(2) Importance Of Landscaping. (3) - Ed

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DOCUMENTED 025 584RESUME08VT 001 637Landscape Design. A Student Handbook. Teacher Education SER-9-N0-3S. Interim Report.Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station. University Park.Spons Agency-Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, D.C.Bureau No- BR-5-0022Pub Date 68Contract- OEC- 8- 85- 014Note-145pEDRS Price MF- 0.75 HC- 7.35Descriptors-Employment Opportunities, Job Skills, *Landscapin9 Management, Occupational Information,*Ornamental Horticulture, Plant Science. Reference Materials. Site Development. Textbooks. *VocationalAgricultureThis student handbook is one of a series of instructional aids prepared andedited by the Department- of Agr:zultural Education at the Pennsylvania StateUniversity. Its organization and content was field tested. evaluated, and improved byvocational agriculture teachers attending summer institutes in ornamental horticulturein 1966 and 1967. The content includes sections of: (I) Occupational Opportunities inLandscape Design, (2) Importance of Landscaping. (3) Analysis of LandscapeRequirements, (4) Ideas for Solving Landscape Problems, (5) Structures and Plants.and (6) Estimating Landscape Costs. Each problem area lists objectives, keyquestions, new words, and the subject content. The textual material is supplementedwith photographs, sketches, drawings, forms. and a reference list. Appendixes containa plant material list, landscape symbols, information for identi fica floe% andclassification of plant material, and addresses for agricultural extension publications.Applications relate to ,the northeastern United States. The teacher's manual in thisseries is available as VT 007 681. (DM)


This publication was prepared and edited by the following staffmembers of the Department of Agricultural Education, College of Agriculture, The Pennsylvania State University:N. Laurence Miller,Graduate Assistant, William J. Brown, Jr., Instructor, R. Jack Mercer,Instructor, Gene M. Love, Associate Professor, and Richard F. Stinson,Associate Professor.Technical assistance was received from the following staff membersof the Department of Landscape Architecture, College of Arts and Architecture, The Pennsylvania State University:Wayne H. Wilson, Professorand Head and James R. DeTuerk, Assistant Professor.Illustrations, photographs, and an accompanying series of colorslides were largely the work of Richard W. Tenney, Graduate Assistant,Department of Agricultural Education.The research reported herein was performed pursuant to a contractwith the Office of Education, U.S. Department of Health, Education,and Welfare. Contractors undertaking such projects under Governmentsponsorship are encouraged to express freely their professionaljudgment in the conduct of the project. Points of view or opinionsstated do not, therefore, necessarily represent official Office ofEducation position or policy.

E DO25584Introductory StatementLandscape Design - A Student Handbook is one of a series of instructionalaids being preared and edited by the Department cyc Agricultural Educationthrough a contractual agreement between The Pennsylvania State University andthe United States Office of Education, Division of Adult and Vocational Research.In addition to the development of instructional aids, the contractprovides for two teachers' institutes in ornamental horticulture.was held July 5-22, 1966.The firstThe second was held July 3-21, 1967.Teaclers from the northeastern states who participated in the secondteachers' institute field-tested, evaluated, and helped improve the organization and the content of the unit of instruction.A special advisory committee has provided guidance in the sele.tion ofareas of emphasis for which several units of instruction in ornamental horticulture have been prepared.The committee has assisteu by outlining keyproblem areas and by suggesting important subject matter information to beincluded in the content of each unit.In addition to Wayne H. Wilson andJames DeTuerk, who have been cited previously,the following persons haveserved in an advisory capacity for the development of this unit of instruction:Darrell E. Walker, Professor and Head, Robert P. Meahl, Professor,and Craig Oliver, Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, ThePennsylvania State Univeraity.Richard F. Stinson, Project DirectorDavid R. McClay, Associate ProjectDirectorGlenn Z. Stevens, Associate ProjectDirector

