Macrofauna Recolonization Of Subtidal Sediments. Experimental Studies .

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Vol. 66: 103-1 15, 1990MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIESMar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.Published September 6Macrofauna recolonization of subtidal sediments.Experimental studies on defaunated sedimentcontaminated with crude oil in two Norwegianfjords with unequal eutrophication status.I. Community responsesJohn Arthur BergeNorwegian Institute for Water Research, PO Box 69 Korsvoll, N-0808 Oslo 8, Norway'andDepartment of Biology, Section of Marine Zoology and Chemistry. University of Oslo, PO Box 1064, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo 3,NorwayABSTRACT: Experiments were performed by placing oiled and unoiled defaunated sediment in boxes(0.2 m2) on the sea floor in 2 Norwegian fjords, the eutrophicated Oslofjord (4 boxes, April to July 1980)and the non-eutrophicated Rauneflord (12 boxes, February 1981 to March 1982). In the Oslofjord nonegative effects of the added oil (3920 ppm wet weight sediment) on macrofauna community structurewere seen after 3 mo. Thus restoration of the community took less than 3 mo during a spring/summersituation in a soft bottom area with a species composition dominated by opportunistic species (Polydoraspp.). In the Raunefjord the effect of the added oil (4520 ppm) was shown in reduced species diversityafter 4 mo, and altered k-dominance curves, distribution of individuals among species, Hurlbert'srarefaction curves and multidimensional scaling plots. The added oil reduced the mean equilibriumnumber of species per box from 80 to 55. The time needed to reach 90 % of this equilibrium was shorterin the oiled boxes (259 d) than in the control boxes (466 d). Effects were most severe after 4 mo on thef lter-feedersand surface deposit feeders, after 9 and 13 mo on subsurface deposit feeders. Immigrationrates were similar (0.27 species d-' box-') m both treatments during June to November; however, fromNovember to March the rate was higher in control boxes (0.24) than in oiled boxes (0.17). Meanextinction rates in boxes (species/species d-' box-') were, however, larger in the oiled boxes than in thecontrol boxes during both periods (Oil: 0.0048, 0.0033; Control: 0.0027, 0.0024). For both fjords animalsretained on a 250 Km sieve generally showed higher densities in the oiled sediment. It is concluded thatrestoration of the benthic macrofauna after oil contamination of sediment takes longer in a noneutrophicated area than in a eutrophicated area. The reduced density of macrofauna in the oiled boxesin the Raunefjord was caused by toxic response to oil directly, or by secondary effects leading toincreased mortality, rather than by reduced settlement. Macrofauna recolonization is easily affected byoil-contamination in a non-eutrophicated area; however separation of oil-specific responses in benthiccommunities from responses to other disturbances can hardly be demonstrated without relevantcontrolsINTRODUCTIONPerturbations of marine sediment may defaunate ordisturb patches in soft bottom communities which subsequently are recolonized. This process maintainsspatio-temporal mosaics in soft-bottom communities(see Johnson 1972), both in coastal sediments and inPresent addressO Inter-ResearchlPrinted in F. R. Germanythe deep sea (Smith 1986). Recolonization is thus afundamental structuring process in soft-bottom benthiccommunities. Perturbations in the benthos may benatural (Dauer & Simon 1976, Santos & Simon 1980a, b,Nerini & OLiver 1983, Santos & Bloom 1983) or manmade (review by Pearson & Rosenberg 1978, Bonsdorff1983), and may vary markedly both in extent (Probert1984) and character depending on disturbing agent(Thistle 1981).

