Responses To Questions For The Record To Judge Merrick Garland, Nominee .

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Responses to Questions for the Record to Judge Merrick Garland,Nominee to be United States Attorney GeneralChairman Durbin . 2Senator Ossoff . 6Ranking Member Grassley . 7Senator Graham . 39Senator Cornyn . 41Senator Lee . 48Senator Cruz. 71Senator Sasse . 109Senator Hawley . 114Senator Cotton . 118Senator Kennedy . 136Senator Tillis . 138Senator Blackburn . 1571

Chairman DurbinResponses to Questions from Chairman Durbin to Judge Merrick Garland, Nominee to beUnited States Attorney General1. At your hearing, you made clear you will work tirelessly to restore integrity andindependence to the Justice Department. In your opening remarks and in responding toseveral questions, you addressed the importance and role of career Justice Departmentemployees. I have a few additional questions on that topic.Early in his tenure as Attorney General, Eric Holder told career DOJ professionals that theJustice Department “has aptly been described as the ‘crown jewel’ of the federalgovernment not because of any laws or regulations, cases or controversies, buildings orequipment, but rather because of the quality, integrity, and dedication of the people whowork tirelessly to carry out the Department’s vital mission.” He went on to say that thesecareer employees are “the backbone, the heart, and the soul” of the Department.Unfortunately, over the last four years, many of these career employees have been publiclyundermined and denigrated by Department leadership. President Trump amplified baselesslies that he was the “victim of a seditious conspiracy” at DOJ and said that Attorney GeneralBarr should “clean house.” Barr overruled prosecutors to seek a lower sentence for Trumpally Roger Stone and to dismiss a case against Trump ally Michael Flynn, leading to a waveof resignations and a statement of protest from over 2,000 former DOJ officials.Barr even dismissed the idea that senior officials could trust line prosecutors’ judgment. Hestated: “Letting the most junior members set the agenda might be a good philosophy for aMontessori preschool, but it’s no way to run a federal agency.”a. If confirmed, to what degree would you rely on the expertise of career JusticeDepartment employees?RESPONSE: The more than 115,000 career public servants at the Justice Department andits law enforcement agencies are committed to serving the cause of justice and protectingthe safety of our communities. If confirmed, I would extensively rely on their expertise.b. How does your previous experience as a Special Assistant to the Attorney General, asan Assistant U.S. Attorney, as a Deputy Assistant Attorney General, and as PrincipalAssociate Deputy Attorney General inform that view?RESPONSE: Before I became a judge, a significant portion of my professional life wasspent at the Justice Department as a Special Assistant to Ben Civiletti, the last of the trio ofpost-Watergate Attorneys General; as a line Assistant U.S. Attorney; as a supervisor in theCriminal Division; and finally, as a senior official in the Department. Many of the policiesthat the Justice Department developed during those years are the foundation forreaffirming the norms that were adopted to help ensure that the Department adheres to therule of law. Among these are policies that protect the independence of the Department2

