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COREMetadata, citation and similar papers at core.ac.ukProvided by Repository@USMA STUDY ON LEAN SUPPLY CHAIN IMPLEMENTATION INMALAYSIA’S ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICSINDUSTRY: PRACTICES AND PERFORMANCESByAZMAN BIN DAUDResearch Report submitted in fulfillment of the requirementsfor the degree ofMaster in Business AdministrationApril 2010

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTFirst of all I would like to thank Allah s.w.t for giving me power, patience and support tocomplete this study. This research could not be possible without the guidance, help, andencouragement of many individuals. Foremost among them is my supervisor Assoc. Prof. Dr.Suhaiza Hanim Mohamad Zailani who provided me with support and advice throughoutpreparation of this thesis. My sincere gratitude extends to the staff of School of Management,USM who provided me with assistance with the SPSS software analysis. I am also indebtedto all companies who provided me with data to complete this research. Additional thanks tomy friends and fellow master students for their help and encouragement during my study.Special thanks to my family, especially my beloved wife for her patience, care, moralsupport, sacrifices, and encouragement to me in meeting the challenges I faced throughoutmy study. My dearest parent, thank you for EVERYTHING.

TABLE OF CONTENTSPAGEAcknowledgmentiTable of ContentsList of TablesiiList of FiguresvAbstrakviAbstractviiCHAPTER ONE: INTRRODUCTION11.0Introduction11.1Supply Chain31.1.1Global Supply Chain Issues41.1.2Supply Chain Issues in Malaysia51.2Background of the Study61.2.1Lean Basics81.2.2The Concepts and Importance Lean Supply Chain121.3Statement of the Problem181.4Research Questions211.5Research Objectives221.6Significance of the Study221.7Research Contributions231.7.1Theoretical Contributions231.7.2Practical Contributions241.8Definitions of Key Terms251.9Thesis Organizations27

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW282.0Introduction282.1The Lean Supply Chain Thinking: Introduction282.2Lean Supply Chain Basic292.2.1The Origin Begins312.2.2The Concepts of Lean Supply Chain322.3Components of Lean Supply Chain382.3.1Lean Suppliers382.3.2Lean Procurement382.3.3Lean Manufacturing402.3.4Lean Warehousing402.3.5Lean Transportation412.3.6Lean Customers432.4Barriers and Drawbacks432.5The Lean Supply Chain’s Practices502.5.1Demand Management512.5.2Waste Management552.6Lean Performances562.7Lean Supply Chain Performances572.8Lean Supply Chain Benefits582.9Proposed Research Framework and Hypotheses592.9.1Major Variables of Study592.9.2Lean Supply Chain Practices and Lean Performance602.9.3Lean Performance and Lean Supply Chain Performance62

2.9.4Lean Supply Chain Practices and Lean Supply63Chain Performance2.9.5Lean Performance Mediating Effect between Lean64Supply Chain Practices and Lean Supply ChainPerformance2.10Summary of the Chapter65CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY663.0Introduction663.1Unit of Analysis663.2Sampling Technique673.3Sample Size683.4Development of Questionnaire693.5Items for Lean Supply Chain Practices (Independent Variables)703.5.1Demand Management703.5.2Waste Management723.6Items for Lean Performance (Mediator)733.7Items for Lean Supply Chain Performances (Dependent Variable)743.8Statistical Analysis Techniques763.8.1Descriptive Statistics763.8.2Factor Analysis763.8.3Reliability Analysis773.8.4Regression Analysis773.8.5The Assumptions of Multiple Regressions78

3.8.6Testing the Mediating Effect of Supply Chain Quality79Practices3.9Summary of the Chapter80CHAPTER 4: SURVEY FINDINGS4.0Introduction824.1Response Rate824.2Profile of Firms and Respondents834.3Goodness of Measures924.4Factor Analysis924.4.1Factor Analysis for Demand Management924.4.2Factor Analysis for Waste Management944.4.3Factor Analysis for Lean Performances954.4.4Factor Analysis for Lean Supply Chain Performances974.5Reliability Test984.6Descriptive Analysis994.7Hypotheses Testing and Discussions994.7.1100Regression Analysis between Demand Managementand Better Quality4.7.2Regression Analysis between Demand Management101and Faster Throughput4.7.3Regression Analysis between Demand Management andCheaper Cost103

