Working Paper – UCD-ITS-WP-16-04City of Vancouver EV Infrastructure Strategy ReportDecember 2016Dahlia GarasGustavo O. CollantesMichael A. NicholasInstitute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis1605 Tilia Street Davis, California 95616PHONE (530) 752-6548 FAX (530) 752-6572www.its.ucdavis.edu
City of Vancouver EV InfrastructureStrategy ReportDahlia GarasGustavo CollantesMichael NicholasUniversity of California at DavisPolicy Institute for Energy, Environment and the EconomyUCD‐ITS‐WP‐16‐04December 31, 20161
AcknowledgementsThis study was funded by a grant from the City of Vancouver. The authors wouldlike to thank research collaborators at the Plug‐In Hybrid & Electric VehicleResearch Center, Dr. Tom Turrentine and Dr. Gil Tal for their input and researchexpertise, and Ian Neville of Vancouver for his input and feedback on drafts of thisreport. In addition, we must thank our students Kathryn Canepa and Maia Moranfor their editing and formatting expertise to help create a more polished finalproduct.3
Table of ContentsAbstract . 6Abbreviations. 7Introduction . 8The Role of Charging Infrastructure in the Developing PEV Market . 9Technology Background . 11Charging Equipment – Type and Difference. 11Wireless Charging . 14Available EVSE ‐ Power and Cost . 16Plug‐In Electric Vehicles – Power and Energy Requirements . 18EVSE Installation – Cost and Siting . 21EV Charging Options by Location. 24Home Charging . 25Workplace Charging. 27Public Charging . 30Fast Charging. 32The Impact of Demand Charges on Fast Charging Costs . 33The Business of Charging. 34Infrastructure Operation Business Models . 35Revenue flows vs. value proposition . 37IT and Data: An important part of the value underlying EV charginginfrastructure. . 42Grid Integration . 45Workplace Charging Investment Models . 47Public Private Partnerships . 50Case study: Overview of charging infrastructure development in France . 51Legitimation of the EV Market. 54Models Based on EV‐Building Integration . 57The Possible Role of Electric Utilities . 59Proposals from Utilities Conducting Pilot Programs . 62Pacific Gas & Electric. 62Southern California Edison . 63San Diego Gas & Electric . 64Eversource (East Coast Utility) . 654
Possible approaches for BC Hydro . 65The integration of the electric vehicle with the grid. 69Conclusion . 71References . 755
AbstractThe role of the local government in supporting the growth and maintenance of astrong plug‐in electric vehicle market in Vancouver is evaluated in this report. Thisreport identifies areas of action in which a local government, such as Vancouver, canimpact their region based on a thorough understanding of the current plug‐invehicle market, international demonstration projects, and research efforts.Specifically, workplace and public charging is needed to reinforce and fulfill the gapsfrom home‐based charging in dense urban regions. Local government canencourage investments in workplace and public charging by providing clearregional guidelines for installers and customers, providing appropriate incentives tobusinesses, allowing for an innovative marketplace in the vehicle charging industry,and collaborating with the regional utility to identify specific opportunities foroptimization and encouragement of utility rates and vehicle‐grid interactions.6
WRHOVICEMOUNHTSAOEMPEVPHEVPPPSAESCESOCTOUQCBattery Electric VehicleBattery Management SystemCaliforniaCalifornia Energy CommissionCalifornia Public Utilities CommissionUnited States Department of EnergyDemand Side ManagementEnvironmental Protection AgencyElectric Power Research InstituteElectrical Vehicle Supply EquipmentGreenhouse Gas EmissionsGross Vehicle Weight RatingHigh Occupancy Vehicle (or carpool) lanesInternal Combustion EngineMemorandum of UnderstandingNational Highway Transportation and Safety AdministrationOriginal Equipment Manufacturer (Automotive companies)Plug‐in Electric Vehicle, including both BEVs and PHEVsPlug‐in Hybrid Electric VehiclePublic Private PartnershipSociety of Automotive Engineers (governing vehicle standards)Southern California EdisonState of ChargeTime of Use (used in electricity rates)Quick Charging (also sometimes referred to as Fast Charging)7