TABLE OF CONTENT7PageI.II.III.IV.V.VI.Occupational Opportunities in Landscape Design1Landscape ArchitectLandscape DesignerHorticultural Extension AgentLandscape Nurseryman3456Importance of Landscaping7Landscaping for UseLandscaping for BeautyLandscaping Increases Property Value889Analysis c! Landscape Requirements11Site AnalysisAnalysis of Family NeedsArea Layout Plan11Ideas for Solving Landscape Problems29Layout of Landscape AreasIdeas for Solving Landscape ProblemsLandscaping the Public AreaLandscaping the Private AreaLandscaping the Service AreaPlacing Plant MaterialsPlanning303133505859Structures and Plants63Planning Landscape StructuresStructural MaterialsThe Structural PlanThe Kinds of PlantsThe Planting PlanSelection of Plant Materials647479829191Estimating Landscape Cost97ReferencesAppendix A - Plant Materials ListAppendix B - Landscape SymbolsAppendix C - Identification and Classification of PlantMaterials Commonly Used for Landscape PlantingsAppendix D - Addresses for Agricultural Extension PublicationsServices202561101

PROBLEM AREA 1OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES IN LANDSCAPE DESIGNStudent Learning ObjectivesThe major objective of this Problem Area is to explore the occupationalopportunities in landscape design.Students should develop a knowledge andunderstanding about the:1.Types of occupations in landscape design.2.Competencies required for successful employment in the variousoccupations.3.Types and level of education needed to attain the competenciesrequired for successful performance in an occupation.4.Future of landscape design.Key Questions1.What occupational opportunities exist in landscapdesign and what com-petencies are required to enter these occupations?2.What educational opportunities are available for securing the competencies needed for the various occupations?3.What opportunities exist for work experience in the various occupations?4.What is the outlook for the future of landscape design?Occupational Opportunities in Landscape DesignOccupational opportunities in landscape design vary with the amount ofspecialized education and experience possessed by individuals.A very im-portant fact is that many well trained people are needed who can providelandscape design services.Nurseries and landscape designers sell over 300million dollars of plant materials and services each year.thousands of people to provide these services.They employBy all indications, thesephases of agriculture will continue to increase in importance.The occupa-tions in landscape design should appeal to people who enjoy drawing, workingoutdoors, meeting people, and working with plants.Before beginning to learn to design landscapes, you must have had somepractical experience in maintaining lawns, trees, shrubs, and flowers in alandscape.You must have had similar experience in constructing walks, steps,walls, fences, terraces and other garden structures.You must be able to

-2-underst-And the symbols in a planting plan, and have followed plans in makingplantings.You must be able to identify several hundred kinds of trees andshrubs with a glance, and know the purposes for which each can be used.You are then ready for the material covered in this handbook.Hereyou will learn architectural drawing, planning, and construction, and gainthe experiences needed to be able to devise the best solutions to the problems of making landscapes both useful and pleasant.This handbook is aimed at preparing you to be a landscape designer.With additional study in nursery operations and management yoa would be prepared to enter the area of landscape-nursery work.Additional study at thecollegiate level could lead to the positions of a landscape architect, horticultural extension agent, or other professional occupations.

-3-Landscape ArchitectThe landscape architect is a professional designer and often overseerIIof large scale land development projects.Typical projects involve land usefor industrial parks, large residential subdivisions, parks, schools, highways, and golf courses.and industrial designing.Some landscape architects specialize in residentialDevelopment of landscape designs demands anextensive knowledge of plant and structural materials, engineering, artappreciation, and the mechanics of design.A landscape architect may oper-ate his own firm, or may be employed by a large one.Entry into the pro-fession generally comes through completion of a four year college trainingprogram and practical experience.Some states require an examination for astate license before one may practice as a landscape architect.For more information see Careers as Landscape Architect and LandscapeNurseryman, Reference No.7.

-4-44.4.A.-at!!".j.,,A411"100111mr,41.1. "AatliastollwLandscape DesignerThe landscape designer is a professional designer who generally specializes in residential and small-scale designs.Development of these designsdemands an extensive knowledge of plant and structural materials, engineering,art appreciation, and the mechanics of design.A landscape designer mayoperate his own firm, or might be employed by a landscape nurseryman or agarden store.A great need for landscape designers is developing.This is becauselandscape architects cannot keep up with the demands for their services onresidential and other smaller properties.Landscape designers are notrequired to hold a license to practice in most states.The amount of knowledge required of a good landscape designer is suchthat two years of study beyond the high school level is necessary for thedevelopment of the needed knowledge and skills.For more information see Careers as Landscape Architect and Landsca eNurseryman, Reference No.7.