4.7.4Regression Analysis between Demand Management and104Improvement of Waste And Cycle Time Reduction4.7.5Regression Analysis between Demand Management and106Supplier Engagement and Collaboration4.7.6Regression Analysis between Lean Performances and Lean107Supply Chain Performances4.8.1 Multiple Regressions1104.9Summary of the Results1304.9.1130The relationship of Lean Supply Chain Practices withLean Performances4.9.2The relationship of Lean Performances towards Lean132Supply Chain Performances4.9.3The relationship of Lean Supply Chain Practices with134Lean Performances4.9.4The mediating effects of Lean Performances towards Lean135Supply Chain Practices with Lean Supply Chain Performances.4.10Summary of Chapter138CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS5.0Chapter Overview1415.1Recapitulation of Findings1415.2Discussion and Interpretation1435.3Managerial implication, Limitations and Future Expectations149

REFERENCESAPPENDICESAppendix A: QuestionnaireAppendix B: SPSS Output151

TABLE OF CONTENTSPAGEAcknowledgementiTable of ContentsiiList of TablesviiiList of FiguresxiiAbstrakxiiiAbstractxvCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION11.0Introduction11.1Supply Chain31.1.1Global Supply Chain Issues41.1.2Supply Chain Issues in Malaysia51.2Background of the Study61.2.1Lean Basics81.2.2The Concepts and Importance Lean Supply Chain121.3Statement of the Problem181.4Research Questions211.5Research Objectives221.6Significance of the Study221.7Research Contributions231.7.1Theoretical Contributions231.7.2Practical Contributions241.8Definitions of Key Terms251.9Thesis Organizations27

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW282.0Introduction282.1The Lean Supply Chain Thinking: Introduction282.2Lean Supply Chain Basic292.2.1The Origin Begins302.2.2The Concepts of Lean Supply Chain322.3Components of Lean Supply Chain382.3.1Lean Suppliers382.3.2Lean Procurement382.3.3Lean Manufacturing402.3.4Lean Warehousing402.3.5Lean Transportation412.3.6Lean Customers432.4Barriers and Drawbacks432.5The Lean Supply Chain’s Practices502.5.1Demand Management512.5.2Waste Management552.6Lean Performances562.7Lean Supply Chain Performances572.8Lean Supply Chain Benefits582.9Proposed Research Framework and Hypotheses592.9.1Major Variables of Study592.9.2Lean Supply Chain Practices and Lean Performance602.9.3Lean Performance and Lean Supply Chain Performance62

2.9.4Lean Supply Chain Practices and Lean Supply63Chain Performance2.9.5Lean Performance Mediating Effect between Lean64Supply Chain Practices and Lean Supply ChainPerformance2.10Summary of the Chapter65CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY663.0Introduction663.1Unit of Analysis663.2Sampling Technique673.3Sample Size683.4Development of Questionnaire693.5Items for Lean Supply Chain Practices (Independent Variables)703.5.1Demand Management703.5.2Waste Management723.6Items for Lean Performance (Mediator)733.7Items for Lean Supply Chain Performances (Dependent Variable)753.8Statistical Analysis Techniques763.8.1Descriptive Statistics763.8.2Factor Analysis773.8.3Reliability Analysis773.8.4Regression Analysis783.8.5The Assumptions of Multiple Regressions78

3.8.6Testing the Mediating Effect of Supply Chain Quality79Practices3.9Summary of the Chapter81CHAPTER 4: SURVEY FINDINGS824.0Introduction824.1Response Rate824.2Profile of Firms and Respondents834.3Goodness of Measures924.4Factor Analysis924.4.1Factor Analysis for Demand Management924.4.2Factor Analysis for Waste Management944.4.3Factor Analysis for Lean Performances954.4.4Factor Analysis for Lean Supply Chain Performances974.5Reliability Test984.6Descriptive Analysis994.7Hypotheses Testing and Discussions994.7.1100Regression Analysis between Demand Managementand Better Quality4.7.2Regression Analysis between Demand Management101and Faster Throughput4.7.3Regression Analysis between Demand Management andCheaper Cost103