IntroductionDeveloping a robust market for plug‐in electric vehicles (PEVs), including both plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery‐electric vehicles (BEVs) is critical totransitioning our transportation systems to a cleaner, low carbon future. Loweremissions vehicles will have measurable impacts on local air quality, globalemissions levels, and citizens’ health. While the role of public infrastructure inaiding the development of the PEV market is still unknown, it is one of the areas inwhich the local and regional government can play a role. The goal is not just growthof PEV sales, but maximizing the utilization of the PEVs in the region – therebydecreasing use of fossil fuels and emissions, which depends on a reliable andfunctional charging network. Throughout this report, specific actions andrecommendations are italicized for clarity.A recent poll suggests that the large majority of Canadians and British Columbians,76 and 71 percent respectively, would like to own a car that is not powered bygasoline, including electric vehicles. The same poll further suggests that 81 percentof Canadians and 80 percent of British Columbians think that electric vehicles arethe “way of the future” (Ipsos, 2015). With regard to the environmental impacts ofdisplacing petroleum with electricity for transportation, 91% of British Columbiansbelieve, according to the poll, that electric vehicles would bring about great benefits.These numbers would seem to suggest that Canada in general, and British Columbiain particular offer promising conditions for the market acceptance of plug‐in electricvehicles. However, 66 percent of British Columbians and 67 percent of Canadianssurveyed indicated that while they would like to own an eco‐friendly car, electricpowered cars are “too much hassle”. This last finding may be one important reasonwhy the market uptake of plug‐in electric vehicles in British Columbia (and Canadain general) is still slow. In 2015, there were just 6,661 plug‐in vehicles sold inCanada, 0.35% of the new vehicle market, though that was an increase over the0.27% of sales in 2014 (EV‐Sales).8
The Role of Charging Infrastructure in the Developing PEV MarketThe recent National Academies Council on electric vehicles reviewed consumersurveys that suggest that public access charging stations, so far predominantly level2, have not had a strong impact on plug‐in vehicle sales. Instead, some of thesesurveys suggest that charging infrastructure may have a stronger impact on the useof plug‐in vehicles (Transportation Research Board and National Research Council,2015). In other words, consumers who already own plug‐in vehicles become awareof the existence and geographical locations of charging spots, which leads to morepublic charging and more electric miles. These studies have not evaluated whetherthose miles replaced walking/biking or public transit use or just ICE vehicle use. UCDavis is currently conducting an empirical study of the effectiveness of various statestrategies on the market uptake of plug‐in vehicles, and preliminary results suggestthat the impact of public access infrastructure may have not been as strong asexpected. Simon Fraser University arrived at consistent conclusions in a recentstudy, namely that charging infrastructure has not shown a very significant effect onthe market uptake of plug‐in vehicles (Bailey et al, 2015).All these findings should be looked at with an understanding of the context. Plug‐invehicles are still in an early market stage, and markets and related consumerbehavior and learning continue to evolve. Much of the investment in charginginfrastructure was done during the very early years of the market launch of thesevehicles initiated with the EV Project (launched in select cities in the US in 2010),when very little was known about best practices for strategic deployment of thisinfrastructure. The early stage can be characterized as one of experimentation,where ideas are tested to learn about best practices. It is possible that investmentsin infrastructure were inefficient initially, failing to identify the best locations forinstallations, or not being able to deploy stations at desired locations. The mostcommon factors that affected installing Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)was the willingness of the property or business owner to host the EVSE, installationcosts, and parking location relative to electricity source rather than the desirability9