from partisan influence in law enforcement, that strictly regulate communications with theWhite House, that establish guidelines for FBI domestic operations and foreign intelligencecollection, that direct the respectful treatment of the press, that read the Freedom ofInformation Act generously, that respect the professionalism of Justice Departmentemployees, and that set out the principles of federal prosecution to guide the exercise ofprosecutorial discretion.c. Do you believe that respecting the input and experience of career professionals is animportant component of ensuring the Justice Department’s independence?RESPONSE: As a former career prosecutor myself, I believe that respecting the input andexperience of career professionals is an important component of ensuring the independenceof the Department of Justice. If confirmed, a critical part of my job will be to protectcareer employees—prosecutors, lawyers, agents, and all others—from partisan motives orother improper influences.2. In the 2013 case Shelby County v. Holder, the Supreme Court gutted Section 5 of the VotingRights Act (VRA) by striking down its “preclearance” formula, which required states orlocalities with a history of voter discrimination to receive signoff from the JusticeDepartment before making changes to their voting laws.Nearly eight years later, Democrats in Congress are still working to restore the VRA toensure ballot access for all. In the meantime, Republican state legislatures have enacted aslew of measures to undermine the franchise. We’re seeing discriminatory voter ID laws,purges of voter rolls, curbs on early voting, attempts to undermine absentee voting, andpolling location closures in minority precincts.And yet, throughout the entirety of the Trump Administration, the Justice Department’senforcement of the VRA was nearly nonexistent. Until May 2020, the Administration had notfiled a single new case under Section 2 of the VRA, which remains in force and prohibits any“standard, practice or procedures which results in a denial or abridgment of the right of anycitizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color.”After the 2020 election, where we saw record-breaking turnout in the midst of anunprecedented pandemic, these voter suppression efforts have been dialed up. According tothe Brennan Center, in 2021 alone, at least 165 bills that would restrict ballot access havealready been introduced or considered in 33 states.a. What are your views on the state of ballot access today?RESPONSE: I was encouraged to learn that the country had a historically high voterturnout in the last election. But at least a third of Americans still did not vote, and I think itis important that every eligible American has the opportunity to vote.3

b. What do you view as the Justice Department’s role in ensuring the right to vote?RESPONSE: I believe the Department of Justice has a central role in protecting the rightto vote for all eligible Americans. Voting is foundational to our democracy, and protectingthe fundamental right to vote will be a top priority of the Department should I beconfirmed.3. At your hearing, I shared with you a story about a visit I made to an immigration courthearing in downtown Chicago. I mentioned four-year-old Marta and six-year-old Hamilton,two victims of the Trump Administration’s shameful Zero Tolerance Policy. Marta andHamilton were represented by top-notch pro bono lawyers from a Chicago nonprofit andwere thankfully reunited with their parents.But so many immigrants moving through the immigration court system are not representedby an attorney. Moreover, as noted at your hearing, the immigration court backlog has grownconsiderably — from 460,000 cases in 2015 to more than 1.2 million pending cases today.In addition to this increased backlog, the immigration courts fell victim to harmful policiespropagated by the Trump Justice Department that politicized the courts and stripped them ofboth their independence and effectiveness. Under Trump, the Justice Department: Restricted immigration judges’ ability to manage their own dockets and toadministratively close low-priority cases;Established a controversial annual quota system requiring judges to decide aminimum number of cases at the expense of due process;Politicized the hiring process for judges, according to multiple whistlebloweraccounts;Decertified the judges’ longstanding union; andTried to end the highly effective Legal Orientation Program, which provides basiclegal information for detained migrants.In short, under Trump, Attorneys General Sessions and Barr treated immigration courts asyet another arm of the Trump Administration’s anti-immigration machinery.a. Do you agree that the nation’s immigration courts should operate free of unduepolitical influence?RESPONSE. Yes. All courts must operate fairly, impartially, and free of improperinfluence of any kind. As a sitting judge for the last 24 years, these values are of particularimportance to me.b. Will you commit to work with this Committee to improve the administration ofjustice in immigration courts?RESPONSE: Yes. As I testified in my confirmation hearing, the immigration court backlogis an extraordinarily serious problem. As a federal judge for the last 24 years, I have not4

had occasion to study the particulars of this issue, but I look forward to learning more. If Iam confirmed, I am committed to appropriately supervising this departmental functionwith the goal of effective and efficient processing of immigration cases, consistent withprinciples of fairness, due process, and other applicable law.5

Senator OssoffResponses to Questions from Senator Ossoff to Judge Merrick Garland, Nominee to beUnited States Attorney GeneralWill you commit to working with my office and this committee to determine how theDepartment of Justice can support efforts to ensure there is accountability for war crimes,atrocities committed against civilians, and attacks on journalists?RESPONSE: If I am confirmed as Attorney General, I look forward to building upon theimportant efforts the Department has undertaken to seek justice for the victims of humanrights violations and war crimes worldwide. I will also be committed to pursuingaccountability for attacks on journalists. I look forward to working with you and theCommittee to effectively address these issues.6