4.7.4Regression Analysis between Demand Management and104Improvement of Waste And Cycle Time Reduction4.7.5Regression Analysis between Demand Management and106Supplier Engagement and Collaboration4.7.6Regression Analysis between Lean Performances and Lean107Supply Chain Performances4.8.0 Multiple Regressions1104.9Summary of the Results1304.9.1130The relationship of Lean Supply Chain Practices withLean Performances4.9.2The relationship of Lean Performances towards Lean132Supply Chain Performances4.9.3The relationship of Lean Supply Chain Practices with134Lean Performances4.9.4The mediating effects of Lean Performances towards Lean135Supply Chain Practices with Lean Supply Chain Performances.4.10Summary of Chapter138CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS1415.0Chapter Overview1415.1Recapitulation of Findings1415.2Discussion and Interpretation1435.3Managerial implication, Limitations and Future Expectations149

REFERENCES151APPENDICES158Appendix A: Questionnaire158Appendix B: SPSS Output164

LIST OF TABLESPageTable 1.1Typical Lean Supply Chain Benefits17Table 2.1Taichi Ohno and Womack & Jones’s Type of Waste30Table 2.2The Comparison between Conventional and Lean Model35Table 2.3Lean Transportation42Table 2.4The Lean Supply Chain Attributes Proposed by46APICS (2004) and Manrodt, Abott & Vitasek (2005)Table 2.5The Lean Supply Chain Attributes Proposed by Aberdeen48Group (2006)Table 3.1Sampling method and results66Table 3.2Instruments of the Study68Table 3.3Demand Management Facets70Table 3.4Waste Management Facets70Table 3.5Lean Performances Facets72Table 3.6Lean Supply Chain Performances Facets74Table 4.1Respond Rate of the Survey81Table 4.2Profile of Sample Firms82Table 4.3Profile of Respondents83Table 4.4Profile of Sample Lean Adoptions85Table 4.5Factor Analysis for Demand Management91Table 4.6Factor Analysis for Waste Management92Table 4.7Factor Analysis for Lean Performance94Table 4.8Factor Analysis for Lean Supply Chain Performance95Table 4.9Reliability Test96Table 4.10Descriptive Statistics97

Table 4.11Regression analysis between Demand Management98and Better QualityTable 4.12Regression analysis between Demand Management and99Faster ThroughputTable 4.13Regression analysis between demand management and100Cheaper CostTable 4.14Regression analysis between demand management andimprovement of waste and cycle time reduction101Table 4.15Regression analysis between demand management and102supplier engagement and collaborationTable 4.16Regression analysis between Lean Performance and103Lean Supply Chain PerformanceTable 4.17Multiple Regressions for Mediating Variable (better quality)105and Lean Supply Chain Performance (improvement of wasteand cycle time reduction)Table 4.18Multiple Regressions for Mediating Variable106(Faster Throughput) and Lean Supply Chain Performance(improvement of waste and cycle time reduction)Table 4.19Multiple Regressions for Mediating Variable (Cheaper Cost)107and Lean Supply Chain Performance (improvement of wasteand cycle time reduction)Table 4.20Multiple Regressions for Mediating Variable (Better Quality)108and Lean Supply Chain Performance(supplier engagement and collaboration)Table 4.21Multiple Regressions for Mediating Variable (Cheaper Cost)and Lean Supply Chain Performance(supplier engagement and collaboration)109

