Landscaping Guidance For Improving Air Quality Near Roadways

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February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewLandscaping Guidance for Improving AirQuality near RoadwaysPlant Species and Best Practices for the Sacramento Region1Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewContentsI - Introduction . 3II - Evaluating Potential Vegetation Barrier Locations . 4Assess Available Space . 4Review Underground and Overhead Utilities . 4Identify Local Fire Safety Codes . 4Examine Caltrans Vegetation Requirements . 4Consider Other Location Factors . 5III – Vegetation Barrier Design Considerations . 6Best Practices . 6Space Requirements . 6IV – Example Scenarios . 7Scenario 1 - Vegetation Only . 7Scenario 2 - Vegetation on One Side of Noise Barrier . 8Scenario 3 - Vegetation on Both Sides of Noise Barrier . 9Scenario 4 - Narrow Vegetation Strip on One Side of Noise Barrier . 10V - Vegetation Characteristics . 11VI - Vegetation Acquisition and Planting Recommendations . 12Long-Term Maintenance. 12Condition of Approval Language. 13Appendix A - Summary Table from EPA Recommendations . 14Appendix B – Resources . 16Appendix C - Species Matrix . 17Appendix D - Planting Guidelines and Resources . 24Appendix E - Sample Condition of Approval Language . 25Appendix F - Additional References, Resources and Acknowledgments. 272Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewI - IntroductionRoadside green space and landscaping has served aesthetic and roadway functionalitypurposes. Vegetation along roadways provides value to wildlife, human mental health andsocial benefits, storm water interception and retention, carbon sequestration and urban heatisland mitigation. Recent scientific studies show that roadside landscaping and barriers can alsoreduce roadway-generated pollutant exposure for nearby sensitive populations. The air qualitybenefit occurs when particles are captured by leaf surfaces as air flows past. In July 2016, theUnited States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released Recommendations forConstructing Roadside Vegetation Barriers to Improve Near-Road Air Quality (EPARecommendations), summarizing the current research findings and best practices.The Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) has developed thisLandscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near Roadways (Landscaping Guidance), whichfocuses on the Sacramento region and aims to translate information from the EPARecommendations for local use. The goals of this landscaping guidance document are to: Provide guidelines for evaluating a potential vegetation barrier site; Offer vegetation planting recommendations to meet height, thickness and porositygoals; Evaluate appropriate vegetation characteristics through a recommended plant specieslist; Address best practices for vegetation planting; Offer suggestions for effective long term maintenance; and Suggest sample condition of approval language.Please direct any questions about this document to Rachel DuBose of SMAQMD staff: (916)874-4876 or rdubose@airquality.org.3Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewII - Evaluating Potential Vegetation Barrier LocationsConsideration of location feasibility is the critical first step in implementing a roadsidevegetation barrier that will result in near-road air quality improvements. Not every roadside willhave the physical attributes required to establish an effective vegetation barrier. Beforeadvancing to design and plant species selection, the following steps must be undertaken:Assess Available Space: Ensure that adequate space is available to support the long-termestablishment of a permanent vegetation barrier. The barrier should consist of at least 32 feet,9 inches (10 meters) of an uninterrupted vegetation thickness, and be at least 16 feet, 5 inches(5 meters) tall. Also, adequate access space must be preserved to allow for long term successand maintenance. Please see Section III for more information on design options.Review Underground and Overhead Utilities: Underground and overhead utilities create avariety of limitations depending upon