Ranking Member GrassleyResponses to Questions from Ranking Member Grassley to Judge Merrick Garland,Nominee to be United States Attorney General1. Among the civil rights of Americans is the right to keep and bear arms. This has beenrepeatedly affirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court.What role does the U.S. Department of Justice have in protecting this civil right, andwhat steps will you take to ensure it is protected?RESPONSE: If confirmed, I will take an oath, as all Department employees do, to supportand defend the Constitution of the United States, and that includes the SecondAmendment.2. As a candidate, President Biden pledged to direct his Attorney General to “deliver to himwithin his first 100 days a set of recommendations for restructuring the ATF and relatedJustice Department agencies to most effectively enforce our gun laws.”1 Whatrecommendations would you provide President Biden?RESPONSE: Because I am not currently at the Department, I am not familiar with thecurrent operations of the ATF. If I am confirmed, I will respond to requests from theAdministration on this issue after consultation with Department personnel.3. In the context of national security, there is often a tension between keeping Americanssafe and protecting individual liberties.a. As a judge, how do you weigh those competing interests against each other?b. Will you change how you weigh those interests if you are confirmed as AttorneyGeneral?RESPONSE: From my first job at the Justice Department as a special assistant, to mycurrent job as a federal judge, I have sworn an oath that I would take again if I amconfirmed as Attorney General—to support and defend the Constitution of the UnitedStates. I have and will continue to dedicate myself to ensuring the security of our Nation, toensuring the fair and faithful enforcement of our laws, and to protecting the rights of allAmericans.4. In 2017, the Trump administration formally discontinued and repudiated OperationChoke Point. This program, which involved the Justice Department among other federalagencies, pressured banks against transacting with certain industries which, while legaland financially viable, were considered to pose a “reputation risk” to banks. The1“The Biden plan to end our gun violence epidemic,” available at https://joebiden.com/gunsafety/.7

Obama/Biden administration has been accused of using Operation Choke Point to targetdisfavored business sectors, including makers and sellers of firearms and ammunition.More recently, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency issued a rule that wouldprohibit banks from discriminating against lawful, financially sound customers forideological or political reasons.Does the Justice Department have a valid role in telling banks which lawful andfinancially viable industries they should serve? If not, would you pledge as AttorneyGeneral not to repeat the tactics of Operation Choke Point?RESPONSE: I am not familiar with Operation Choke Point. As I testified, I think the lawsshould be enforced without regard to politics or partisanship.5. There are many gun control proposals being floated or introduced in Congress, includinglicensing and registration schemes, bans on popular types of firearms, and repeal of theProtection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act.a. Do you support the enactment of additional federal gun control laws? If so, whichproposals do you support?b. Do you believe any proposal goes too far in infringing Second Amendmentrights?RESPONSE: I have not yet carefully studied these particular measures or developedpositions on them. But as I testified at my hearing, I believe as a general matter that weshould be careful that people who are entitled to have guns get the background check thatallows them to have them, and that for those who are not entitled and who we areconcerned about because they are threats, because they are felons or for whatever reasonbarred by the law, that there is an opportunity to determine that they are not permitted tohave a gun.6. Federal firearm laws delegate a number of technical decisions highly relevant to thelegality of firearms and their accessories to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms,and Explosives (ATF). The agency has historically made case-by-case determinationsthat offer manufacturers and consumers very little guidance on how slight variations toexisting designs might affect a product’s legality. Law-abiding gun owners are rightlyconcerned that products they obtain lawfully and in good faith could, at the stroke ofATF’s pen, later become contraband that would subject the items to forfeiture and theirowners to criminal penalties.What safeguards can ATF and DOJ provide so that these technical decisions aretransparent, consistent, and fairly applied, without the political whipsawing gun ownershave come to fear and expect with each change in administration?8