Table 4.22Multiple Regressions for Mediating Variable (Cheaper Cost)110and Lean Supply Chain Performance(supplier engagement and collaboration)Table 4.23Regression analysis between demand management and111Faster ThroughputTable 4.24Regression Analysis between Waste Management and112Lean PerformanceTable 4.25Regression Analysis between Waste Management and113Lean Supply Chain PerformanceTable 4.26Multiple Regressions for Mediating Variable (Better Quality)114and Lean Supply Chain Performance(improvement of waste and cycle time reduction)Table 4.27Multiple Regressions for Mediating Variable (Faster Throughput) 115and Lean Supply Chain Performance(improvement of waste and cycle time reduction)Table 4.28Multiple Regressions for Mediating Variable (Cheaper Cost)116and Lean Supply Chain Performance(improvement of waste and cycle time reduction)Table 4.29Multiple Regressions for Mediating Variable (Better Quality)117and Lean Supply Chain Performance(supplier engagement and collaboration)Table 4.30Multiple Regressions for Mediating Variable (Faster Throughput) 117and Lean Supply Chain Performance(supplier engagement and collaboration)Table 4.31Multiple Regressions for Mediating Variable (Cheaper Cost)118and Lean Supply Chain Performance (supplier engagement and collaboration)

LIST OF FIGURESPageFigure 1.1Fundamentals of Lean11Figure 1.2Evolution of SCM12Figure 1.3Cost versus Value Equilibrium16Figure 2.1The Forrester Effect44Figure 2.2The Effective Supply Train45Figure 2.3Theoretical Framework60Figure 3.1Four- Step Approach in Testing Mediating Effect75as Proposed by Baron and Kenny (1986)Figure 5.1The conceptual framework of lean supply chain practices, lean performance and lean supplychain performances142Figure 5.2The new restated framework of lean supply chain practices, lean performance and lean supplychain performances variables.147

KAJIAN TERHADAP IMPAK PELAKSANAAN RINGKASAN RANTAIANBEKALAN DALAM INDUSTRI ELEKTRIK DAN ELEKTRONIK DI MALAYSIA:PELAKSANAAN DAN KEBERKESANNYAABSTRAKKertas kerja kajian ini adalah bertujuan untuk memenuhi tuntutan untuk pengenalpastianpengetahuan, ilmu serta sumber-sumber yang dapat diutarakan secara teoritikal dan praktikalserta menjadi rujukan kepada organisasi-organisasi yang berkaitan dalam menjayakan konsepkebersandaran ringkasan rantaian bekalan ini. Kajian ini bertujuan mengenal pasti tahapkebersandaran rantaian bekalan dipraktikkan dan keberkesanannya oleh syarikat - syarikatatau organisasi sektor Elektrik dan Elektronik di Malaysia. Pendekatan rekabentuk yangdigunakan bagi kajian ini adalah regrasi hirarki pelbagai dan regrasi pertengahan atausederhana, bagi mengenal pasti dari segi pemboleh ubah statistik yang diuji kepada beberapakumpulan sasaran seperti pengurusan atasan, pertengahan dan bawahan yang terlibat secaraterus dengan pengaplikasi kebersandaran rantaian bekalan ini. Keputusan daripada regrasihirarki pelbagai dan regrasi pertengahan menunjukkan kos yang lebih rendah dicapai bagipembaziran (penyebad pembazuiran dalaman) dan pengurangan masa pemprosesan, diikutioleh kualiti yang lebih baik serta mutu pembekalan produk. Kekurangan kajian ini adalahkesimpulannya bergantung kepada intepretasi penggunaan dan konsep "kebersandaranrantaian bekalan". Memandangkan kaedah ini masih baru, maka pihak yang inginmengaplikasi kaedah ini perlu memahami konsep rantaian bekalan ini seluruhnya sebelumdapat mempraktikannya. Jika salah mengaplikasikannya, ianya boleh menyebabkanpembaziran yg pelbagai. Secara implikasinya, perhatian mesti dititikberatkan kepada pekerjalapangan yg ingin mencuba konsep ini dan organisasi perlu menyediakan kemudahan jabatan

