Chapter 13 Two Evolving Energy Technology Pathways

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Chapter 13Two Evolving Energy Technology PathwaysScott SamuelsenCitation:Scott Samuelsen, “Two Evolving Energy Technology Pathways,” Chapter 13 inBending the Curve: Climate Change Solutions, V. Ramanathan (Ed.), the Regentsof the University of California), 2019. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/6kr8p5rq.This is a chapter in “Bending the Curve,” a book addressing climate change published by theUniversity of California in 2019. “Bending the Curve” is an open source book, available todownload by clicking on the link above and following the instructions.

ARTwo EvolvingSCOTT SAMUELSENUC Irvine

CHAPTER CONTENTS13 113 213 313 413 513 613 71 -Learning Objectives13-3Overview13-6Introduction13-8Fuel Cell Technology13-19100% Renewable Grid13-26Merging of Transportation13-30Smart Grid Technology13-36Microgrid Technology13-40Summary13-44Sources for the Figures13-47Sources for the Text13-47

Learning ObjectivesAt the end of the chapter, the reader should be able to do the following:Identify the roles of electric power generation and transportationin both climate change and the degradation of urban air quality.Explain the role of combustion in both the generation of electricityand the powering of vehicles today, as well as the role ofcombustion in climate change and the degradation of urban airquality.Identify the alternatives to combustion for the generation ofelectricity and the powering of vehicles.Understand fuel cell technology and the application of fuel cells tothe generation of electricity and the powering of vehicles.Delineate the attributes and challenges associated with thegeneration of (1) renewable electric power and (2) renewablehydrogen.Describe the two major pathways that are evolving in the electricgrid, the evolution of vehicle engines and fuels, and the mergingof the electric grid with transportation in response to mitigatingclimate change and the degradation of urban air quality.Explain smart grid technology.ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s1 -

Nomenclature CDegrees CelsiusACAlternating currentBEVBattery electric vehicleCCHPCombined cooling, heat, and powerCHMethaneCHPCombined heat and powerDCDirect currentDERDistributed energy resourcesDGDistributed generationFCFuel cellFCEVFuel cell electric vehicleGrid-to-vehicleGHGsGreenhouse gasesGTGas turbineISOIndependent system operatorMCFCMolten carbonate fuel cellMWMegawattsPAFCPhosphoric acid fuel cellPEMFCProton exchange membrane fuel cellPEVPlug-in electric vehiclePFCEVPlug-in fuel cell electric vehiclePMParticulate matterSMRSteam methane reformationSOFCSolid oxide fuel cellVehicle-to-gridWDAT1 -ChapterWTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s

SymbolsBEVsHydrogen batteriesCentral combustion plantsHydrogen dispensersElectric batteriesIndustriesElectrolyzersNuclear plantsFCEVsPFCEVsFuel cell/gas turbine hybrid(fuel cell/GT hybrid)ResidencesFuel cells (FCs)Small gas turbinesGas turbines (GTs)Solar photovoltaic panelsGasoline stationscommercial buildingsHydroelectric plantsChapterWind generatorsTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s1 -

OverviewClimate change and the degradation of urban air quality are forcing paradigm shifts in the two key sources emitting carbon dioxide (CO2) andother pollutants into the atmosphere: electric power generation andtransportation. Combustion of fossil fuels is the reason, serving as both(1) the conversion technology for both the generation of electricity andthe powering of vehicles and (2) the principal source worldwide of CO2and “criteria” pollutants (that is, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur diox-ide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, and particulate; see Box 13.1). While CO2 isa concern for global climate change, criteria pollutants are primarily aconcern because of their local impacts on human health. As emissionsof carbon are reduced, attention to the concomitant reduction in theemission of criteria pollutants must be addressed as well.To reduce the emission of CO2 and criteria pollutants, the historicalreliance on combustion needs to be displaced. This chapter outlinestwo pathways that are evolving to transform both the electricity andtransportation sectors from a classic combustion-dominant construct(that has supported the economic growth and evolution of a myriad ofsocietal conveniences over the last century) to a renewable-dominantconstruct (that is evolving in the new millennium in response to environmental impacts, geopolitics, and fossil fuel resource constraints).Among the notable characteristics of the two pathways is the mergingof the transportation and electricity sectors (for example, plug-in electric vehicles charging with electricity) and the deployment of energystorage technologies to buffer and manage the idiosyncrasies (for example, temporal variation, intermittency, low capacity factor) associatedwith renewable wind and solar power generation. While the pathwaysare identical early in the transition, they differ in the future years. Inparticular, the first pathway projects that electric battery technologyand pumped hydro will alone manage the solar and wind resources nowand in the future. The second pathway projects that, in addition to battery energy technology and pumped hydro, the following two additionalresources will be required in the future:1 - Renewable hydrogen “battery” technology. 24/7, clean, load-following renewable power generation.ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s