the type of utility and its operator. Always call 811 beforeyou dig. A complete inventory of on-site utilities and space separation requirements must beundertaken. Useful resources can be found in Appendix B.Identify Local Fire Safety Codes: Local fire prevention standards may restrict the locationand types of vegetation allowed near roadway areas. In addition, defensible space allowancesunder Public Resources Code may preclude vegetation barrier installations if buildings arenearby. In general, roadside vegetation should remain 10 feet (3.048 meters) from roadsideedges and 15 feet (4.572 meters) in vertical clearance from the roadway surface. Usefulresources can be found in Appendix B.Examine Caltrans Vegetation Requirements: Many roadways that are prime locations forroadside vegetation barriers to improve near-road air quality are under Caltrans jurisdiction.For vegetation within the roadway right-of-way, general Caltrans tree and vegetation guidelinesare as follows, with more specific information in Appendix B: Plant trees at least 30 feet from the edge of the traveled way.Overhanging foliage must be 15 feet from the pavement to the overhangingbranches.Trees must be at least 20 feet from any manholes.Shrub setback distance is determined by the height and width of the species.Plant all vegetation at least 10 feet from fences, walls, ditches or drainage features.In some circumstances, vegetation can be placed closer to these features with anencroachment permit.Vegetation must not interfere with safety features such as shoulders, existingbarriers, guardrails or signs, and must not interfere with a driver’s ability to see acontinuous length of roadway.4Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for Review The vegetation cannot add a maintenance burden to Caltrans; it must be managedin perpetuity by the entity responsible for planting.Coordination with the appropriate Caltrans District Office is recommended as part ofyour site evaluation process.Consider Other Location Factors: Proximity to sensitive populations (human populationssuch as educational facilities, or endangered plant populations) may indicate specialconsideration during plant selection. Examples include avoiding poisonous plants in areaswhere children may come into contact with them, or avoiding planting native plants nearsimilar unique or endangered native populations1. Consideration of micro-site characteristicssuch as localized wind flow patterns, unique or challenging soil types, past history of landscapeuse by transients, and wildlife attractiveness may inform plant selection and maintenanceactivities to ensure long term project success.1For example, Fremontedendron californica near Fremontedendron decumberns, an endangered plant found in ElDorado County.5Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewIII – Vegetation Barrier Design ConsiderationsBest Practices Use at least two types of vegetation (i.e. trees and shrubs) to ensure that the foliagecovers from ground level to top of canopy. Avoiding monocultures will reduce therisk of project failure due to an infestation of pests that target a certain species. Stagger spacing and plant low vegetation in between trees to maximize growthspace and ensure uniform coverage. Fill the available space, both horizontally and vertically, with vegetation. (Note thatthe species listed in Appendix C will ensure space coverage for the first 7 to 10years.) Once mature, foliage should be a minimum of 10 meters thick (32 feet, 9.7inches), 5 meters high (16 feet, 5 inches) and 1 meter (3 feet, 3.37 inches) higherthan associated noise barriers. Barriers should extend 50 meters (164 feet) or more beyond the area to beprotected, or can wrap around and extend perpendicularly away from the roadway. Expect tighter plant spacing when compared to landscape designs that are for solelyaesthetic uses.Space Requirements: Space availability can pose a significant challenge when designing avegetation barrier to improve near-road air quality. This is especially true where roadwaysetbacks are inflexible. While the EPA guidelines recommend a thickness of at least 10 meters(32 feet, 9.7 inches) or more, the modeling