104Mar Ecol. Prog. Ser 66: 103-115, 1990The degree, manner and speed of restoration of initial community structure and function after a disturbance (resilience; Westman 1978) is related to the typeand degree of the disturbance, the physical environment, species composition and the life-history traits ofthe biota.Estimates of ecosystem resilience are essential forevaluation of the effects of man-made activities.Attempts to measure resilience in ecosystems wherespatio-temporal changes rather than constancy are themost influential feature involves the problem of findingrepresentative control systems for comparison of whenrestoration has been accomplished. Benthic ecologistsrarely enjoy the luxury of having good controls (Warwick 1986). Relevant controls, however, can be provided in field experiments designed to detect disturbance-induced changes at the community level. Sections of the ecosystem are experimentally disturbedand other sections are left undsturbed as controls.Repeated comparison between treatments and controlswill then describe resilience in the disturbed patch.Models for community responses to perturbations maybe erected from such experiments. Such models areimportant as a conceptual framework for understanding and evaluating the effect of pollutants in the environment.Recolonization of soft sediment has been examinedfrom various viewpoints, such as community establishment, succession and stability, deep sea biology andpollution (Sanders et al. 1980, Santos & Simon 1980a,Arntz & Rumohr 1982, Butman 1987, Grassle & MorsePorteous 1987, Bakke et al. 1988, Palmer 1988 andreferences therein). Many studies on the effect of oil onbenthic assemblages have been carried out after accidental oil spills. Most studies lack data on oil concentration and the resulting changes in chemical and physical parameters in the sediment both in time and space.Here macrofauna recolonization of subtidal sediments in a eutrophicated and a non-eutrophicated fjordis reported. The focus is on community parameters. Oildepuration and physical changes of the sediment havebeen reported previously (Berge et al. 1987) and individual species responses will be described in anotherpaper (Berge unpubl.).MATERIAL AND METHODSExperiments were performed In Norway on subtidal(23 m depth) muddy sediment in the Oslofjord and on asubtidal (20 m depth) area with shell sand in theRaunefjord (see Berge et al. 1987 for a more detailedsite description). The experiments were performed byplacing oiled and clean defaunated (frozen) sedimenton the sea floor in experimental boxes each with aTable 1 S a m p l n gdates and number of boxes sampledOslofjordStart of experimentsDate11 Apr 1980No. control boxes submerged2No. oiled boxes submerged2First samplingDateExperimental period (d)No. control boxes sampledNo. oiled boxes sampledSecond samplingDateExperimental period (d)No. control boxes sampledNo. oiled boxes sampledThird samplingDateExper mentalperiod (d)No. control boxes sampledNo. oiled boxes sampled8 Jul 19808822Raunefjord18 Feb 19816625 J u n 1981127111INov 19812662223 Mar 198239833surface area of 0.2 m2 and a vertical side of 12.5 cm.The progress of a particular box through time was notfollowed. In the Oslofjord, all boxes were retrievedafter the experimental period, while in the Raunefjordidentically treated boxes were collected sequentially.Table 1 shows number of boxes and samplingschedule. The contaminated boxes contained a 7.5 cmlayer of homogenized sediment on top of which a 3 cmlayer of sediment contaminated with unweatheredNorth Sea crude oil was laid. The control boxes contained a 10.5 cm layer of untreated homogenized sediment. Preparation of the sediment in the boxes isdescribed by Berge et al. (1987). In the Oslofjord andRaunefjord experiments the initial mean contents of oilin the top layer of the sediment were 3920 ppm and4520 ppm (wet weight sediment) corresponding to 9940and 17795 ppm (dry weight sediment) respectively(see Berge et al. 1987). Samples for determination ofdepth distribution of animals retained on a 250 pmsieve (excluding nematodes and protozoa) wereobtained from the boxes in situ by SCUBA divers usinghand-operated corers (inner diameter 6 cm). After coresampling, boxes were taken to the surface and theremaining sediment sieved for macrofauna (mesh size I mm). Sediment cores for temporary meiofaunaanalysis were sectioned at 3 cm intervals on the day ofsampling. All fauna1 samples were preserved with 10 %neutralized formalin and stained with Rose Bengal. Inthe Oslofjord experiments the fauna from both coresand total boxes were identified to species or lowestattainable taxonomic level under a binocular microscope. In the Raunefjord only the total boxes were