RESPONSE: Because I am not currently at the Department, I am not familiar with ATFtechnical decisions regarding particular firearm features or accessories. I agree that rulesshould be transparent, consistent, and fairly applied.7. During your hearing you were asked if you will support the issuance of executive ordersthat restrict firearm ownership.a. Can executive orders restrict the constitutional right to bear arms?b. What executive orders would you refuse to support on the basis they wouldviolate the right to bear arms?c. What executive orders restricting firearm ownership are constitutional in yourview?RESPONSE: Like laws enacted by Congress, executive orders issued by the Presidentmust comply with the Constitution, including the Second Amendment. In District ofColumbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008), the Supreme Court held that the SecondAmendment confers “an individual right to keep and bear arms.” Id. at 595. The Courtalso stated that, “[l]ike most rights, the right secured by the Second Amendment is notunlimited.” Id. at 626. If I am confirmed, I would not support any executive order that isinconsistent with any provision of the Constitution, including the Second Amendment.8. According to press reports, the Biden administration recently reactivated a “migrant childfacility” that was open “for only a month in summer 2019” during the Trumpadministration.2 The practice of keeping children in these facilities was routinelycriticized as “kids in cages” by Democrats and members of the media.a. What’s the difference between a “migrant child facility” and a “cage”?b. According to this article, as of February 21, the Biden administration had “about7,000 children in HHS custody.” How do you plan on dealing with the rise inunaccompanied minors arriving at the Southern Border?RESPONSE: If I am confirmed, I will contribute to the whole-of-government effort toreform our immigration system in a way that’s consistent with our values, secures ourborders, and protects our national interests.9. The Senate Judiciary Committee received a letter supporting your nomination from theU.S. Chamber of Commerce. On March 13, 2019, Senators Schumer, Whitehouse, and 22of their Democrat colleagues wrote a letter to the U.S. Chamber admonishing theorganization as one that “has long used its considerable resources to fight legislative andSiliva Foster-Frau, “First migrant facility for children opens under Biden,” Washington Post, Feb. 22, 2021,available at 11eb-8115-9ad5e9c02117 story.html.29

administrative action on climate change.”3a. Why do you think an organization that “has long used its considerable resourcesto fight legislative and administrative action on climate change” supported yournomination?RESPONSE: I must leave it to any organization to explain its reasons for supporting mynomination.b. Should you be confirmed, what effect will the Chamber of Commerce’sendorsement have on your tenure as Attorney General?RESPONSE: None. During my almost 24 years as a judge, I have been immune to outsidepressures and have made my decisions based solely on the facts and the law before me. Ifconfirmed as Attorney General, I will continue to do the same.10. The Department of Justice has changed its litigation position in a number of cases so farsince President Biden’s inauguration.a. Were you consulted on any of these changes in position?RESPONSE: As I testified at my hearing, I have kept out of litigation decisions made bythe Department.b. Do you agree with all of the changed positions? If you don’t agree with a changein a particular case, please explain why.RESPONSE: As a sitting federal judge, Canon 3 of the Code of Conduct for United StatesJudges bars me from commenting on any pending or impending case in any court, includingcases in which the Department of Justice is participating.c. Do you anticipate weighing in on the litigation positions of any other JusticeDepartment cases currently before the courts? If so, please list them and yourrationale.RESPONSE: I will not weigh in on any of the Department’s litigation decisions unless anduntil I am confirmed by the Senate. If I am confirmed, I will have ultimate responsibility forthe Department’s litigation decisions and will weigh in on those decisions in accordance withthe Department’s traditional policies and practices.d. As I asked you in our phone call, will you commit to having the Department ofJustice inform the Judiciary Committee on all changes in litigation position?RESPONSE: As I testified at my hearing, I have great respect for the Committee’s3Available at of-commerce.10

