Programs, Activities, And Accomplishments

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NISTR 7568Programs, Activities,and AccomplishmentsMarch 2009

NISTIR 7568ELECTRONICS ANDELECTRICAL ENGINEERINGLABORATORYU.S. Department of CommerceGary Locke, SecretaryMarch 2009National Institute of Standards and TechnologyPatrick D. Gallagher, Deputy Director

INDEXElectronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Director’s Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7EEEL Strategic Technical Area: Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8EEEL Strategic Technical Area: Bioelectronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9EEEL Strategic Technical Area: Nanotechnology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10EEEL Strategic Technical Area: Spintronics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11EEEL Strategic Technical Area: Homeland Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Office of Law Enforcement Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Office of Microelectronics Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Semiconductor Electronics Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Power Device and Thermal Metrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Micro-Nano-Technology (MNT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Nanobiotechnology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24CMOS Device and Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Macro Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Nanoelectronic Device Metrology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Infrastructure for Integrated Electronics Design and Manufacturing . . . . . . . . 32Knowledge Facilitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Optoelectronics Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Display Metrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38Laser Radiometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40High-Speed Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Fiber Sources and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44Quantum Information and Terahertz Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Nanostructure Fabrication and Metrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48Semiconductor Growth and Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50Optical Materials Metrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Quantum Electrical Metrology Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Quantum Voltage System Development and Dissemination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Metrology of the Ohm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Quantum Conductance/Graphene-Based Quantum Metrology . . . . . . . . . . . . 60AC-DC Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62Farad and Impedance Metrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Electronic Kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66Electric Power Metrology and the Smart Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68Quantum Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70Quantum Information and Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Quantum Magnetic Sensors and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74Electromagnetics Division. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77Advanced High Frequency Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78Advanced Materials Metrology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80Fundamental Guided-Wave Metrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82Antenna Metrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84Field Parameter Metrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88Nanomagnetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90Biomagnetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92Superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94Electronics and Electrical Engineering LaboratoryThis document describesthe technical programs of thelaboratory.Contact NIST/EEEL,100 Bureau Drive, MS 8100,Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8100,Telephone: (301) 975-2220,On the Web: www.nist.gov/eeel/5

ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICALENGINEERING LABORATORY AT A GLANCEOne of NIST's Measurement and Standards Laboratories, the Electronics and ElectricalEngineering Laboratory (EEEL) conducts research, provides measurement services,and helps set standards in support of: the fundamental and practical physicalstandards and measurement services for electrical quantities; the fundamentalelectronic technologies of semiconductors, magnetics, and superconductors;information and communications technologies, such as fiber optics, photonics,microwaves, electronic displays, and electronics manufacturing supply chaincollaboration; forensics and security measurement instrumentation; maintaining thequality and integrity of electrical power systems; and the development of nanoscaleand microelectromechanical devices. EEEL provides support to law enforcement,corrections, and criminal justice agencies, including homeland security.VisionTo be the world's leading electromagnetic measurements and standards laboratory.MissionTo promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurementscience, standards, and technology, primarily for the electronics and electricalindustries, in ways that enhance economic security and promote our quality of life.ValuesIntegrity.within our organization and in our interactions with our stakeholdersImpact.through leadership in measurements and standards for our customers and thenationExcellence.in all of our undertakingsEEEL consists of four programmatic divisions and two matrix-managed offices:Office of Law Enforcement StandardsOffice of Microelectronics ProgramsSemiconductor Electronics DivisionOptoelectronics DivisionQuantum Electrical Metrology DivisionElectromagnetics Division6Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory

DIRECTOR’S MESSAGEThe Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory supports U.S. industry bydeveloping measurement science and providing measurement services over theelectromagnetic spectrum from DC to light waves. We provide measurements for DCand low-frequency voltage and current, through microwave and terahertz quantities,from infrared to ultraviolet laser power and energy. Our world-class measurementservices are supported by research efforts that develop the foundations fortomorrow’s measurement sciences, and our talented and dedicated staff membersstrive to ensure that we are positioned to meet the nation’s most importantmeasurement needs.In this report, you will find that EEEL researchers are developing the world’s mostadvanced sensors, providing advanced gamma-ray imagers for astronomicalresearchers and single-photon detectors that test the limits of quantum information.Our scientists and engineers are leading the world in a new definition of the kilogrambased on electrical units and developing nanophotonics and nanoelectronicsmeasurements to support a new generation of electronic devices. We are creatingnovel measurements of electrical and optical waveforms that provide frequency,phase, and temporal response at unprecedented accuracy and ever increasingbandwidths and data rates. Our research in bioelectronics is yielding new methods foranalyzing DNA, and our efforts in bioimaging will improve the accuracy of magneticresonance imaging (MRI), thus improving diagnostic capability.Our work in power electronics and smart grid standards and measurements willimprove electrical distribution and address the nation’s energy concerns. Our job is tosupport U.S. innovation by addressing the most pressing electronic and electricalmeasurement needs, and our staff members take this challenge seriously.Kent Rochford, Acting DirectorTo learn more, please visit our website, www.nist.gov/eeel/. We invite your inquiriesand interest in our measurement service offerings, measurement sciencedevelopments, and opportunities for collaboration.James Othoff, Deputy DirectorElectronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory7