of the location or expected demand.We also hypothesize that the relationship between availability of public accessinfrastructure and plug‐in vehicle adoption may be more indirect and complex. Ourstudies consistently show that public awareness of electric vehicles is low (Kurani,2016) and that peer‐to‐peer communication is a key driver of awareness and likelyof plug‐in vehicle adoption (Axsen, 2010). Innovation scholars and practitionershave known about these peer‐to‐peer dynamics for decades, usually with the nameof “contagion” (as the models used to study diffusion of innovations borrowed fromthose used in the study of epidemics). In this context, the role of public accesscharging infrastructure may be first to help existing owners of plug‐in vehicles havea good consumer experience with the product. Once that happens, these consumerswill feel more inclined to recommend plug‐in vehicles in their social networks,which in turn can induce more plug‐in vehicle adoption. This speaks to the potentialvalue of investing in charging infrastructure in settings where social interaction islikely—for example, the workplace. One important message is to integrate effectiveplanning as well as program evaluation into infrastructure investments, to ensurethat earlier learning is incorporated and to document lessons learned that caninform future investments.The value chain possibilities for electric vehicle charging infrastructure are morecomplex than those currently seen for conventional pump fuels. It is fair to stateearly in this report that the search for sustainable business models for the supply ofstand‐alone public access charging equipment is still open. It is helpful, however, tomention two elements that will inform our discussions. First, the fact thatbusinesses and other organizations are installing charging stations at a cost,suggests that a business model exists, or at least that it is believed to exist. Second,conventional fuel stations make a significant portion of their profits from the salesof convenience store items rather than purely liquid fuels (National Association forConvenience and Fuel Retailing) due to the low profit margins on fuel sales. It isequally likely that EV infrastructure will also be dependent on associated sales10
rather than purely electricity sales for the same reason, with the added constraint ofa low cost, home‐charging option for most PEV drivers.Technology BackgroundThis section includes a description of the electrical requirements for the installationof charging infrastructure, both for level 2 and DC Fast Charging, a review of theretail price of typical level 2 and DC fast charge equipment, and a description ofelectrical variables during charging, including how current and power vary duringthe charging event as a function of time and other variables (e.g. state of charge). Allof these factors will affect the utilization, pricing, and business case for installation.Later in this chapter, we include some purchase and installation cost informationfrom the early US market as a reference. Infrastructure type, installation costs, anddwell time will have a direct impact on the return on investment that an owner andoperator can expect.Charging Equipment – Type and DifferenceThe Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) or Electric Vehicle Charging Station isa device to transfer electricity from the electric grid and distribute electricity toplug‐in electric vehicles. Electric vehicle charging is the process of converting ACelectricity from the AC electric grid to DC electricity and storing DC electricity in DCbatteries of electric vehicles. The power electronics used to convert AC to DC and tocontrol battery charging is a “charger”. Two basic types of charging stations: ACcharging and DC Fast charging have been defined according to where the charger ispositioned. The difference is where the AC/DC conversion and the charging controlis done. The diagram in Figure 1 illustrates where the charger is positioned.11
Figure 1. AC and DC Charging Paths (modified, source: pluginamerica.org)All charging systems take AC power from the grid and convert it to DC power at asuitable voltage for charging the battery. AC Level 1 and AC Level 2 charging arelow power charging and are implemented on the vehicle onboard charger. AC Level1 and Level 2 charging stations merely deliver the AC power to the vehicle. DC FastLevel 1 and Level 2 Charging requires very high power and very large and veryexpensive power electronics. The AC/DC conversion and the power conditioningand control are exercised in the charger within the charging station. Table 1summarizes the charging power, supply power requirement, and where charginghappens for each charging level. For all types of charging stations, the onboardbattery management system (BMS) integrated with the battery provides the chargerthe required constant current / constant voltage charging profiles.12