also suggests that any type of barrier (solid,vegetation, or combination) will limit the distance and amount of air pollution travel from aroadway. Because the Sacramento region has significant opportunities to retrofit existingroadsides, the following scenarios have been developed that meet EPA guidelines. We alsoprovide scenarios for locations that do not meet the EPA’s recommended 10 meter-thickness.In general, roadside vegetation should remain 10 feet (3.048 meters) from roadway edges and15 feet (4.572 meters) in vertical clearance from the roadway surface. On a Caltrans facility,trees must be planted at least 30 feet from the edge of the traveled way. Caltrans will notmaintain vegetation planted less than 10 feet from fences, walls, ditches or drainage features.6Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewIV – Example ScenariosScenario 1 - Vegetation OnlyAn effective vegetation barrier can only be achieved with a minimum planting thickness of 32feet, 9.7 inches (10 meters). Layer vegetation to fill all available growing space from groundlevel to the top of the canopy. The spacing will be very tight. Compared to traditional landscapeplantings, vegetation barrier plantings may look overplanted.Figure 1: Vegetation Only7Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewScenario 2 - Vegetation on One Side of Noise BarrierSolid noise barriers (sound walls) can be effectively paired with vegetation barriers to improvenear-road air quality. Vegetation should extend a minimum of 1 meter (3 feet, 3.37 inches)higher than the nearby noise barriers.Figure 2: Vegetation on One Side of Noise Barrier8Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewScenario 3 - Vegetation on Both Sides of Noise BarrierVegetation can be planted on both sides of a solid noise barrier. The recommended 10-meter(32 feet, 9.7 inches) vegetation thickness can be achieved through canopied trees or multiplerows of tall vegetation.‘Figure 3: Vegetation on Both Sides of Noise Barrier9Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewScenario 4 - Narrow Vegetation Strip on One Side of Noise BarrierWhile this design does not meet the EPA Recommendations, modeling suggests that, whencompared to a scenario lacking any sort of barrier, this design will reduce near-road air qualityand pollutant dispersal.Figure 4: Narrow Vegetation Strip on One Side of Noise Barrier10Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewV - Vegetation CharacteristicsThe roadside air quality benefit occurs when air pollution particles are captured by leafsurfaces. Low-porosity plants are those that exhibit very dense foliage and do not allowsignificant air flow through the interior of the plant canopy. High-porosity plants are those thathave a less dense canopy and allow significantly more air flow through. For vegetation roadsidebarriers, planting lower-porosity plants closer to the roadway and higher-density plants at thefurthest edge of the planting should have the most benefit to near-road air quality. Localprofessionals have evaluated the plant species recommended in Appendix C of this LandscapingGuidance, and rated them as Low, Medium or High for porosity.Each plant in Appendix C meets the EPA Recommendations for minimal seasonal and climaticvariability. In addition, they are either native or drought-tolerant and will thrive with limitedspecialized care beyond the 3 to 5 year establishment period. They are generally availablewithin the local nursery trade or can be easily acquired. The list includes additional criteria suchas desirable leaf surface characteristics (waxy, hairy and with high leaf surface area), capacity toproduce BVOC (biogenic volatile organic compound) emissions under certain conditions thatcontribute to ground level ozone levels (1 to 3 star comparative rating scale; 1 is good, 2 isbetter, and 3 is best for air quality), flowering/fruiting and estimated plant porosity rating (high,medium, low). Invasive plants are not included. This list is not comprehensive and other speciesmay meet the criteria outlined in the EPA Recommendations.The plants recommended in this guidance have crown widths to ensure space coverage overthe