';01. 14 f1.Oki."""4 ": 401v4 4* yott&Itt444 1443.4-.!4014E,14 ti14.ao&-;el.Ia,.-r4"10144.0tk;4" Itt . ,: !%A.-kdo7k.IAll: "44!.,f1P-.IS631,Ok.46Horticultural Extension AgentPersons in a position as horticultural extension agent instruct, advise,and inform individuals and organizations regarding horticultural problems.Lecturing, demonstrating recommended practices, preparing extension publications, and problem solving are exampLes of the types of duties performed.This is a professional field demanding at least a four year college educationin horticulture.Experience in nursery and turf industries are extremelyhelpful.For further reading see Handbook of Agricultural Occupations, ReferenceNo. 21, pp. 189-212.

-i714ta.ammZrr; . e{111 4. 1'la -Lt.trUlle -,1-1. , :.' to. 4'-. . 44. -- -1'.a.,o.*k.fl.-.sztet.,.,. .4 44'1::V0r"',4,;4/ "'"" -.'.7.11:4 '.:',,.0 -)pt .,.tr:,.441;4.i.,&7.:!.1." ,,,,.:.,.a.,,,-';.0.".at.4.401'.).;. At . ."'." c .',.1. "''e,14 .1.1., ','.;.154444C.:11.'4'tA4t.r.'a.:::.' .*.-0.t.,A*4 4' ',.ot ***Pt "1,,'AN 4. .,.':. 3.'t 4.2.I". .1.,%1. t.:1-.5-.".),"7.:tils.' N"4., 4. r ite4 ,,. ,.4. '. ! 4.,'.444 1 --,,,,,.,"., .40-r-i.t .:',.:.,,,-;,. ',.11,-.1i,;-:;.'7,.044a i4.55,414,Landscape NurserymanThe landscape nurseryman designs, establishes, and maintains small scalelandscaping i.rojects.He may also establish a landscape from plans developedby a landscape architect.garder centers.Many landscape nurserymen operate nursery orThe landscape nurseryman must have extensive knowledge ofplant materials, their care, and their uses.He needs to understand land-scape design, construction, and business principles.Entry into the pro-fession is through technical training and work experience.A college educa-tion is desirable, but not essential.More details are given in Careers as Landscape Architect and LandscapeNurseryman, Reference No. 7, and The Nursery Business, Reference No. 50.

PROBLEM AREA 2IMPORTANCE OF LANDSCAPINGStudent Learning ObjectivesThe primary objectives of this problem area are to:1.Develop an understanding of the reasons for landscaping.2.Develop an appreciation for the economics and aesthetic valueof landscaping.Key Questions1.Why is it important to landscape a home and/or large-scale landdevelopment project?2.What determines the type of landscaping to be applied to an area of land?3.What are the benefits received from landscaped property?4.How does landscaping increase property value?New WordsAesthetic values - personal values of persons for the beautiful andthe satisfyingUtility - useful, having a purposeImportance of LandscapingA site is landscaped to increase its usefulness, beauty, and economicvalue.Residential property space is usually scarce and existing livingareas crowded.Therefore, a landscape plan is needed to make the best useof the available space in providing for the needs of the homeowner.same reasons extend into park and industrial site planning.TheThey alsoapply to city and regional land use planning.For further reading see Landscape Architecture:The Shaping of Man'sEnvironment, Reference No. 27, Sunset - Landscaping for Modern Living,Reference No. 48, pp. 7-16, and Urban Landscape Design, Reference No. 56.

-8-Figure 1.A well-designed landscape is useful and pleasing tothe eye.Landscaping for UseProper landscaping should have utility as well as beauty.Walks,drives, patios, and parking areas are necessary in order to carry on thedaily routine of the family.Walks and drives should be constructed toprovide ready access to the house, garage, and terrace.drives should be an appropriate size for comfortable use.durable, non-slippery and as attractive as possible.The walks andThey should beTheir placementshould make allowances for attractive positioning of plant materials.Like-wise, parking areas can be located and shaped so that they are useful andattractively blend into the landscape.They may be shaped to be usefulfor both parking and outdoor games, such as basketball, and still beaesthetically pleasing.Landscaping for BeautyOne purpose of a landscape is to provide an attractive environment forthe owner, the neighbors, and passing traffic.houses give a good impression.Streets with well landscapedTheir beauty reflects the owner's pride inthe appearance of his home ground.