For both pathways, the goal is to establish a 100% renewable electricity sector and a 100% renewable transportation sector with thefollowing characteristics: (1) zero emission of greenhouse gases (tomitigate climate change), (2) zero emission of criteria pollutants (tomitigate degraded urban air quality), and (3) energy sourced locally(to mitigate dependency on other countries for energy).As a foundation to placing the two pathways into perspective andunderstanding the underlying technologies, the chapter reviews the historical role of combustion, the rapidly emerging deployment of windand solar resources as an option to combustion, fuel cell technologyfor both the generation of electricity and the powering of vehicles,energy storage and clean 24-hours-a-day, 7-days-a-week (24/7) powergeneration to manage the idiosyncrasies of solar and wind, smart gridtechnology to manage the complexity of and interactions between theelectricity and transportation sectors, and renewable hydrogen as botha transportation fuel and a resource for energy storage.ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s1 -

13.1 IntroductionCombustion is the principal technology that powers the energy economy. Simply stated, combustion is at the heart of our everyday lives,from the provision of electricity to our home and place of work, tothe automobiles we drive, to the propulsion of jet aircraft we fly. Combustion is also the principal source of the environmental impact weexperience, from climate change to degraded urban air quality.The following four principal forces are driving the paradigm shiftsfrom our dependency on combustion to alternative technologies for thegeneration of electricity and powering of vehicles:Degraded urban air quality (1943): The first evidence ofpersistently degraded urban air quality in the United States wasFigure 13.1.1os Angeles 1943: Degraded urban air uality. Reproducedwith permission from Getty Images.1 -ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s

Box 13.1 Atmospheric PollutantsIn this chapter, two groups of anthropogenic emissions (CO andcriteria pollutants) are considered. The formal designation of criteriapollutants (ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxSCAir Act based on demonstrated health and environmental impactsestablished by a series of “criteria” studies. Some of the criteria pollutants (“primary” criteria pollutants) are emitted directly from theexhaust of combustion and other sources, while other criteria pollutants (“secondary” criteria pollutants) are formed in the atmospherefrom reactions of primary criteria pollutants. The concentration ofthe emissions accumulate from the large population of sources in anurban basin, they result in a health impact.ISEProtection Agency (EPA) as a pollutant that poses a danger to humanhealth and welfare. The typical concentration in the exhaust of a.hours to days of exposure near the source of their emission, CO hasa more insidious impact, taking years to generate demonstrable andunambiguous climate change worldwide.chronicled in the Los Angeles Times, describing a tenacious hazethat seemed to irritate eyes and cause many to cough (Figure13.1.1). Today, urban regions throughout the world (for example,in India, China) are affected by degraded air quality.Finite petroleum resources (1980s): Automobile companiesrecognized that petroleum was finite and demand may outweighdiscovery in the next millennium.Climate change (1990s): The world recognized that anthropogenicsources may be affecting the climate, leading to the signing of theUN Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992 (Chapter10).ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s1 -

CTLF EL ATE EFF C E CLL TA T ECOMBUSTION CHEMISTRYTHERMAL YFigure 13.1.2Combustion.Fuel independence (2001): The assault on the World Trade Centerenhanced the urgency to reduce US dependence on foreignsources of petroleum.Depending on the type of engine, either air is compressed to a highpressure and fuel is added, or a fuel-air mixture is compressed to ahigh pressure. In both cases, the fuel-air mixture is then ignited, initiating aprocess (essentially “burning” the fuel-air mixture)that transforms the energy bound in the fuel (for example, gasoline)to high-temperature gas (thermal energy). The high-pressure, hightemperature gas then pushes on a piston (to power the transmission ina traditional gasoline vehicle, or generate electricity in a gasoline hybridvehicle) or expands through a turbine (to generate electricity for thehome and business). From this process, depicted in Figure 13.1.2, youcan intuitively deduce that (1) the efficiency (the percentage of energybound in the fuel that is transformed to useful power) will be limited bythe friction associated with all of the mechanical steps, and (2) criteriapollutants will be formed because of combustion chemistry and emittedin the exhaust.When you consider the role of combustion in everyday life, theexamples seem limitless (for example, cooking; heating water; spaceheating; generating electricity; propelling aircraft and rockets; andpowering automobiles, buses, trucks, locomotives, and ships). Simplystated, combustion is interwoven into the fabric of both the quality oflife and the economics of the world’s markets.1 -1ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s