first 7 to 10 years. Long-term maintenance of vegetation barriers is needed in order tomanage natural processes and replace failed or damaged plant materials.11Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewVI - Vegetation Acquisition and Planting RecommendationsBecause the preferred plants may not be readily available in the appropriate quantity or plantsize, the landscape plans should include several alternatives that can to fill the same space andfunctionality. Give nurseries or contract growers advance notice so they can have the materialsyou need in stock. Smaller pot sizes may be more readily available than larger ones.Fall and winter are the best seasons to plant trees and shrubs. The individual planting sites mayneed to be pre-irrigated if it has not rained at least 2 inches within the prior 30 days. Smallersized plants (#5 pots or smaller) will encourage healthy root establishment and future droughttolerance. In most cases, smaller-sized materials "catch up" to larger plant materials in 2 to 4years and greatly outperform them year 5 and on. Planting appropriately-sized materials is alsothe most cost-effective method when establishing a new landscape.Inspect plant materials before planting and after they are in the ground. See Appendix D formore resources on proper planting.Long-Term MaintenanceVegetation must be adequately maintained to meet both short and long term plant growth andestablishment goals.The establishment period covers the first 3 to 5 seasons after planting. An effectivemaintenance plan will address irrigation, plant protection, weed management and plantreplacement. Healthy establishment of native and drought-tolerant plants will requiresupplemental irrigation during the dry season (May-November) for the first three dry seasons2.Temporary irrigation systems or other methods may be appropriate. Irrigate in accordance withindividual plant species needs and in response to soil and climatic conditions, which will varywith planting location. Use stakes, planting tubes or other protective materials to avoid damagefrom weather, animals and weed abatement activities, where appropriate. Remove stakes andother protective materials after the roots are established sufficiently to survive a wind event(typically 3 years). Materials left behind can damage growing plants when used improperly.Abatement of invasive species will support the healthy establishment of vegetation barrierplants and will reduce fire hazards. Mulch application, mowing and herbicide application maybe appropriate for weed management depending on the location and types of weeds to becontrolled. Replacement of damaged plants during the establishment period is necessary to2Supplemental irrigation rates are dependent on a variety of factors, including amount ofrainfall in current and recent seasons, soil type, slope and aspect. In all cases, deep, infrequentwatering will result in greater establishment of native and drought tolerant vegetation.12Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for Reviewensure a consistent and fully vegetated barrier. Pruning, with the exception of targetedstructural pruning of trees, should be avoided during the establishment phase.Long-term maintenance should be guided by a project-specific adaptive management plan, witha minimum of 2 assessments per year with corresponding interventions depending on observedbarrier conditions. For example, plants within the vegetation barrier that are in poor healthmay be slated for replacement the following fall. Careful implementation and strategic care ofvegetation barriers will result in greater effectiveness and lower maintenance costs over thelong term. Avoid regular and significant pruning. Landscape management contractors may needto be closely overseen to ensure proper care.Condition of Approval LanguageCondition of approval language is most effective when it is clear and concise. It will need to betailored to each project, dependent on the specific project design and plant materials used.Sample language is included in Appendix E.13Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewAppendix A - Summary Table from EPA