EEEL STRATEGIC TECHNICAL AREA:ENERGYOne of the most important issues facing the nation is the need to improve our energyinfrastructure to be more flexible, efficient, and reliable while reducing negativeenvironmental impacts. EEEL is building on existing research programs in all of itsdivisions to better meet this need now and in the future. Our unifying vision is toimprove the electric power grid to become a new “Smart Grid,” providing a two-wayflow of electricity and information. By incorporating distributed computing,communications, and sensors into the power grid to improve its ability to respond tochanges, the Smart Grid will become a more robust and innovative energy deliveryplatform capable of supporting distributed and renewable sources of energy (such aswind, solar, and geothermal) and new products such as plug-in electric vehicles andelectrical equipment able to modify energy use in response to external conditions.Under the Energy Independence and Security Act of December 2007, NIST is given anew responsibility to “coordinate the development of a framework . to achieveinteroperability of Smart Grid devices and systems.” EEEL is currently leading NIST’sefforts to respond to this important and challenging mandate by boldly leading andorchestrating the efforts to develop the comprehensive standards structure necessaryfor the effective and rapid implementation of Smart Grid technologies. These effortsinclude engaging a broad range of stakeholders through working groups andworkshops, developing a shared vision of interoperability, fully assessing the currentstandards landscape, accelerating standards development by relevant standardsorganizations, and recommending standards, policies, or practices to the FederalEnergy Regulatory Commission (FERC) once stakeholder consensus is reached.Metrology development and research in EEEL addresses all facets of our energy vision,including Smart Grid. Our electric power and energy calibrations help to ensure thatelectric power metering is accurate. Our measurements of power monitoring devicessupport the ability to monitor the operational state of the power grid in real time tominimize disruptions and outages. To support the Department of Energy (DOE), wehave performed electrical efficiency testing for electrical equipment such as powertransformers and electric motors. We characterize new electronic materials such assilicon carbide to support their use in advanced high-speed power electronics. Ourmeasurements of superconductors support their use for energy applications such asfor higher-capacity power transmission lines. Additionally, our measurements ofadvanced optoelectronic materials and organic semiconductors and devices supportimproved-efficiency solid-state lighting and organic photovoltaics. Future work is alsoenvisioned to improve energy generation and storage applications.8Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory

EEEL STRATEGIC TECHNICAL AREA:BIOELECTRONICS“Bringing the Benefitsof Moore’s Law to Medicine”Bioelectronics is a field of research that applies the recent advances inelectronics to create medical equipment that will lower the cost of healthcareand improve the way in which doctors diagnosis and treat illness, cancer, anddisease. It will provide tools for researchers that will help them to betterunderstand how our bodies work. That knowledge will enable doctors todiagnose medical problems much earlier than they can now, so that treatmentscan be more effective and less invasive and costly. Electronic technologies havealready revolutionized medicine with X-ray and MRI imaging technologies and along list of other kinds of medical applications including blood pressuremeasurements, electrocardiograms, and brain activity monitoring. In fact,electronics has become so reliable and ubiquitous in medicine that we don’tusually think about how important it has become in the plethora of applicationsthat save lives every day. Bioelectronics will enable new advances in medicine byusing the computer-chip technologies that have made processors smaller, faster,and cheaper, and NIST will help make them as commonplace and reliable asgoing to the doctor's office to take your blood pressure.Figure 1. Single-molecule mass spectrometryBioelectronics encompasses a range of topics at the interface of biology andelectronics, including elements from electronics, biochemistry, biophysics,biomaterials, and bioengineering. One aspect of bioelectronics is the applicationof electronics to problems in biology and medicine. This includes electronics fordetection, characterization, and measurement of biological materials, especiallyon the molecular, sub-cellular, and cellular level. Another aspect is theapplication of biological systems and/or processes to create novel electroniccomponents. A third aspect of bioelectronics is based on the interfacing ofelectronics with biological systems—for example, brain-machine interfacing.Applications in this area include assistive technologies for individuals with brainrelated disease or injury, such as paralysis, and artificial retinas.using electronic nanopore measurements(Robertson et al., PNAS 2008; 104:8207-8211).The entry of individual poly(ethylene glycol)molecules into a single pore (top) causes transientreductions in the ionic current. Larger polymersblock the pore conductance more than do smallerones. Each peak in a histogram of moleculeinduced current blockade amplitudes (bottom)corresponds to a particular size molecule in apolydisperse sample. The difference in the lengthof the molecules that cause successive peaks is 3Angstroms (red data). The blue trace correspondsEEEL has identified and is working on opportunities to develop new molecularand cellular instrumentation tools for systems biology (e.g., metrology forbiomolecule detection, identification, and quantification) and new methods toimprove the bioelectronic interface (in-vivo electronic/biointerface chips).These include the use of protein nanopores for the detection and quantificationof ions, RNA and DNA, proteins, and toxins; the use of single-proteinnanopores for aqueous-based mass spectrometry (fig. 1); the use of solid-statenanopores and nanowires for biomarker detection; the ability to manipulatesingle particles with magnetic traps; the integration of microelectrodes toposition cells and to observe growth and toxin response of cell cultures; theintegration of microwave heating elements in microfluidic structures to controland cycle temperature (fig. 2); the use of microwave techniques to measuresingle cell ion channel events with 10 MHz bandwidth; the adaptation of micromechanical beams to DNA characterization; and the ability to form disposablechips with integrated electrodes.Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratoryto current blockades caused by a monodispersePEG sample with 29 ethylene glycol repeat units.Figure 2. Integration of microwave elementswith microfluidic systems for pinpointtemperature control and cycling (Shah et al.,J. Micromech. Microeng. 2008; 17: 2224-2230).9

EEEL STRATEGIC TECHNICAL AREA:NANOTECHNOLOGYNanotechnology opens new doors to tremendous innovation because material and devicebehavior is radically different at the nanoscale, allowing new properties and functionalities toemerge, but also creating significant new measurement challenges. Those who can engineerthis new functionality into new products and tools will gain tremendous competitiveadvantage and huge economic and technical rewards. EEEL is developing the nanoengineeringmeasurement infrastructure that is necessary to facilitate the transition of nanotechnologyfrom the lab to the commercial market. EEEL is also harnessing advances in nanotechnologyto improve our quantum electrical standards to better tie the U.S. legal electrical standards tothe international system of units and to ensure reproducible standard electrical measurements.Nanotechnology is poised to make a huge difference in the 250 billion semiconductorindustry. EEEL is developing metrology that will help enable new nanoelectronic informationprocessing technologies to supplement and/or supplant conventional complementarymetal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices that are the basis of today’s integrated circuits.EEEL has made recent advances in creating test structures and associated test methods fordetermining the fundamental electrical properties of nanoelectronic components such as Siand GaN nanowire test structures and hybrid molecular/Si test structures. EEEL isdeveloping the tools needed by scientists and engineers to quantify, design, simulate, andmanufacture reliability into nanoscale devices. Novel defect characterization techniqueshave been developed and used to begin to determine the fundamental relationshipbetween materials’ properties and nanoelectronic device reliability. New computationalstate variables other than electronic charge are highly desired in order for future, highperformance information processing devices to reduce the amount of energy per unit areathat is necessary for operation. EEEL is making strong efforts to develop the metrology inareas such as spintronics and molecular electronics. EEEL is also making advances inmagnetics and optical applications. For example, EEEL has demonstrated single-photonsources and detectors for applications such as novel quantum-based communicationsystems, quantum computing, and new quantum-based radiometry standards.Before nanoscale components can fulfill their scientific, technical, and commercial promise,better methods are needed to control their growth, purification, and identification. EEEL hasadvanced the controlled growth of compound semiconductor quantum dots (InGaAs) andnanowires (GaN) for optoelectronic applications. By utilizing microfluidic methods, EEEL hasdemonstrated well-controlled nanoparticle formation. Laser-based methods have beenutilized for the purification and inexpensive identification of carbon nanotubes. Highperformance transistors have been fabricated by the directed assembly of Si nanowires.Additionally, EEEL is exploiting novel properties in nanotechnological devices to improveour quantum electrical standards. Recent advances have been made in applyingJosephson junction technology to improve the capabilities and dissemination of AC andDC voltage standards as well as quantum-based power generation standards. EEEL alsois investigating whether the unique properties of graphene – a single layer of carbonatoms – can be harnessed to create better quantum resistance standards and improvethe dissemination of the Ohm.10Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory

EEEL STRATEGIC TECHNICAL AREA:SPINTRONICSSpintronics, which exploits the magnetic spin of the electron instead of its charge, has thepotential to revolutionize the microelectronics industry, just as microelectronics revolutionized transistor-based electronics and just as transistors revolutionized vacuum-tubeelectronics. Future spintronic devices will be 10 times faster, 15 percent the size, and use onlyabout 1 percent of the energy of today’s conventional electronics. The goal of the EEELSpintronics Program is to develop new tools and measurements that bring high-frequencymetrology to the nanoscale in order to create “beyond-CMOS” spintronic devices and architectures. The program has three thrusts: metallic spintronics (ferromagnet-basedmicrowave spin-transfer nano-oscillators, spin-transfer magnetic random-access memory(MRAM), spin-wave interconnects, and spin analogs of electronic devices), molecular spintronics (molecular spin-resonance logic, single-molecule/nano-particle spin devices), andthe development of a nanoscale workbench (to perform spatially resolved, high-frequency,broadband measurements of active nano-devices).The growth in computing power is a consequence of smaller electronic devicesworking at higher frequencies. In charge-based devices, this leads to a significantincrease in energy dissipation, which causes chips to get hot. This represents asignificant design and performance challenge today, but by 2019 it is expected to haltthe dimensional scaling of devices that are based on complementary metal-oxidesemiconductors (CMOS). Spintronics could not only solve the heating problem butcould combine computer logic with nonvolatile spin-MRAM.Future applications of this technology include reference oscillators and directionalmicrowave transmitters and receivers in devices such as cell phones and radar systems,wireless chip-to-chip communications, nanoscale clocks, spectrum analyzers, andhigh-frequency signal processors. Other spintronic devices could be spin batteries, spindiodes and transistors, spin signal mixers, and spin-wave interconnects.Figure 1: Cross-sectional sketch of a spintorque nano-oscillator. The two magnetic layersare “active” or “fixed” because of their differentthickness and magnetization. A magnetic field His usually applied at some angle when studyingA variety of organic materials have promising spin properties, and molecules can besynthetically tuned at the atomic scale; thus, molecular electronic devices with spindependent tunneling transport offer an innovative approach in spintronics. EEEL is developing test structures and methods to determine the fundamental spin-properties of organicmaterials and assess their use in spintronic devices. Tunneling in a monolayer array of10,000 molecules between cobalt and nickel electrodes has recently been demonstrated.The nanoscale workbench will be an advanced metrology tool to measure the highfrequency response of active, nanoscale, spin, and molecular devices. The workbenchwill combine high spatial resolution with radio-frequency measurements to probe thefrequency dependence of defects, the effects of hybridization of atomic energybands, and environmental factors that can affect device performance. With this toolEEEL will be able to measure spin decay lengths and decoherence times associated withspin currents in real devices and understand the roles of interfaces and structure. Theworkbench will operate over a broad range of device temperatures using an ultra-highvacuum chamber and four, broadband, scanning probes with tunneling feedback.Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratorygigahertz excitations in such devices.Figure 2: Schematics of a nanoporedevice with a monolayer of selfassembled molecules and the chemicalstructure of the octanethiol molecule. Thearrow shows the direction of an appliedmagnetic field.11

EEEL STRATEGIC TECHNICAL AREA:HOMELAND SECURITYEEEL's role in homeland security began in 1999, when the laboratory's Office of LawEnforcement Standards (OLES) joined the nation's first concerted effort to developstandards for equipment to protect first responders against chemical, biological,radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) agents. This experience provedinvaluable, and soon after September 11, 2001, OLES was awarded technicalleadership of a broad range of programs focused on CBRNE countermeasures.Today, OLES oversees scores of programs funded by the Department of HomelandSecurity (DHS). Many of these programs utilize technical resources and expertisewithin EEEL and elsewhere in NIST. In FY 2008 OLES's homeland security activitiesbrought 25M into NIST, making OLES the recipient of the greatest amount of otheragency funding at NIST. In addition, EEEL and OLES partner with DHS and otherorganizations to identify and address critical homeland security needs, and theirpersonnel serve as key consultants with DHS and chair/serve on dozens of technicalcommittees and working groups.Recent Accomplishments Conducted functional tests of radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags in realisticfirst responder environmentsDeveloped and demonstrated software that emergency response organizations canuse to verify that their radios conform with the P25 Inter-RF Subsystem Interface (ISSI)Developed a detection model that uses dielectric spectra to discriminate betweenhazardous (acetone, motor oil, bleach) and non-hazardous (apple juice, baby formula,shampoo) liquidsProject DescriptionsThe following are a few examples of the exciting homeland security work being done at EEEL:Performance Metrics and Transmission Standards for RF-Based EmergencyEquipment Determining how environmental conditions affect the performance of radiofrequency-based personal safety systems.Land Mobile Radio (LMR) Standards and Technologies Facilitating development of the suite of standards known as Project 25, whichensures the interoperability of first responder radios made by differentmanufacturersLiquid Explosives Detection Standards Determining the feasibility of using microwaves to identify explosive liquids innonmetal containersStandards for Near Infrared to Radar Frequency Detection of Explosive Devices Improving the understanding of explosive devices and their electromagneticproperties12Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory

Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory13

OFFICE OFLAW ENFORCEMENT STANDARDSWhen Congress created NIST’s Office of Law Enforcement (OLES) in 1971, no one imaginedwhat it would achieve. A 1960s Presidential Commission had cited “lack of reliabletechnologies” as a major weakness in the criminal justice and public safety communities, andOLES was chartered to bring NIST’s world-class metrology and standards developmenttalents to bear on the crisis. OLES is a program-management organization within EEEL. Theoffice designs and manages standards-development and research projects on behalf ofagencies such as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Justice(DOJ), and others. OLES also maintains metrology activities and laboratories for equipmentunique to law enforcement, criminal justice agents, and emergency responders.In FY 2008 the office received approximately 55M from partnerships with the DOJNational Institute of Justice (NIJ) and Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS),and the DHS Science and Technology Directorate and its SAFECOM program. Thisfunding makes OLES NIST's largest source of outside agency (OA) funding. Thesefederal partnerships enable OLES to achieve its mission to develop metrology,standards, and test methods for and support research and development oftechnologies essential to law enforcement and public safety agencies. Over the years,as the definition of public safety has expanded, so has the Office’s expertise.Major AchievementsOLES began by developing in 1972 the first performance standard and testing programfor ballistic body armor – bullet-resistant vests. That effort, which continues today,is credited with saving the lives of more than 3,100 law enforcement officers in theU.S. and countless thousands of law enforcement, corrections, and security personnelworldwide. Yet it was just the beginning.Over the decades, OLES has: developed 300 standards, equipment guides, and technical reports on technologiesranging from metal detectors and mobile radios to protective gloves and pepper spray; developed, beginning two years before September 11, 2001, standards for personalprotective equipment for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive(CBRNE) threats – an effort that earned OLES its current position managing thedevelopment of performance standards for DHS; conducted groundbreaking work in forensic science that has pioneered advances inarson, ballistics, fingerprint, and DNA analyses; and expanded its early work on radio technologies into a central role in developingnationwide interoperable communications for emergency responders.Professionalism and PartnershipsOLES’s strengths are its exceptional staff and its partnerships. OLES staff membersare recognized experts in a wide range of disciplines. They hold memberships in14Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory

scores of technical and scientific organizations, chair technicaland policy-making committees in those organizations, andwork closely with the public and private sectors. OLES’spartnerships are many – federal agencies, practitioners,academia, industry, non-government standards bodies, andscientific and technical organizations.Program DescriptionsBelow are brief descriptions of some activities underway in theOffice’s six Program Areas.Critical Incident Technologies (CIT) deals with technolo

wind, solar, and geothermal) and new products such as plug-in electric vehicles and electrical equipment able to modify energy use in response to external conditions. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act of December 2007, NIST is given a

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accomplishments and the accomplishments of others. We show love to others by being happy and being kind. We smile at each other and greet each other every day. When my classmate is having a bad day, I ask how I can make him/her feel better. . Dr

SAMPLE FEDERAL RESUME OUTLINE FORMAT with ALL CAP KEYWORDS and Accomplishments From the Federal Resume Guidebook, 5th Ed. By Kathryn Troutman KSAs in the Resume –with KSA Accomplishments and Keywords Government Contractor to Federal Resume TARGET POSITION: Contract Specialist,

resume Is it job-related? Know your accomplishments and weaknesses Turning a weakness into a strength PLEASE DO THIS! Keep a work journal where you list all of your projects, accomplishments, and

Our 2019 Annual Report highlights accomplishments that impact how Nebraska’s transportation needs are being met, now and into the future. The accomplishments, both flood-related and otherwise, are a tribute to the staff of NDOT. During flood