ELECTRIC POWER, VEHICLE POWERTHERMAL ENERGYFUEL2,000lbsTONEXHAUSTCOMBUSTIONAIR80% OF WORLD’S POWERLL TA TACO2 H2O N2GHG HC, CO, NOx,URBAN AIR QUALITY 90% OF WORLD’S POLLUTANTS CONSUMES 400 LBS OF O2PER TANK FULL OF FUEL 94% OF WORLD’S CO2Figure 13.1.3 Combustion impacts. Image of earth reproduced withpermission from Science Photo Library.In Figure 13.1.3, the relationship between combustion and the environment is illustrated. Fuel and air are injected into a chamber, ignitedto liberate the energy bound in the fuel into thermal energy, and expanded to produce a useful product.Unfortunately, combustion has an exhaust as a by-product composed of criteria pollutants that degrade urban air quality (affecting thepublic health) and carbon dioxide (affecting the world’s climate). Notably, the amount of criteria pollutant mass in the exhaust is minusculeand was historically ignored until the first consequences to public healthin modern times surfaced in 1943 (Los Angeles) and 1952 (London). Itis as if Nature incorporated environmental impacts in the combustionof fossil fuels to counsel the world’s population that combustion is notsustainable.Why is it that such a minuscule emission of a few chemical criteriapollutant molecules affects the urban air basin, and a larger but stillRamifications of combustion exhaust were observed centuries before, an exampleof which is “fumifugium” (Evelyn 1661).ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s1 -11

relatively modest emission of CO2 affects the world’s climate? Considerthat the atmosphere is evenly distributed in a thin layer around theEarth, barely 10 miles in depth. In Figure 13.1.3, the purple sphere in theimage represents the volume of all the air if it were gathered together,relative to the volume of the Earth. The image conveys the surprisinglysmall air resource upon which life on Earth depends, and the relativelysmall volume of air into which products of combustion are injected.Within this small volume, CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) ac-crue to affect climate, and secondary criteria pollutants are formed andprimary criteria pollutants amass to degrade urban air quality. As notedin Figure 13.1.3, combustion is responsible for over 90% of the world’semission of CO2 and criteria pollutants.In addition to contaminating the air resource with CO2 and criteriapollutants, the combustion process has an impact not widely recognized: namely the consumption of oxygen from the air. For every tankfulof gasoline in your car, a ton of air (2,000 pounds) passes throughyour engine, and 400 pounds of oxygen are consumed. Given the finiteresource of oxygen in the atmosphere, this is sobering. While Natureappears to be replenishing the oxygen removed to date, an increasingdemand for oxygen could lead to an additional point of environmentalstress. Fortuitously, the evolving transition from a classic “combustiondominant construct” to a “renewable-dominant construct” will, in parallel with reducing the emission of CO2 and criteria pollutants, serve tomitigate the likelihood of this environmental stress.A principal role of combustion is the generation of electricity. The electric grid is represented in Figure 13.1.4 in its classic form. Electric poweris generated at large, central power plants in the general range of 100 to1,000 megawatts (MW). While hydro and nuclear contribute to varyingdegrees, combustion fueled by fossil fuels (natural gas, oil, or coal) hashistorically been the dominant strategy for the generation of electricity.The classic form of the electricity grid, however, is not the only wayin which electricity can be provided to houses, businesses, and factories. Figure 13.1.5 illustrates the following four potential paradigm shiftsfrom the classic to the future electric grid.1 -1ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s