kebersandaran ringkasan ini supaya proaktif dalam memainkan peranan dalam mempraktikankonsep ini sebagai satu strategi yg penting kepada organisasi. Kemudahan pengetahuan bolehdigunapakai dalam memperkenalkan praktis konsep kebesandaran ringkasan bekalanrangkaian ini. Injuksi dari pihak badan kerjasama kerajaan seperti FFM, SME Corp dan MPCjuga perlu utuk memberi kesan yg terbaik terutamanya memberi fokus kepada kajian danpembangunan dalam bidang yg diutarakan ini. Pihak kerjasama ini perlu memberikemudahan dan peluang, latihan serta bengkel-bengkel dan seminar terutamanya kepadaindustri kecil dan sederhana yg kian pesat membangun. Seterusnya, ianya memberi manfaatsecara keseluruhan terutamanya kepada badan kerjasama kerajaan untuk mengaplikasikankeberkesanan konsep ini.

A STUDY ON LEAN SUPPLY CHAIN IMPLEMENTATION IN MALAYSIA’SELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY:PRACTICES AND PERFORMANCESABSTRACTThis paper fulfils an identified knowledge, information and resources that needs and offers ontheoretical and practical ways in order to have references for the organization in order topromote the acceptance and implementation of lean supply chain performances. The purposeof the study is to explain the extents of lean supply chain practices and lean performancestowards lean supply chain performances as experienced by Electrical and Electronics firms inMalaysia. The extents of lean supply chain practices to be investigate as one of the best wayto a sense of total improvements within mentioned sectors. The analysis approach that hasbeen used in this study are simple regressions and multiple regressions in order to determinewhether it’s have the statistically significant to the existence of extensions between the set ofvariables to be tested for several defined groups like top management, middle managementand lower management that directly involve in lean supply chain. Besides, it could help todetermine which of the independent variables account the most influences towards leansupply chain performances in Malaysia. It was also utilized to determine which of theindependent variables would be main contributor to lean supply chain performances. Thefinding from this analysis revealed that cheaper cost towards internal waste lead and cycletime reduction were the most influential extended factors on lean supply chain performances,followed by better quality and faster throughput towards supplier engagement andcollaboration. Whereas, demand signal component shows that there no direct influencesthrough lean performances and lean supply chain performances. These are to say that not the

demand signal factor doesn’t contributed enough to the lean supply chain performances but itseems like the organizations giving less attentions to the demand signal activities. One of thelimitations of this study is that the conclusion drawn from the survey was principally due tothe variety of interpretations of what the term and concepts of “lean supply chainperformances” actually means. Since, this is a newly concept that need to adapt, it’s possiblethat the lean practitioners should have a solid knowledge before they implement it. It’s awaste of multiple of resources if doing it wrongly. From practical implications point ofviews, attention should be given to improve employee participation and lean departmentshould play a proactive role in practicing the lean supply chain as a strategic tool. Hence, theknowledge and information can be utilized to promote the acceptance and implementation oflean supply chain practices. Government bodies can therefore focus on related factors forfurther development of lean supply chain as a total improvement. Related government bodiesfor manufacturing and operation such as FFM, SME Corp and MPC can therefore focus onthese factors for further research development of lean supply chain practices andperformances. These organizations can organize more training and seminars to smallermanufacturing companies to expose the concept of lean supply chain upfront, as the conceptcan consider new, limits to insufficient resources.

CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION1.0IntroductionSupply chain nowadays becoming a vital entity to the organizations performancemeasurement and metrics, has received much attention from researchers and practitioners. Tosupport this, Gunasekaran, Patel (2001) and McGaughy (2004) have discussed that the role ofthese measures and metrics in the success of an organization cannot be overstated becausethey affect strategic, tactical and operational planning and control. Some more, the revolutionof SCM in the last decade has testified that an increasing number of companies seek toenhance performance beyond their own boundaries (Boyson et al., 1999; Proirier, 1999).Supply chain has been viewed on every perspective. According to Agarwal and Shankar(2002), a supply chain is an inter-linked set of relationships connecting customer to supplier,perhaps through a number of intermediate stages such as manufacturing, warehousing anddistribution processes.Accordingly, Harland (1996) have clearly stated that supply chain also often referseither to a process-oriented management approach to sourcing, producing, and deliveringgoods and services to end customers or, in a broader meaning, to the co-ordination of thevarious actors belonging to the same supply chain. Intense competition compels companiesto create close relationships with their upstream and downstream partner (Togar &Ramaswami, 2004). In the competitive environment, most leading edge companies realizedthat by transferring costs either upstream or downstream, they are actually not increasingtheir competitiveness, since all costs ultimately make their way to consumers (Cigolini, Cozzi& Perona, 2004). Hence, Cigolini, Cozzi and Perona (2004), have mentioned that supply1