Table 1. Power boundary between different charging types and levels [source: Bohn, 2013]AC Level 1 charging uses a standard 120 V plug, should be used on a dedicatedcircuit, though that is often not the case for standard home use case and existinghousehold wiring. This charger is included with the purchase of a PEV, and is oftenreferred to as the “convenience charger” and carried on‐board and can be used inthe case of emergencies. Many EV lessees do not install a level 2 charger at home,especially if they have access to workplace charging, and will instead rely on theirconvenience charger and existing electrical system. While this can lead to trippedbreakers if multiple devices are in use on the same circuit, in updated homes with20A rated, and no other devices, it can be an economical solution for those notdedicated to installing a charger and driving an EV in the long term. Any propertywith electricity can be a potential fueling point for the PEVs with a portable chargingunit. The portable charging unit comes standard with the vehicle, and can only pluginto conventional 120 V outlets found at home and businesses. Since the adoption ofa standard connector – SAE J1772, every new PEV can be charged using any ACLevel 2 charging equipment with the standard connector. For DC Fast charging,13
there are three fast charging standards in various stages of adoption, CHAdeMO,Tesla Supercharger, and SAE J1772 Combo or CCS (combined coupler standard).CHAdeMO – Japan Electric Vehicle Standard, is the most established after a majorpush by Nissan for installing chargers. The CCS Fast Chargers are currently beinginstalled by ABB and Chargepoint, and serve the American and German automakerswho have agreed to implement that standard, but were later to market withvehicles, and chargers. Another available in the market is the Tesla Supercharger,but for now it is only a proprietary device, dedicated to the Model S and Model X.These three DC Fast charging interfaces are not physically compatible. Some EVshave two separate connectors to accommodate different charging standards. OtherEV owners need to find the DC Fast charging station that’s compatible with theirEVs.Wireless ChargingWireless charging is a young technology that can be deployed in either dynamic orstatic charging applications, where energy is transferred wirelessly though amagnetic field, with a coil in the road connected to the power grid, and a receiver onthe bottom of the vehicle. Currently, some companies such as PROOV are deployingstatic wireless charging for quick recharging at bus stops, where this could allow thebusses to have smaller on‐board battery packs. In addition, this charging could beused by multiple buses, on multiple routes, through strategic placement at transferstops. There are many demonstrations of this technology, one example is operatingin Den Bosch, Netherlands with 120kW wireless charging since 2012, shown inFigure 2. It is still a relatively expensive installation compared to standard charging,but may remove some aspects of operator error, and allow for reduced vehicle costin the long term. Some analysis, for example by Dr. Micah Fuller was conductedevaluating the potential for dynamic (in‐road) wireless charging for high‐trafficfreeways found that a high investment cost is needed, but that in the long termcould be a more cost effective approach to extending range than increasing batterycapacity (Fuller, 2016).14
Figure 2: 120 kW Wireless Charging in Den Bosch, Netherlands.The other application for wireless charging that may be viable in the nearer‐termwould be to assist handicapped users in adopting EVs, especially for home charging,since the multiple suppliers of wireless charging systems are not necessarilycompatible yet. These systems are more expensive than standard level II homecharging systems, so subsidies for their installation may help handicapped driversadopt EVs.If increasing EV adoption is the goal, and system expense is a secondary concernwireless charging can overcome lack of charging where users are eitherunmotivated or uncomfortable with the charging process, such as fleet/assignedvehicle applications, and car‐sharing applications.Wireless charging will be most transformative when there are automated vehiclesor at least automated parking. Charging efficiency corresponds to alignment, whichis achievable by automatic control. More importantly self‐driving cars can chargethemselves, allowing for very efficient use of a charging spaces and for self‐drivingcars to drive themselves to a charger which may be near, but not at one’sdestination, helping to solve the “last‐mile” problem.15