Berge: Recolonization of oil-contaminated sedirnentsidentified to species and the core samples to majortaxon.The total abundance (A), number of macrofaunaspecies (S), wet weight biomass (B) (bivalves excludedbecause of small size) and the ratios B/A' (A' A number of bivalves) and A/S were recorded and plottedfor the oiled and control sediment. Samples were carefully blotted with tissue paper prior to biomass determination.Following MacArthur & Wilson (1963) the recolonization of islands is determined by the differencebetween immigration rate (I) and extinction rate (E) inthe integralS, 1(l-E) dt0where S, mean number of species on the island attime t. This integral can be solved and the recolonization curve can be shown to be asymptotic and to havethe formwhere S mean equilibrium number of species on theisland; and G a constant.A recolonization curve of the form S, S (l-e-Gt)was fitted to the data. The mean equilibrium numbersof species (S) in oiled and control boxes were established graphically by eye. An approximate estimate ofG was made by inserting S and corresponding values ofS, and t into the equation S, S (l-e-Gt) and solvingfor G. Based on the estimated values for G and S thetime needed to reach 90 % of saturation was calculated.Mean values of I and E were calculated by comparing the number of species added or deleted between 2successive samplings for all possible combinations ofboxes sampled during such a period. E was calculatedboth on a per-day and per-box basis (species d-' box-';S/db) and on a per species, day and box basis (speciesspecies-' d-' box-'; S/Sdb). For the purpose of thisstudy I and E were calculated as the addition or loss ofnumber of species, and not as originally defined byMacArthur & Wilson (1963) as the number of propagules, a propagule being the minimum number of individuals capable of establishing a reproductive population.Diversity of the macrofauna assemblages in theboxes was measured using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (logz) (Shannon & Weaver 1963) and evenness using Pielou's index (Pielou 1966). In comparingdiversity profiles (k-dominance curves) Lambshead etal. (1983) were followed. For analyzing multispeciesdistribution patterns (using double square root transformed species abundance data) the recommendationsof Field et al. (1982) were followed using multidimen-105sional scaling (MDS) ordination. Plots of the distribution of individuals among species in boxes (see Gray &Pearson 1982) and Hurlbert's rarefaction curves (Hurlbert 1971) were also plotted. Polychaetes were classified in feeding groups according to Fauchald &Jumars (1979).RESULTSOslofjord experimentsTable 2 shows the basic community data where variability between replicates was large and mean valuesfor the 2 treatments were not significantly different (2tailed t-test, p 0.05). The distribution of individualsamong species also shows a considerable variability fortotal box samples (Fig. l A , B) and core samples(Fig. l C , D). The k-dominance curves show that theassemblages in the 2 control boxes combined areslightly more diverse than in the contaminated boxes(Fig. 2A). Increased Shannon-Wiener diversity (H) isindicated only in one of the 2 control boxes (Table 2A).No difference in diversity between treatments is indicated for the core samples (Fig. 2B, Table 2B).As much as 96 to 98 % of the total number of individuals in the core samples were found in the top 3 cmof the sediment. Juveniles or newly settled spat ofPolydora spp., Cirratulidae, bivalves and Pholoeminuta were abundant in the core samples. More than99 % of the bivalves were newly settled Tellinacea (250to 400 p m ) No significant differences in mean totalabundance between oiled and control sediment werefound (Table 3); however, all groups except echinoderms had a higher density in oiled sediment.Raunefjord experimentsGenerally a clear difference in macrofauna community parameters in oiled and control boxes was seen(Table 4). The variability between replicates withineach treatment at the end of the experiments was smallbut was higher in the oil-contaminated boxes. A total of174 species were found in the boxes throughout theexperiments. Numbers of species in total box sampleswere significantly higher in the control boxes duringthe experimental period and had increased to 76 (SD 3) and 52 (SD 4) in control and contaminated boxesrespectively at the end of the experiments. Theincrease in species abundance had nearly culminatedin the oil-contaminated boxes by the end of the experiments but was still increasing in the control boxes(Fig. 3). The fitted recolonization curves (Fig. 3) aredescribed by the formulae

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 66: 103-1 15, 1990106Table 2. Mean values of community parameters in the Oslofjord experiments (start: 11 Apr 1980; end: 8 Jul 1980). Numbers inbrackets are inhvidual measurements. Differences between control and oiled sediment are indicated (2-tailed t-test). ns p 0.05. A: Macrofauna; B: core samples. Data from the 5 cores from each box are pooled. Depth distribution 0 to 3 cm; sieve 250 500 pmParameterControlOilSig.A. Total box samplesNo. of species (S)StartEndNo, of individuals (A)EndIEvenness (J)EndDiversity (H)EndBiomass ( g box-') (B)EndB. Core samplesNo. of species (S)StartEndNo. of individuals (A)StartEndEvenness (J)EndDiversity (H)EndAC10 ".-oU3.Control boxesControl cores.8-BOiled boxesDOiled cores108-l06-2'G e o m e t r i c classGeometric classiFig. 1. Distribution of individuals among speclesfor each box in the Oslofjord experiments. Boxnos. are indicated. Geometric class 1 1 individual; geometric class 2 2 or 3 individuals; geometric class 3 4 to 7 ndivlduals geornetnc classn 2"-' to 2"-1 inhviduals. (A) Total box, control;(B) total box, oil; (C) core samples, control;(D) core samples, oil