CENTRAL GENERATIONCOMBUSTIONHYDRONUCLEARFigure 13.1.4The classic electric grid.Use(DG), the generation of power at thepoint of use (Figure 13.1.5). This could take the form of fossilfuel power plants such as gas turbines, solar panels, fuel cells,or ground source heat pumps that extract heat from under theground. The advantages of this paradigm are threefold: Avoiding transmission losses. By generating electricity at thepoint of use, the loss in energy due to conveying electricityfrom central power generators to the urban loads, estimatedto be in general 7%, is avoided. Increasing reliability. Generating electricity at the point ofuse increases the reliability of the electricity supply to thecustomer. Should the grid experience an outage, for example,DG can power critical circuits (at a minimum) and, if needed,power all circuits. Capturing and using exhaust heat. With generation at the pointof use, the heat in the exhaust can be captured and used toserve thermal loads (such as steam, hot water, and chilledwater) and thereby displace electricity and natural gas thatChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s1 -1

DISTRIBUTED GENERATIONCCENTRAL GENERATIONTCOMBUSTIONINTERMITTENCYDIURNAL CYCLERENEWABLECTINTERMITTENCYDIURNAL CYCLEHYDRONUCLEARFigure 13.1.5The emerging electric grid.would otherwise be required for these purposes. This givesrise to high overall efficiencies that can exceed 90%. Termsused to describe this attribute are combined heat and power(CHP) and combined cooling, heat, and power (CCHP).Provide direct current power. The clean power generatorsemerging for the DG market (for example, photovoltaic panels,fuel cells, and microturbine generators) produce direct current(DC) that is converted to alternating current (AC) with aconcomitant loss of energy estimated to be 10%. Then, the ACpower is converted back to DC (with another estimated lossof 10%) to serve DC loads in a building, examples of which arelighting, personal computers, and servers. By serving these loadsdirectly with DC, DG can avoid the conversion inefficiencies.Deploy renewable power generation. The third paradigm shift isthe deployment of renewable solar and wind resources in centralgeneration, as well as the deployment of solar in distributedgeneration (Figure 13.1.5). The advantage of this paradigm is thedisplacement of the fossil fuel generation of power, by utilizing the1 -1ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s

sun as the fuel resource, and the transition from combustion to asustainable future that supports a clean, inexhaustible fuel supply(the sun) and protection of the environment. In California, forexample, the penetration of renewable solar and wind resources hasincreased dramatically in the past decade (exceeding 30%) and is oncourse to meet a target of 60% in 2030 (Figure 13.1.6). California’srenewable energy policies are discussed further in Chapter 9.In contrast to traditional central generating plants that produceelectricity continuously around the clock, renewable solar andwind resources vary—that is, the power produced variesthroughout the day due to the presence and angle of the sun andthe availability and strength of the wind. They also experience, such as from a cloud momentarily shading aphotovoltaic resource and dropping the generation, or a burstor drop in wind momentarily increasing or decreasing generationfrom a wind source. Diurnal variation refers to the daily cycle,while intermittencies are short-term and less predictable.Renewable resources also have a low capacity factor, definedas the percentage output divided by the maximum (often called“name plate”) output over a month, year, or other period of time.For example, traditional central plants have capacity factors ofapproximately 50%, whereas renewable resources have capacityfactors of approximately 25% (solar) and 32% (wind). The capacityfactors of 24/7 base load generators are below 100% because ofload following (that is, plant operators or controllers turning downthe generation to match the load), whereas the capacity factorsfor renewable resources are low because of the diurnal variation.Renewable resources cannot load follow, generating insteadwhenever the “fuel” (sun or wind) is available. As a result,renewable wind and solar are “must take” resources, and othertechnologies must be used to meet the load demand. If theload is less than the renewable generation capacity, either theexcess energy must be stored (for example, in electric batteries,A base load generator is an electric power plant that provides a constant supplyof electricity to meet the minimum load demand.ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s1 -1

2030Figure 13.1.6 California annual renewable percentage estimates. Data fromCalifornia nergy Commission 2018.as pumped hydro, or in the generation of hydrogen), or therenewable generation resources must be. Curtailment isthe action of reducing (in the extreme, turning off) the renewablewind or solar generation resource when load on the grid (thatis, demand) is insufficient to utilize the electricity that wouldotherwise be produced.Improve energy storage. A fourth paradigm shift is the deploymentof battery storage at both the central and distributed generationlevels (Figure 13.1.5) to buffer and manage (1) the diurnalvariation and intermittencies associated with wind and solarrenewable resources, (2) uncontrolled vehicle charging loads,and (3) the demand for rapid ramping of spinning reservesUncontrolled vehicle charging loads result from the charging of plug-in electricvehicles (PEVs) with no control over key variables (for example, the time of daythe charging occurs, the duration of the charging, and the rapidity with whichcharging occurs). As the population of PEVs grows, control over these variableswill be required to protect grid resources (for example, transformers) and assurethat generation resources are available to meet the charging load.Spinning reserves refers to rotating machinery (for example, gas turbines) that arespinning but generating little or no electricity and ready thereby to immediately(with a short delay) generate electricity if called upon. (This is similar to an aircraftwith engines idling at the beginning of takeoff.)1 -1ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s