Available EVSE ‐ Power and CostEven though the PEV market grows slowly, the charging station market is taking onrapid growth. The costs of a charging station vary widely depending on powerlevels, number of outputs, and if it’s networked through one of the customer facingsystems. Most charging stations do not support the full range of AC Level 2 chargingor DC Fast charging. Table 2 lists major EVSE products available on the market, andthe range of their power level and prices.Usually AC Level 1 EVSE operates at 15 A/1.8 kW. Most PEVs come with an AC Level1 EVSE cordset, so no additional charging equipment is required. Based on thevehicle onboard charger and circuit capacity, most of AC Level 2 charging stationsoperate at 30 A – 32 A, delivering 7.2kW – 7.6 kW of electric power, costinganywhere between 450 ‐ 5000. The majority of current DC Fast charging occurswith either a CHAdeMo or SAE Combo interface and can provide 50 kW charging at125 A with the price of 19,000 – 40,000. The numbers mentioned above andshown in the table below are purchase price only for the EVSE, and do not includeelectrical supply and installation costs.Table 2. Major EVSE Make and Power Level (New West Technologies for US DOE, 2015)LevelLevel 1Make / ModelChargePoint CT2100 SeriesClipperCreek PCS‐15, ACSEaton 120VAC Universal ReceptacleEV‐Charger America EV2000EVExtend Commercial Level 1Leviton Evr‐Green 120Shorepower WU‐120, SC2‐120Telefonix L1 PowerPostMax Amps &PurchasePowerPrice10 A – 20 A1.2 kW ‐ 2.4 kW 300 ‐ 1,500Most operate at 12A – 16 A16
Level 2DC FastAerovironment EVSE‐RSBosch Power MaxChargePoint CT2000, CT500, CT2100, CT4000SeriesClipperCreek LCS SeriesBDT GNS, BBR SeriesDelta AC and Pedestal MountEaton Pow‐R‐StationEcotality BlinkEV‐Charge America EV2100, EV2200 SeriesEvatran level 2General Electric WattStation, DuraStationGoSmart ChargeSpot RFGreen Garage Associates Juice BarGRIDbot UP‐100JLegrand Level 2Leviton Evr‐Green 160, 320, Level 2 Fleet, CTLevel 2Milbank EV PedestalOpConnect EVCSParkPodPlug‐in Electric Power (PEP) Level 2Schneider Electric EVlink Outdoor, Square DIndoorSemaConnect ChargePro 620Siemens Smart Grid EVSE, VersiChargeSPX Power XpressTelefonix L2 PowerPost EVSEVolta Charging EVSEABB Terra 51 Fast ChargerAerovironment Fleet Fast Line, DC Fast ChargeAker Wade Level III Fast ChargerAndromeda Power ORCA‐MobileDelta EV DC Quick ChargerEaton Pow‐R‐Station DC Quick ChargerEcotality Blink DC Fast ChargerEfacec QC50Epyon Power Terra 50.X System, 50.1 ChargeStationEVTEC MobileFastCharger, PublicFastChargerFuji FRCH50B‐2‐01Nichicon Quick ChargerNissan NSQC‐44 SeriesSchneider Electric Fast ChargerTesla Motors Supercharger16 A ‐ 75 A3.6 kW ‐ 20 kW 400 ‐ 6,500Most provide 30 A ‐32 A, 7.2 kW ‐ 7.6kW60A‐550A20kW‐60kW 10,000 ‐ 40,000Most are 125A50kW17
Next‐GenFastExpected charging for Porsche Mission‐E(Fastned)Up to 300kWUnknownPlug‐In Electric Vehicles – Power and Energy RequirementsCharging speed is not only governed by the power level of the charging equipment,but also limited by the size of the onboard charger and the capacity of the batterypack. The 2011 and 2012 model‐year plug‐in electric vehicles such as Nissan Leafand Chevy Volt have a 3.3 kW onboard AC charger; by 2013, Leaf had offered the6.6kW charging as an option. Honda Fit and Ford Focus EVs support charging at 6.6kW. Tesla Model S comes standard with a 10 kW onboard AC charger or an optionaldual AC charger of 20 kW. In the current market, most automakers bring compactPEVs with EPA‐rated ranges of 120 ‐130 km, which have a battery capacity of 20‐24kWh. The Tesla Model S has either a 60 kWh or 85 kWh battery pack, whichprovides an estimated range of 270 km and 354 km, respectively.The battery pack includes the battery management system (BMS) that integrates thebattery and battery cooling system. The BMS monitors the key battery operatingparameters of voltage, current and temperature, calculates the battery state ofcharge (SOC), and controls the charging rate. Usually, the battery is first charged at aconstant current and then a constant voltage. The BMS provides the requiredcurrent to the charger. Figures 2 through 6 show several daily charging powerprofiles measured from a workplace 6.6 kW AC Level 2 charger, with chargingelectricity consumption range of 6‐60 kWh per charging event. These differentcharging profiles are just 4 examples measured at a single charger at UC Davis.Different EV manufacturers use various types of battery chargers based on thebattery chemistry and the method to control the charging rate. All the chargingstarts with a constant current charging until the voltage reaches a set value. Then,some onboard chargers stop charging immediately, while some change to a constantvoltage control and continue charging at tapered power to ensure the battery is fullycharged. Figure 7Figure 4 illustrates the typical monthly usage of a workplace Level2 charging station. These profiles help identify the variation of charging power18