oversight role. If I am confirmed, I will seek to ensure that the Department of Justice’sOffice of Legislative Affairs works with you and your staff to determine the mostappropriate way to keep the Committee apprised of significant changes in litigatingpositions.11. As many members of the Committee mentioned, you will find yourself with a lot ofissues to tackle right away if you are confirmed. As you and some of my Democratcolleagues mentioned, the Department of Justice has limited resources, and thus someissues will be prioritized over others, and “prosecutorial discretion” may be employed inthe immigration context due to these resource strains.a. Do you plan on re-implementing the Department-wide implicit bias traininginstituted under former Attorney General Lynch?RESPONSE: I am not familiar with the training programs currently offered by theDepartment of Justice, nor am I familiar with the training instituted by former AttorneyGeneral Lynch. President Biden issued an Executive Order directing federal agencies toconduct an internal review and devise plans to address unequal barriers to opportunity inagency policies and programs. If I am confirmed as Attorney General, I will promptlyundertake efforts to comply with President Biden’s Executive Order.b. If so, do you feel that such training is a higher priority than enforcing immigrationlaws passed by Congress?RESPONSE: If I am confirmed as Attorney General, I commit to enforcing the laws of theUnited States, including immigration laws.12. During the second day of your hearing, Wade Henderson, Interim President and CEO ofthe Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, said that he is “very confident inthe Attorney General’s willingness to open his door to hear concerns of organizations, avast array of whom will have access to him—the entirety of the country, truthfully—he’llevaluate those requests and carry them out .”a. Which “organizations” will “have access” to you?i. If so, how will they be able to make “requests” to you and how will youevaluate them?ii. If not, why was Mr. Henderson under the impression that they would?b. In particular:i. Will the NAACP “have access” to you?ii. Will the ACLU “have access” to you?iii. Will NARAL “have access” to you?iv. Will Planned Parenthood “have access” to you?v. Will the NRDC “have access” to you?vi. Will the NRA “have access” to you?vii. Will the National Shooting Sports Foundation “have access” to you?viii. Will Everytown for Gun Safety “have access” to you?ix. Will the Alliance Defending Freedom “have access” to you?11

x. Will the U.S. Chamber “have access” to you?xi. Will the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty “have access” to you?xii. Will the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops “have access” toyou?RESPONSE: If I am confirmed as Attorney General, I will serve the American people andthe rule of law. I look forward to receiving information from a wide range of voices as wemake decisions important to the Department’s mission.13. You were asked if “the Chinese Communist Party is an enemy of the American people.”You responded that you were not well positioned to “compar[e], say, the threat fromChina and the threat from Russia” but that “that China is a threat with respect to hackingof our computers, hacking of our infrastructure, theft of our intellectual property.” Duringhis confirmation hearing, Bill Barr was asked by Senator Sasse, “is Putin a friend or afoe?” Barr responded that Russia is “a potent rival of our country.”In your personal view:a. Is Vladimir Putin an enemy of the United States?b. Are foreign terrorist organizations like ISIS and al Qaida enemies of the UnitedStates?c. Is the Chinese Communist Party an enemy of the United States?d. Is the Iranian Revolutionary Guard an enemy of the United States?e. Is the Communist Party of Cuba an enemy of the United States?RESPONSE: If I am confirmed as Attorney General, I will take an oath to support anddefend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic. As Itestified before the Committee, that requires remaining vigilant to the persistent threat ofattacks by terrorist organizations. That also requires countering threats from foreignactors who conduct espionage, attack our elections, imperil our cyber security, steal ourintellectual property, target our service members and diplomats overseas, and violate thesovereignty and territorial integrity of our allies. If confirmed, I will assess theDepartment’s current structure and capacity to counter such threats and fully support thePresident’s national security team in protecting the American people’s security, prosperity,health, and way of life against all enemies.14. When asked about Vanita Gupta, President Biden’s nominee to be Associate AttorneyGeneral, you said, “Well, Senator, I know Vanita Gupta now quite well. I didn't know herbefore, but since the nomination I have gotten the chance to talk with her and speak withher.”a. If you have only gotten to know Ms. Gupta since her nomination, does this meanyou did not know her before her nomination?b. If you didn’t know her before her nomination, how was she selected?c. Did you have any input in her selection?12