a)b)rurcLiLiAEl ctr l tFigure 13.1.7CatAEl ctr l tCatithium ion battery.with the goal to provide a resource that can absorb an increase ingeneration in the absence of load and also discharge energy whenthe load exceeds the generation capacity.The most pervasive electric battery technology used today,from cell phones to multimegawatt applications, is the lithium-ion(Li-ion) battery (Figure 13.1.7). Just like your flashlight battery,the Li-ion battery stores energy (by charging on demand) anddispatches energy (by discharging on demand).While the electrolyte allows lithium ions to flow in bothdirections, electrons are rejected by the electrolyte and mustinstead flow through an external circuit from one electrode to theother. When the battery is fully charged, all of the lithium ions arein the anode. When the battery is discharging (Figure 13.1.7a), thelithium ions travel through the electrolyte to the cathode while theelectrons travel through the external circuit and energize a load(for example, a lightbulb). When the battery is charging, energyfrom a power source (for example, the grid) creates a flow ofelectrons from the positive cathode back to the negative anode.ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s1 -1

Anodes in a Li-ion battery are typically composed of a carbonmaterial that is able to absorb and store the electric charge. Thecathode is an oxide of lithium such as lithium nickel manganesecobalt oxide, or lithium manganese oxide.In the future, energy storage technologies may be required inaddition to electric batteries to (1) absorb the enormous amountof otherwise curtailed energy, (2) provide the(rate atwhich the generation resource responds to load change) requiredfor both the absorption and reuse of the energy, (3) store theenergy for months (for example, from one season to another), and(4) counter the self-discharge associated with electric batteries.While pumped hydro is expected to complement electric batteries,opinions differ as to whether additional, more flexible and highercapacity energy storage technologies (for example, flow batteriesand/or hydrogen “batteries”) will be required.1 -1ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s

13.2 Fuel Cell TechnologyElectricity has historically been generated 24/7 by combustion-basedpower plants. With the deployment of diurnally varying and intermittentrenewable solar and wind generation, the 24/7 plants are being operated more dynamically, namely ramping up and down in response tothe varying renewable resources. Because combustion emits carbon dioxide and criteria pollutants as unavoidable by-products, an alternativeto combustion that can operate (1) more efficiently than combustion(thereby reducing CO2 per megawatt hour), (2) with a zero-carbon fuel(thereby emitting no CO2), and (3) without the emission of criteria pollutants would be preferred.An emerging alternative to combustion is(Fig-ure 13.2.1), which converts fuel and air to electricity in a single step.Intuitively, you can imagine a higher efficiency in the absence of mechanical friction. You can also imagine virtually zero formation and emissionof criteria air pollutants, due to relatively low-temperature and relativelybenign electrochemistry. In addition, fuel cells are quiet—a welcomed attribute for deployment as a distributed generator in the midst of wherethe public resides (homes) and works (industry, office buildings, andhospitals, for example).The manner by which fuel cells operate is illustrated in Figure 13.2.2.Similar to the electric battery presented in Figure 13.1.7, the fuel cellis composed of an anode and cathode separated by an electrolyte. Butrather than storing energy, a fuel cell generates electricity continuouslyas long as fuel (hydrogen) and oxygen (from the air) are provided.Hydrogen enters and is dissociated at the anode into protons (H )and electrons (e ). While the electrolyte is receptive to transporting theprotons to the cathode, electrons are rejected and required to find analternative path. Engineers take advantage of this by providing a path forthe electrons to travel through a load, represented in Figure 13.2.2 byChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s1 -1

