building a suitable batch file. If Batch mode is selected,then the Input Data Type (see below) and Grid Attributes (seebelow) will become inactive (grayed out in the interface)because these parameters will be specified uniquely for eachiinputllandscapediin theh bbatchh filfile.

Further reading .Cushman S.A., K. McGarigal, M.C. Neel, 2008. Parsimony in landscape metrics:Strength, universality, and consistency, Ecological Indicators 8:691–703.De BDBeer YY. anddRR.J.J van AAarde,d 20082008. DDo llandscapedhheterogeneitytit andd watertdistribution explain aspects of elephant home range in southern Africa’s aridsavannas?, Journal of Arid EnvironmentsGrainger1 M., R. van Aarde1, and I. Whyte, 2005. Landscape heterogeneity and theuse of space by elephants in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, African Journalof EcologyHerrera, L.P. P. Laterra, N.O. Maceira, K. D. Zelaya, and G.A. Martı nez, 2009.Fragmentation Status of Tall-Tussock Grassland Relicts in the Flooding Pampa,Argentina, Rangeland Ecology and Management .Kong F. and N.Nakagoshi, 2006. Spatial-temporal gradient analysis of urban greenspaces in Jinan, China, Landscape and Urban Planning.Arjan J. H. Meddens, Andrew T. Hudak, Jeffrey S. Evans, William A. Gould andGrizelle Gonza lez, 2008. Characterizing Forest Fragments in Boreal, Temperate,and Tropical Ecosystem, Ambio.

Landscape LevelsLandscape Levels Landscape -metrics are computed for the entire landscape. Class - metrics are computed by landscape classmetrics are computed by landscape class (e.g. cover types or habitat types) Patch - metrics are computed for each patch. A limited n mber of metrics are a ailablelimited number of metrics are available.

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