d. If your input was limited, how are you confident in senior deputies you did notchoose?RESPONSE: I have had the privilege of getting to know Vanita Gupta well since we werenominated, and I have found her to be a person of great integrity and experience who isdedicated to the mission of the Department—particularly equal justice under law andensuring independence and integrity in decision making. I have complete faith in Ms.Gupta, and she will be integral to the success of the Department’s leadership team. As younote, President Biden nominated Ms. Gupta for this post. That is within his Constitutionalauthority alone, and I think he made a terrific decision in selecting her.15. During your hearing you were asked by Senator Cotton and me about the ongoinglitigation defending the death sentences of Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and Dylann Roof. Iunderstand that you are not willing to comment on pending litigation. But in the case oflitigation defending death sentences on direct appeal generally—that is not with regard toTsarnaev or Roof in particular—what factors should the Justice Department consider indeciding whether or not to continue to defend those sentences on direct appeal?RESPONSE: As I testified at my hearing, Canon 3 of the Code of Conduct for UnitedStates Judges bars me from commenting on any pending or impending case in any court. Icannot comment on factors that would apply to pending cases. I also testified that I havedeveloped serious concerns about the death penalty due to the large number ofexonerations in capital cases, the apparent arbitrariness or randomness in application, andthe disparate impact of the death penalty on Black Americans and other people of color. Asa broader policy matter, President Biden has publicly stated that he opposes the deathpenalty.16. Do you think that the regulations (28 CFR §§ 26.22, 26.23) guiding opt-in assessment bythe Attorney General of capital counsel certifications under Chapter 154 of Title 28 allowfor the Attorney General to reconsider a final certification decision? If so, what provisionin the regulations allows for this?RESPONSE: I understand that this issue has been raised in a case that is currentlypending before the D.C. Circuit. As a sitting federal judge, Canon 3 of the Code ofConduct for United States Judges bars me from commenting on any pending orimpending case in any court.17. In December 2020, the Justice Department finalized a rule prohibiting the inclusion ofprovisions in settlement agreements directing or providing for a payment or loan to anon-governmental person or entity that is not a party to the dispute, except in definedcircumstances. The rule follows a 2017 memo from then-Attorney General Jeff Sessions,which was codified in the Department’s “Justice Manual.” As AG Sessions stated,“[w]hen the federal government settles a case against a corporate wrongdoer, anysettlement funds should go first to the victim and then to the American people—not tobankroll third-party special interest groups or the political friends of whoever is in13

power.” Will the Department commit to abiding by and upholding this rule? Do you thinkit’s appropriate for the Justice Department to direct settlement funds toward third-partyorganizations that Congress has affirmatively defunded?RESPONSE: As I testified at my hearing, I have not studied this specific issue. If I amconfirmed, I will carefully consider the matter and the arguments on both sides, includingboth the reasons why this practice developed and the reasons why it was changed.18. In 2018, the Justice Department announced that it had begun investigating potentialwaste, fraud, and abuse in the asbestos bankruptcy trust system. These trusts are designedto ensure that all victims of asbestos exposure—both current and future—have access tocompensation for their injuries. If

RESPONSE: Before I became a judge, a significant portion of my professional life was spent at the Justice Department as a Special Assistant to Ben Civiletti, the last of the trio of post-Watergate Attorneys General; as a line Assistant U.S. Attorney; as a supervisor in the Criminal Division; and finally, as a senior official in the Department.

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