Recommendations14Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for Review15Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewAppendix B – ResourcesThe SelecTree website outlines various utility precautions as they relate to vegetation.http://selectree.calpoly.edu/Local Fire Prevention Standards:Sacramento Metro Fire Community Wildfire Protection Plan, Weed Abatement Requirementsand ry/61-weed-abatedocs?download 93:fps11-weed-abatementCalFire Wildland-Urban Interface Codes:http://www.fire.ca.gov/fire prevention/fire prevention wildland codesCalTrans district ces.htmCalTrans Roadside Maintenance and Adopt A Highway e.htmCalTrans Landscape Architecture Program:http://www.dot.ca.gov/design/lap/Includes links to the Scenic Highway program, which may pertain to your project given specificlocation.CalTrans Encroachment html16Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewAppendix C - Species MatrixScientific umosumCoast SpiceBush3'Trichostema lanatumWoolly BlueCurls3'Abutilon palmeriIndianmallowBush mallow4'Senna nemophilaDesert cassia4'Artemisia tridentataBig sagebrush5'Baccharis pilularisCoyoteBush/Brush5'Berberis aquifoliumOregon grape5'Artemisia ity CABVOC TypeNotes DiameterNative3'LYesNotShrub Green-gray foliage,Ratedappropriate fornorth side ofsound wall or noisebarrier, limitsummer irrigation3'MYesNotShrub Fragrant flowersRatedand red fruit, beston north/east sideof noise barriers,may cause skinirritation3'LYesNotShrub Fuzzy spikes ofRatedviolet flowers, nowater postestablishment4'MNoNotShrub Apricot flowers,Ratedfuzzy leaves4'MYesNotShrub Tolerates sand,Ratedpink 1" flowers,hairy stems andleaves4'HNoNotShrub NeedlelikeRatedstructure, airyhabit, bright yellowflowers. Alsoknown as Cassianemophila.5'LYesNotShrub Yellow-greenRatedflowers, twistedtrunk5'LYesNotShrub Lots of whiteRatedyellow flowersalong stems5'MYesNotShrub Dark green leaves,Ratedfragrant yellowflowers. Alsoknown as Mahoniaaquifolium.17Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewScientific NameHeightCeanothus cuneatusCommonNameBuckbrushCeanothusx ountainmahogany5'EriodictyoncalifornicumYerba meris arboreaBladderpod5'Lavandula x ginginsii‘Goodwin nderCenizo5'Leucophyllumlangmaniae ‘Lynn’sLegacy’Myrsine africanaLynn's Legacy 5'lleucophyllumAfricanboxwood5'5'5'CrownPorosity CABVOC TypeNotes DiameterNative5'LYesNotShrub Tough fleshyRatedleaves, whiteflowers, very toughand extremelydrought tolerant5'LYesNotShrub No shade orRatedsummer waterpostestablishment,lavender flowers5'MYesNotShrub Birch-like leaves,Ratedtail-shaped fruit,small clusteredwhite flowers,tolerates clay andsand5'MYesNotShrub Long narrowRatedleaves, bluish bellshaped flowers5'LYesNotShrub Leathery woolyRatedoval leaves, tinypinkish whiteflower5'LYesNotShrub Long, pointed ovalRatedshapedleaves; abundantyellow flowerclusters5'LNoNotShrub Silvery leaves,Ratedscented, purpleflowers5'LNoNotShrub Purple flowers,Ratedevergreen, silveryleaves5'LNoNotShrub Fragrant purpleRatedbell-shapedflowers, evergreen5'LNoNotShrub Very dense foliage,Ratedappropriate for ahedge, may bepoisonous,occasionalirrigation postestablishment18Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewScientific NameCommonNameBladderpodHeightPhlomis purpureaPink phlomis5'RosmarinusofficinalisRosemary5'Salvia clevelandiiClevelandsage5'Teucrium fruticansBushgermander5'Rhaphiolepis indicaIndianhawthorn5'Rubus ursinusBlackberry5'Rhus integrifoliaLemonadeberry5'Rosa californicaWild rose5'CarpenteriacalifornicaBushanemone6'Atriplex lentiformisSalt bush6’Peritoma arborea,Syn. Cleome arborea5'CrownPorosity CABVOC TypeNotes DiameterNative5'MYesNotShrub Lacy gray-greenRatedleaves, yellowflowers yearround, toleratesalkalinity5'MNoNotShrub ColorfulRatedflowers, fuzzyleaves, pleasantaroma,poisonous ifingested5'LNoNotShrub Pleasant scent,Ratedlong-stemmedshoots, edible,white, purple orblue flowers5'LYesNotShrub Wrinkly-leatheryRatedleaves, roundedpurple flowerclusters5'LNoNotShrub Evergreen, silveryRatedblueleaves, lavenderflowers5'LNoNotShrub Thick leatheryRatedleaves, white starshaped flowers,blue-black fruits5'LYesNotShrub Prickly branches,Ratedwhite flowers,edible fruit8'LYesNotShrub Leathery, darkRatedgreen leaves, smallpink flowers,shorter