chain management guides firms to co-operate with a common goal to increase the overallchannel sales and profitability, rather than competing for a bigger share of a fixed profit. Onestrategy for coordinating within and between firms with a focus on achieving efficiency,eliminating waste or overburden and creating value in products is the concept of leanmanagement (Womack & Jones, 1996). Consequently, Vonderembse, Uppal, Huang, andDismukes (2006), highlighted on the strategies and methodologies for designing supplychains that meet specific customer expectations. According to them, three different types ofsupply chains can be defined:1. A lean supply chain, which employs continuous improvement efforts which focuseson eliminating waste or non-value steps along the chain.2. An agile supply chain, which responds to rapidly changing, continually fragmentingglobal markets by being dynamic, context-specific, growth-oriented, and customerfocused.3. A hybrid supply chain, which combines the capabilities of lean and agile supplychains to create a supply network that, meets the needs of complex products.Lean thinking is focused on eliminating waste from all processes while enhancingmaterial and information flow along the supply chain (McCullen & Towill, 2001). Theimpact of lean thinking as a strategy for the supply chain and not just manufacturing isimportant and has received a lot of interest from both industry (including service) andacademia. Hence, the purpose of this study is to explore the implementation of lean supplychain management practices in manufacturing industry in Malaysia, and identifies the impactof these practices on lean supply chain performance.2

1.1Supply ChainSupply chain management (SCM) is the term used to describe the management of the flow ofmaterials, information, and funds across the entire supply chain, from suppliers to componentproducers to final assemblers to distribution (warehouses and retailers), and ultimately to theconsumer (Johnson& Pyke, 1999). Briefly, a supply chain is a collaboration of network ofretailers, distributors, transporters, storage facilities, and suppliers that participate in theproduction, delivery, and sale of a product to the consumer. It is essentially made up ofmultiple companies who coordinate activities to set themselves apart from the competition(Keiztman, 2009). The supply chain process is a core business process of major importancefor the realization of business strategy. It determines numerous key performance indicators ofan organization and has a major impact in its profitability and competitiveness. Therefore,supply chain can be considered as maybe the most suitable operational framework for atransformation process to be based on (Fassoula, 2005).According to Keiztman (2009), supply chain has three key parts. First is supplyfocuses on the raw materials supplied to manufacturing, including how, when, and from whatlocation. Second is manufacturing focuses on converting these raw materials into finishedproducts and third is distribution focuses on ensuring these products reach the consumersthrough an organized network of distributors, warehouses, and retailers. Agarwal & Shankar(2002), supported that supply chain management consists of the coordination of demand andsupply of products. It involves the flow of product, information, and money between the„trading partners‟ of a company‟s „supply chain‟ and services between a suppliers‟ supplierand a customers‟ customer.A supply chain is not limit to manufacturing and consumer products, a supply chaincan also be used to show how several processes supply to one another. For overall, supplychain are applies in a total of processes in term of IT technology, finance, and many other3