9-An attractively landscaped house is aesthetically pleasing.Peoplesee and appreciate the beauty that can be added with plant and structuralmaterials and take pride in their landscaped property.If a neighbor'sproperty is well landscaped, the homeowner can enjoy the view rather thanhaving to screen out unattractive off-site factors.The public's opinion of an area largely depends upon its landscaping.Neighborhoods with attractively landscaped properties usually have a reputation of being a good section in which to live.Neglected landscapescreate a "negative" impression of the neighborhood.Landscaping Increases Property ValueGood landscaping improves the value of the property in several indirectways.The house will be more appealing to a prospective buyer because ofthe usefulness and attractiveness of the landscape features.Buyers alsorealize the value of having an established landscape rather than having tobear the expense and effort involved in establishing landscape materialsaround a new house.An attractive landscape in a good section of the citymay be the final selling point needed to complete the sale of the house.An established landscape also can be enjoyed immediately rather thanhaving a delay of several years until a new landscape becomes established.In dollars and cents, an established and well designed landscape addsapproximately ten percent to the value of the property.The value increaseseach year as the plant materials, especially trees, grow toward maturity.Landscaping will continue to become more important as more people became aware of how well landscaped homes, commercial establishments, andpublic areas contribute to their convenience, comfort, and feeling of wellbeing.

PROBLEM AREA 3ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE REQUIREMENTSStudent Learning ObjectivesBefore a landscape can be planned and installed, the landscape designer must be able to think through the landscape requirements.There-fore, the basic objectives of this problem area are to learn how to:1.Determine the landscape needs of both a site and the familyliving on the site.2.Develop the ability to integrate site analysis and family needs.3.Develop the ability to use the "Site Analysis Check Off List" andthe "Analysis of Family Needs Check-Off List."Key Questions1.How are the landscaping needs of a site determined?2.What equipment is needed to analyze landscape requirements?3.Of what importance is the relationship of on-site factors to off-sitefactors?New WordsCompromise - to unite two or more opposing factors (example-differentfamily desires for a landscape design)Easements - rights-of-way for utilities (sewers, power lines, etc.)Field Stone - flat stone gathered from a fieldRock OutcTopping - rocks exposed above ground level but firmlyanchored in the groundStabilize - to be made lasting, without movement, permanentSite AnalysisThe term "site" refers to the area being landscaped.One of the moreinportant types of basic information needed before developing a propertydesign is an evaluation of the site.perform the evaluation.One must actually visit the site toThe site analysis includes both "on-site" factors(the house and lot area) and "off-site" factors (neighboring properties,distant views, etc.).

-12-For further reading see Budget Landscapinga. pp. 120-145, Reference No.6, Sunset - Landscaping for Mgclera Liying, pp. 17-34, Reference No. 48,The Art of Home Landsca in , pp. 17-76, Reference No. 49.The "Site Analysis Check-Off List" is a helpful guide for determiningthe basic information needed for landscape planning.Detailed informationis gathered at the property by filling out this form.After each item hasbeen plotted on the plan, it is checked off on the list.It is easiest to draw the site features on graph paper while one is onthe site.See page 19 for instructions on drawing.should be taken on the first visit:The following equipment(1) drawing boards, (2) a T-square, (3)an architectural scale, (4) a directional compass, (5) an art gum eraser,(6) No. 2 or No. 3 pencils, (7) graph paper (1 inch equals 8 feet scale preferred), (8) an 8 inch, 300-600 triangle, (9) a 50-foot metal tape, (10) adrawing compass, (11) spring clips, (12) a carpenter's string, (13) stakes,and (14) a string level.ments.A second person will be needed for taking maasure-For taking a soil sample, a spade and a one-pint jar will be needed.The drawing, the "Site Analysis Plan," is the first in a series, eachbased on information added to the previous one(s).The series includes:(1) The Site Analysis Plan, (2) The Area Layout Plan, (3) The StructuralPlan, (4) Planting Plan, and (5) The Finished Landscape Plan.On-Site FactorsWhen conducting an on-site evaluation, detailed information concerningthe property should be gathered and plotted on a site analysis plan.Thedata must be collected in the field in rough form and brought back to theoffice where it can be carefully plotted to scale on a base plan.Accuracyof the plan may have to be checked by a second visit to the site.If theowner or builder can give you a property plan prior to the first visit tothe site, data collection may be simplified.redrawn upon return to the office.and detailed.Slopes:Such a plan must still beThis on-site evaluation must be exactEach of the following must be carefully noted:Be careful to note both the direction and the amount or degreeof the slope.The information will be necessary later to