CTLF EL ATE EFF C E CLL TA T ECOMBUSTION CHEMISTRYTHERMAL YF EL CELLEFF C E CLL TA T EF EL AELECTROCHEMISTRYACT CALLEELECTRICITYigure 13.2.1Power generation options.Fu lAir2E FC222,20 C2rAFigure 13.2.21 -ChapterTwoEl ctr l tCatProton exchange membrane fuel cell stack.o ing nerg Te hno ogathwa suct2,2

a lightbulb. The electrons transfer energy to, and thereby support, theload. While “spent,” the electrons are sufficiently energetic to react withthe oxygen entering the cathode channel and the protons exiting theelectrolyte, and they close the electrochemical reaction by generatingwater. The water then mixes with the nitrogen from the air to comprisethe fuel cell exhaust.The fuel cell stack depicted in Figure 13.2.2 is associated with a particular type of fuel cell, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC).In addition to the PEMFC, the three other major fuel cell types areshown in Figure 13.2.3—the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), the moltencarbonate fuel cell (MCFC), and the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Thetypes vary by the chemistry utilized, the electrolyte used (which provides the name of each fuel cell type), the operating temperature, thetime required to turn the fuel cell on and off, and the rate and extent towhich the power output can be changed. All operate on hydrogen butcan also run off fuels containing hydrogen (for example, natural gas, biogas, and propane) that are re-formed (usually at high temperature withthe addition of steam) to release the hydrogen for fueling the stack.Because PEMFCs turn on and off like an automobile engine, operate at a relatively low temperature, and rapidly change power outputin response to load, they are ideal for powering both ground-basedvehicles (from forklifts, to automobiles, to heavy-duty trucks) and spacevehicles (for example, space modules, space stations) and for providingbackup power in the event of a grid outage (for example, for serversand telephone cell towers). Ballard is an example of a manufacturer ofPEMFC systems with applications that include buses, trucks, and urbanlight-rail trams.The other fuel cell types require several hours to turn on and off.Reformation (or re-formation) is a process to extract hydrogen from thehydrogen embedded in fossil and bio fuels. The most common fossil fuel reformed is natural gas, which is rich in methane (CH4), using a steam methanereformation (SMR) process. When methane is exposed to heat and steam, thehydrogen can be separated and purified for industrial applications and the refiningof gasoline, as two examples.ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s1 - 1

Fl H2PEMFCPAFCAH2O2H H HH2H2CO2H2OH2MCFCSOFCH2OO2H2OO2CO0 C200 C0 CCO2O2OH2OO2, N2000 CPAFigure 13.2.3EllH2O, N2Cuel cell types.As a result, they are dedicated to generating electricity for facilities thathave a relatively constant 24/7 load. These loads, while relatively constant, can vary. For example, the load can be different during the daythan at night, or during a weekday than on the weekend. The extent towhich each fuel cell type can load follow varies. PAFCs are flexible in thisregard, whereas MCFCs and SOFCs are less flexible.PAFCs were the first fuel cell product to be commercialized (in1992), and today Doosan (their sole manufacturer) offers systems from400 kilowatts (kW) to 40 megawatts (MW) based on a 400 kW module.(A few kilowatts would be adequate for a home, whereas a megawattwould be appropriate for a hotel.) While the vast majority of the systems deployed worldwide operate on natural gas that is converted tohydrogen through a reformer external to (that is, separated from) thefuel cell stack, Doosan has deployed a 40 MW system that operates directly on hydrogen supplied by a waste stream at a petrochemical plantin South Korea. PAFCs operate at an elevated temperature (200 C),which allows combined heat and power (CHP) and combined cooling,heat, and power (CCHP) applications with efficiencies exceeding 90%.The basic module of the MCFC commercial unit, 1.4 MW, is replicated to achieve the power ordered by the customer. For example,1 -ChapterTwoo ing nerg Te hno ogathwa s

ten 1.4 MW modules provide 14 MW of power. Typical systems are2.8 MW, with the largest system, 59 MW, in service in South Korea.MCFCs were first commercialized in 1993 by FuelCell Energy, the solemanufacturer, as the first high-temperature system (650 C). The highertemperature provides both attractive options for CHP and CCHP andthe ability to internally reform the fuel (for example, natural gas). Thetechnology has also led to The operation of fuel cells on biogas (sourced from water resourcerecovery facilities), thereby generating carbon-neutral renewableelectricity. The generation of carbon-neutral hydrogen as well as electricity andheat, referred to as tri-generation.Bloom Energy has pioneered the introduction of high-temperature(1,000 C

of the transportation and electricity sectors (for example, plug-in elec-tric vehicles charging with electricity) and the deployment of energy storage technologies to buer and manage the idiosyncrasies (for exam - ple, temporal variation, intermittency, low capacity factor) associated with renewable wind and solar power generation.

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