on slopes8'LYesNotShrub Prickly stems, 5Ratedpetaled coloredleaves, scented3'LYesNotShrub Shiny evergreenRatedfoliage, whiteflowers, native toFresno County.6’LYesNotShrub Silver-gray foliage,Ratedtolerates alkalinesoil and clay19Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewScientific NameCrownPorosity CABVOC TypeNotes DiameterNative6'LNoNotShrub Shiny light greenRatedleaves, occasionalirrigation postestablishment6'MNoNotShrub Hairy foliage,Ratedyellow flowers5'HYesNotShrub White, fuzzy pinkRatedflowers, longpointed leaves5'LNoNotShrub Glossy greenRatedleaves and whitefragrant flowers5'LYesNotShrub Light greenRatedleaves, pale yellow,scented blossoms,occasionalirrigation postestablishment6'MYesNotShrub White flowers,Ratedpossibly notcompatible withfire resistantlandscaping6'MNoNotShrub Red bottle shapedRatedflowers, citrussmell,hummingbirds loveit10'LYesNotShrub Dark red branches,Ratedcoffee-like berriesCommonNameShinyxylosmaHeightAcacia vestitaHairy wattle8'Baccharis salicifoliaMulefat10'Myrtus communisTrue myrtle10'Philadelphus lewisiiMock on citrinusCrimsonbottlebrush10'Frangula californica,syn. RhamnuscalifornicaGarrya erus cusberberidifoliaCaliforniascrub oak10'10'MYesNotRatedXylosma congestum6'Shrub Smooth greenoval-shapedleaves, ediblepurple berriesShrub Dense small whiteflowers, evergreen,sharply toothedleavesShrub Alkali tolerant,edible berries, verydense foliageShrub Dull green, oval ortoothed leaves,rounded acorns20Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewScientific NameCrownPorosity CABVOC TypeNotes DiameterNative10'MNoNotShrub Golden ball-shapedRatedflowers, frosttolerant10'HYesNotShrub Bright shiny leaves,Ratedsmooth red bark15'LYesNotShrub Fuzzy leaves, largeRatedyellow blossoms15'LNoNotShrub Small whiteRatedflowers, dark greendense leaves, graybark15'LNoNotShrub Evergreen,Ratedfragrant whiteflowerclusters, leatherygreen leaves15'HNoNotTreeNeedles, can haveRatedsparse foliage15’LNoNotTreeGray-green,Ratedconical, densefoliage, needs welldrained soil,tolerates alkalinesoils15'LNo2 Stars TreeWhite flowers,older trees take onweeping form15’MYesNotTreeUpright form,Ratedwhite flowers andedible, largeseeded fruit20'MNo3 Stars TreeWhite flowers andedible fruitCommonNameSnowy ndroncalifornicumOsmanthus x fortuneiManzanita15'Flannel bush15'Hybrid teaolive15'Pittosporum ataCupressus arizonicaDrooping she- 20'oakArizona20’cypressGeijera parvifloraAustralianwillow20'Prunus illicifolia ssp.lyoniiCatalinacherry20’Eriobotrya japonicaLoquat20'Arbutus unedo25'20'MNo1 StarTreeLaurus nobilisStrawberrytreeSweet bay30'30'LNo3 StarsTreeCeratonia siliquaCarob tree35'30'MNo1 StarTreeOlea europaea 'SwanHill'BrachychitonSwan HilloliveBottle tree35'30'MNo3 StarsTree40'30'MNo3 StarsTreeAcacia boormanii15'Flowers and fruit,red barkYellow flowers andberriesLarge; seededpods; dark greenleathery leaves;deep, infrequentirrigation requiredFruitless, lowpollenUnusual, wide21Draft Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near RoadwaysSacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District

February 2017 Public Draft for ReviewScientific NamepopulneusPinus eldaricaCommonNameHeightCrownPorosity CABVOC Diameter NativeTypeAfghan pine45'25'MNo1 StarTree45'25'MNo2 StarsTreeUmbellulariacalifornicaAustrianblack pineCalifornia baylaurel45'30'MYes2 StarsTreePinus halepensisAllepo pine45'40'MNo3 StarsTreeCinnamomumcamphoraQuercus wislizeniiCamphor50'65'MNo3 StarsTreeInterior liveoak55'55'MYes1 StarTreeAbies pinsapoSpanish fir60'20'LNoTreePodocarpus graciliorFern pine60'30'LNoNotRated3 StarsQuercus ilexHolly oak60'55'LNo1 StarTreeQuercus suberCork oak60'60'MNo3 StarsTreePinus canariensisCanary IslandpineDeodar cedar65'30'HNo2 StarsTree65'45'HNo3 starsTreeMagnolia grandifloraSouthernmagnolia65'45'HNo2 StarsTreeCalocedrus d

Landscaping Guidance for Improving Air Quality near Roadways (Landscaping Guidance), which focuses on the Sacramento region and aims to translate information from the EPA Recommendations for local use. The goals of this landscaping guidance document are to: Provide guidelines for evaluating a potential vegetation barrier site;

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