92'I90'I1IIFigure 2.1I:IlContour lines may be determined and plotted by using thefollowing steps:1.Start at one point, A, for example, and call it 100 ft. in elevation.Plot it on your plan.2.Drive a stake in the ground at any convenient distance down hill, (A').3.Run a string from A to A'; level the string by means of a string level.4.Measure the distance along the string from A to A'; mark this point onyour plan.5.Measure the distance from the point where the string is tied to thestake, A', to the base of the stake, B.6.Subtract this measurement from 100 ft. and you have the elevation ofpoint B, (94 ft.).7.Knowing the elevation of point B, you can find the elevation of thebase of the tree, B', by following the steps given in 1 through 6.8.By a similar procedure, you can determine a number of elevation points,plot them on the plan, and draw contour lines joining all the pointshaving the same elevation.9.Contour lines are usually plotted in 2 ft. intervals for residentialplans, (often in terms of feet above sea level because this eliminatesnegative numbers).

-14-Pin"B"4sNLOT LINEPin"C"%N%%%%sss.%N/%%%%/. //././II%%%cornerCornerHIENHOUSECornerII mll/.,,0.0.--.,,,.I/.00//.0"Pi"nA"Figure 3././I.oso.00 4''. .P.***%,,%,,.Corner\HEE li\\,,\\.,\\%,\\1%.,.LOT LINEPin D" IPlotting the exact location of a house on a lot is mosteasily done by making ,areful measurements from two lotcorner pins for each ce-rner of the house. For example,the precise location of house corner "I" is determined bymeasuring the distance from Pin "A" and Pin "D".

-15-develop the 1ot.Dire:.:.ion and amount of slope contours aremost important in determining the drainage pattern.In casesof steep slopes, contour lines will have to be established onthe plan.See Budget Landscaping, Reference No. 6, andLandscaping Your Home, Reference No. 36, p. 25.A simple wayto determine contours is shown in Figure 2.Soil:Note the type, depth, fertility, structure, and drainagequalities of the soil on the site.Soil type refers towhether it is a clay, loam, or sandy soil.Each type of soilhas a different influence on the development of the site.Take soil sampleJ and have them analyzed.In cases of poorlydrained sites, drainage tile lines may be needed.Rock outcromiggs:Some rock outcroppings have charm and beauty whichcan be blended into a landscape; others simply presentdifficulties and must be removed.It is important to showon the site plan the type of rock and the size and locationof outcroppings.Water:Every site plan must include information on the location ofsprings, brooks, marshy terrain, ponds, and other bodies ofwater if present.Existing vegetation:The size, shape, age, condition, location andspecies of existing trees, shrubs, and plant beds must all beincluded in the site evaluation.Also, the size and conditione. grass and bare soil areas should be indicated.Structures:Structures on the site are evaluated in terms of location,exposure and orientation, type, style, condition, and construction.Examples of structures include walls, drives,walks, patios, homes, and fences.The exposure of structuresto prevailing winds and their orientation to the sun will influence the selection of plant material.The method for de-termining the exact location of the building on the site isshown in Figure No. 3.

-16-micro-climate):Climate of siteRecord information about the amountsof sun, wind, and shade for each area of the site.Determinethe hardiness zone, winter temperature range, prevailingwinds, and average summer rainfa:l.These factors may re-strict later plant material selections.Underground and overhead utilities should be plotted on theUtilities:The information will enable the designer to avoidsite map.planting trees where their branches or roots will interferewith water pipes or electric lines.Legal Aspects:Plot boundary lines, rights-of-way, and setbacks on thesite plan.Notes regarding deed restrictions, easements, andbuilding and zoning regulations must be made.Some cityordinances will not permit obstruction of a view across acorner.Some will not permit planting of certain undesirabletrees such as poplars and female boxelders.strictions on fence dimensions and locations.Some have re-And othersrestrict out-building construction.Off-Site FactorsThe analysis of off-site factors means to consider the site in relationto distant views and neighboring areas.Common examples of favorable viewsinclude mountains, valleys, bodies of water, forests, towns, and cities(especially at night).Neighboring properties have a distinct influenceupon a site's landscape needs.A mature oak tree may be located ten feetoutside a portion of the site being landscaped, but visually it becomes partof the landscape picture.If a neighbor has a pleasant-looking backyard,the view of his landscape may be accented.Sometimes control of pedestriantraffic across the property becomes necessary.lights sometimes present problems.Noise, dust, and brightSometimes it is desirable to screenportions of the view into neighboring properties.Common examples of un-favorable views include utility lines, billboards, roads, schools, factories,junkyards, and unkempt neighboring yards.Study the following Site Analysis Check-Off List (pp. 17-18) and theSite Analysis Plan (p. 19).using the check-off list.You may wish to analyze your own home siteSuggest to your teacher that the class selecta newly built home in the community and develop a Site Analysis Plan.