demand across hours and days and may help host organizations plan for thecharging demand and utilization rules ahead of installation.7Charging Power (kW)6543210681012Time (Hour)1416Figure 3: Daily charging load profile of a GE charger at West Village (Two vehicle charging at 3.5 and 6kW, each withdrawing 12‐13 kWh)7Charging Power (kW)65432108101214Time (Hour)1618Figure 4: Daily charging load profile of a GE charger at West Village (Two charging at 6 kW, eachwithdrawing 12‐13 kWh)19
8Charging Power (kW)76543210681012Time (Hour)141618Figure 5: Daily charging load profile of a GE charger at West Village (One possible Tesla charging at 6.6kW, withdrawing 50 kWh electricity)7Charging Power (kW)65432106810121416Time (Hour)Figure 6: Daily charging load profile of a GE charger at West Village (Two vehicle charging at 6 kW and3.5 kW, withdrawing 5 kWh and 10 kWh, respectively)20
87Charging Power (kW)65432100510‐115202530Time (Day)Figure 7: Example of a Workplace Charging Station Utilization over a one‐month period (February 2015)EVSE Installation – Cost and SitingIn general, installing an EVSE involves five significant steps:1. Assess the installation site for the EVSE,2. Obtain electrical wiring permits,3. Coordinate with local utility company for electricity metering,4. Installation of the EVSE and the electric panel upgrade, if necessary, by alicensed electrician or EVSE supply company5. Operate the EVSE.The specifics of each of these steps will vary significantly by site, and installationtype – whether private, public (on‐road, or parking lot) or semi‐private (for exampleworkplaces. The costs of installing charging stations include equipment, installation,operating and maintenance costs. In this section, EVSE installation data gatheredover the past five years is presented as a point of reference for the Vancouverregion.21
Installation costs vary widely according to circumstances such as the availabilityand capacity of the utility supply. The average labor, materials, permit, trenchingand repair, concrete work costs for installing a new charging station aresummarized in Table 3 as of 2013. The parking and electricity paymentmanagement costs are not included in Table 3. The expected lifetime of the chargingstations is 10 years or 10,000 cycles, and include manufacturer warranties of 1‐3years, though some analyses use EVSE system lifetimes of up to 20 years (SilverSpring Networks, 2010).Table 3. Installation Costs in US dollars for Publicly Available EVSE/Charge Stations as of Sept. 2013(EnergyStar, 2013)A new report from the US Department of Energy in Nov. 2015, looked at averageinstallation costs, as well as provided the range of installations costs per unit (Figure8), and the average installation cost by regions that were part of the EV Project(Figure 9). These should help provide some context for the City of Vancouver toconsider when planning for EVSE installations.22
Figure 8: Installation costs as of Nov.
of plug‐in vehicles (Transportation Research Board and National Research Council, 2015). In other words, consumers who already own plug‐in vehicles become aware . where ideas are tested to learn about best practices. It is possible that investments in infrastructure were inefficient initially, failing to identify the best locations for
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Nine roles city governments can play to support innovation and entrepreneurship 12 OPENNESS 14 1. CITY AS REGULATOR 15 2. CITY AS ADVOCATE 18 3. CITY AS CUSTOMER 21 INFRASTRUCTURE 24 4.CITY AS HOST 25 5. CITY AS INVESTOR 28 6.CITY AS CONNECTOR 31 LEADERSHIP 34 7. CITY AS STRATEGIST 35 8. CITY AS DIGITAL GOVERNOR 38 9. CITY AS DATAVORE 41 .
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These technical guidelines are: To be read in conjunction with the City of Vancouver "Childcare Design Guidelines". To be read in conjunction with Vancouver Coastal Health's "Design Resource for Child Care Facilities" and "Director of Licensing Standards of Practice - Safe Play Space".
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