industries applications (Keiztman, 2009). Related to the supply chain performances, a supplychain strategy defines how the supply chain should be functioned in order to compete in themarket (Fassoula, 2005). The strategy will evaluate in term of benefits and costs related to theoperation. Comparing between business strategy that are focus on the total direction of acompany wishes and approaches, supply chain strategy more towards on the actual operationsof the organization. This is because supply chain strategy will be use in order to meet aspecific organization‟s objectives and business goal (Keiztman, 2009).1.1.1Global Supply Chain IssuesBasically, several issues exist in the global supply chain processes. According to Huang,Uppal and Shi (2002), there are three main problems that related to the supply chain. First isthe flow of information management in the supply chain was not instantaneous, therefore theupstream members were not fully informed with market changes such as changing trends,quantity of raw material needed etc. this impact which lead to a discrepancy in the number ofproducts to be manufactured. This issue has been supported by (Aberdeen, 2006), as knownas the “bullwip” effect in supply chain terminology.Second issue is the enterprise does not form strategic alliances with their internal andexternal suppliers, which could prove to be a source of weakness this issue has been dealtwith in the last few years and substantial improvements have been made in order to have abetter supplier‟s relationship. Martin (2007) stated that the organizational misalignment (doesnot form strategic alliances) is the most reason for deployment failure. It leaves isolated andpoorly integrated improvement projects scattered across the supply chain. It is difficult toaccurately estimate business benefits in these situations. This is because; full implementationsof lean methods require implantation of precursor systems of key component of lean systemsfor each having a unique set of tools and methods, which build on each other over time.4

Third issue, the distribution was not recognized for its important roles in cutting downcost and lead time, and increasing the availability of finished products. It also could causedelay on product differentiation, so that the customization could not be achieved and overstocking and stocks-out could not be avoided. The realization of these shortcomings led to thedevelopment of lean supply chain. There a lot of improvement to make supply chain moreeffectives.1.1.2 Supply Chain Issues in MalaysiaFrom the Malaysia's perspectives, the complexity of issues in the supply chain provides thereal insights in term of the actual supply chain businesses and activities influence the actualcurrent business situation in Malaysia. According to a report from Ernst (2004), Malaysia‟selectronic industry is practicing value-chain-based manufacturing and cluster-baseddevelopment as industrial key competencies for upgrading strategy. Evidences showed thatmost of the challenges discussed related to supplier relationships; Rosnah (2004) and(Ndubisi et al., 2005) stressed that supplier relationships are the major problem to implementa smooth supply chain practices in electric and electronics firms in Malaysia. Same goes toTareq and Suhaiza (2009) in which, they found that the relationship orientation with supplieris important when implementing green supply chain. In addition, IBM Malaysia GlobalBusiness Consulting Services (2010), trading partners (suppliers) collaboration is of mainfocus agenda of supply chain improvement. Besides, the focus on top-line revenue growth,some how experiencing challenges in several areas, including: due to excess and obsolete inventory; cost pressures incurred and profits decreased customer satisfaction decreased due to lack of available-to-promise (ATP); lowcommitment on-time products or services delivery lack of e-procurement; not consistently delivered as promise of value5

point solutions have not accurately fixed certain of issue across the entire value chain lack of product innovations; competitors advantage lead market share.To overcome such of the situations, the improvement of shareholders values (throughcost reduction and accelerated growth) and excellences of suppliers relationship, the approachof lean concept in the supply chain management are being viewed, as it also another area ofopportunities in the windows of supply chain performance (IBM Malaysia Global BusinessConsulting Services, 2010). Nowadays, the implementation of lean becoming trends and itdoes consistently prove to make improvement and performance to supply chain businesses asoverall.1.2Background of the StudyManufacturing has evolved from the ages of craft production and mass production to morerecent lean manufacturing (LM) and agile manufacturing (AM) (Anand & Kodali, 2008).Along with these developments in manufacturing, the field of SCM has also evolved andgrown rapidly. Since the manufacturing and supply chain (SC) of an organization are closelyrelated, the developments that happen in one will affect the other. As a result of massindustrialization and supply chain consumption around the world, lean supply chain concernsare increasing in importance and effect on business objectives and performance. This sectionbasically, provides background information about the evolution of lean initiatives in thecontext of world and Malaysia in particular, an

2.3.3 Lean Manufacturing 40 . 2.3.4 Lean Warehousing 40 . 2.3.5 Lean Transportation 41 2.3.6 Lean Customers 43 . 2.4 Barriers and Drawbacks 43 . A STUDY ON LEAN SUPPLY CHAIN IMPLEMENTATION IN MALAYSIA'S ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY: PRACTICES AND PERFORMANCES . LEAN . Management Management Supply Chain

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