-17-SITE ANALYSIS CHECK-OFF LISTLocationLot No.Client NameTelephone No.DateOn Site FactorsDimensions - lengthwidthRights-of-wayEasementskindLegal restrictions - setbacklot linescorner obstructionfence, setbackheightlengthtypeoutbuildingtrees not permitted boxelder (female)willow MILWINE dpoplarSidewalk:location plottedInstalledfuture location plottedNot installeddone by ownercityNever to be installedContours plottedDrainage - adequateinadequateplottedinstall tile linessandmuckSoil type - clayloamSoil sample takenotherCaSoil test results - pHplottedRock rubsspeciesheightwidthplottedTurf areassatisfactoryBare soilplottedrenovatereplaceplotted

-18-Structures:Outer Buildings - tilities:widthsouthlengthHouseeastFront faces northotherStyleframeMaterial - tedplottedmaterialmaterialprevailingon planHardiness zoneon planOrientation - north indicated on plansunlightwindsnowdriftOverhead poles plottedUnderground water linewater valveelectric lineselectric meterdrainage linesseptic tankdry wellsgas linegas valvegas meter.Mwind directionshade areascontrol areacontrol areacontrol areaplottedplottedplottedplottedwires lottedplottedplottedplotteddrainage fieldOff Site FactorsFavorable views edUnfavorable views Kind11.al,not neededpattern plottedPedestrian traffic:Control neededNoise:Control neededarea plottedDust:Control neededarea plottedBright lights:Carparkingneighborotherarea plottedaMMI.MM.IYMONOMMIPOIIMIt611M.M.1,

Site Analysis Plan-19-UndergroundElect.fitTele.11111.11.11 11111illIIIIIIIMIMM1111111111N ENNMEMMIIIMMBack of site kept fairly open to visuallyolum111111111111111111N.borrow space from other properties. summ.MIMEIWind1111111111111 1111111Screening for privacy 1;and to enclose the111111WPRiiINEIUMINNIRE"service area.rrA.Screening needed to insure 11111privacy and create 11111111111111Immediate access to u. ---"IIMMEMMEMMIIMMIMIggime-PJ lw ng areas of 11M1111M1111101MiMIMEservice andplay 11.211111111imhuMIERLig tly screen!PIM,entry7amminum13/443/ater & SewaileEMSPlant Hardiness Zone X88Scale: I/18%

-20-Analysis of Family NeedsAn analysis of family needs is an important beginning point for proEach family hasviding information necessary for designing home grounds.a personality of its awn.All members of the family should be asked tolist facilities for outdoor activities and outdoor living needs which theydesire.To any such list must be added basic plantings and structuresnecessary to make the site livable.For example, walks, steps, drives,terraces, play areas, and turf to prevent erosion are usually necessary.The need for shade or windbreaks should be considered.Owner preferencesfor types of materials and plants should be noted.Family size and ages influence the landscape design.Young parentswith large families will want facilities designed for the play of smallchildren.In this situation, an area might need to be set aside forswings, a sandbox, a slide, etc.Areas such as these which are somewhat"temporary" should be designed to allow for different uses in the future.Planning for hobbies and sports must be considered.Some common facili-ties which can be inrluded in the landscape plan are badminton courts,croquet courts, flower and vegetable plots, and

IMPORTANCE OF LANDSCAPING Student Learning Objectives The primary objectives of this problem area are to: 1. Develop an understanding of the reasons for landscaping. 2. of landscaping. 3. How does landscaping increase property value? The

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