Berge: Recolonization of oil-contarmnated sediments107Table 4. Mean values of macrofauna community parametersin boxes in the Raunefjord experiments. Numbers in bracketsare standard deviation as '10 of mean. Significant differencesbetween control and oiled sediment are indicated (2-tailedp 0.01,t-test) for November and March data: ' p 0.05,ns p 0.05"ParameterControlOilSig.No. of species (S)Start (Feb 1981)Boxes (Jun 1981)Boxes (Nov 1981)Boxes (Mar 1982)No. of individuals (A)Start (Feb 1981)Boxes (Jun 1981)Boxes (Nov 1981)Boxes (Mar 1982)110100Species rankFig. 2. K-dominance curves for the fauna in control s e d m e n t( ) and oil-contaminated sediment ( 0 ) in the Oslofjord. (A)Total box samples; (B) core samplesTable 3. Number of individuals retained on 0.25 mm and0.5 mm sieves from the 0 to 3 cm depth interval in cores fromthe Oslofjord in July 1980. Five replicates from each experimental box (n 10). ns: no significant (t-test, 2-tailed,p 0.05) difference between mean density in control and 50627224aD versity(H)Boxes (Jun 1981)Boxes (Nov 1981)Boxes (Mar 1982)Biomass (g box-') (B)Start (Feb 1981)Boxes (Jun 1981)Boxes (Nov 1981)Boxes (Mar 1982)Sig.Taxon8.7Evenness (J)Boxes (Jun 1981)Boxes (Nov 1981)Boxes (Mar 1982)nsap 0.0554DaysOiled sediment: St 55(1-e-0.009t)Control sediment: S, 9 0 ( 1 - e - . ' )and indicate that oil reduces the mean equilibriumnumber of species by 39 %, from 90 to 55. The calculated time needed to reach 90 O/O of saturation in thespecies numbers were 259 d in the oiled s e d m e n t and466 d in the control sediment.Total numbers of individuals per box were generallyhigher in control than in contaminated boxes (Table 4).After an initial increase during the first 4 mo, a cleard e c h e was observed resulting in a total mean densityof 529 (SD 13) and 276 (SD 43) in control andcontaminated boxes respectively in March 1982. TheFig. 3. Total number of species in control sediment and oilcontarmnated sediment during expenments in the Rauneflord.Note that the fitted curves are of the form S, S ( l -e-G')difference in density between the 2 treatments wasonly significant at the end of the experiments. This wascaused mainly by an initial population increase of thepolychaete Polydora socialis which dominated both incontrol and oil-contaminated boxes in June andNovember and was followed by a population crash byMarch 1982. A significantly higher density in the control boxes is found when P. socialis is excluded (Fig.4).Both dwersity (H) and evenness (J)were lower in thecontaminated sediment in June and November 1981(Table 4). By March 1982, however, evenness was not

Mar. Ecol. Prog Ser. 66: 103-115, 1990108AJune 81BNov. 81Flg. 4 . Total number of individuals excluding Polydora socialisduring experiments in the Raunefjord*lop;[Control:1WEu40March 82*controlSpecies rankV)ControlFig. 6 . K-dominance curves for the fauna in each box in theRaunefjord. ( ) Control sediment; (0) oil-contaminated sediment. (A) June; (B) November; (C) March100-l100I200300400DaysFig. 5. (A) Biomass/abundance and (B) abundance/speciesratios in oiled and control sediments during experiments inthe Raunefjord. Note that bivalves are excluded in the calculation of B/Asignificantly different in the 2 treatments whereasdiversity was.Biomass (excluding bivalves) were significantlyhigher in control boxes in November 1981 and March1982 but probably not in June 1981 (Table 4 ) . Thehighest biomass in control boxes were found inNovember 1981 and in contaminated sediment in J u n e1981.Biomass/abundance ratios (Fig. 5A) were similar inJ u n e but were significantly different (ANOVA,p 0.05) in oiled and control sediment both inNovember (266 d) and in March (398 d). Abundance/species ratios were not significantly different in the 2treatments during the experimental period (Fig. 5B).Calculated immigration rates (I) a n d extinction rates(E) were not significantly different in control and oiledboxes for the period J u n e to November (Table 5).Recolonization was however initially (February to June1981) somewhat higher in the control boxes, indicatedby the higher species numbers in the control sedimenton the first sampling. During the period November toTable 5. Immigration rate ( I ) and extinction rate (E) in control and oil-contaminated boxes during time intervals June to November1981 and November 1981 to March 1982. ' Significant ( p 0.05) difference between control and oiled sediment. Number ofreplicates- Jun to Nov 2, Nov to Mar 6. S: species; d: day; b: box; 0: oiled boxes; C: control 0.1510.1630.1330.1550.00480.00330.00270.0024 '

Berge: Recolonizat onof oil-contamlnated sediments109ControlMarch 82Nov. 81March 82Nov. 81Fig. 7. Hurlbert's rarefaction plots [expected number of species E(S,) a s a function of number of individuals] for eachexperimental box in the Raunefjord.(A) Control boxes; (B) oiled boxesJune 810IndividualsD OilO Control1 J u n e 812 Nov. 813 March 82mEl0Elmm200400600800 1000 1200 1400Individualsboth in contaminated and control sediment (Fig. 9A).After 9 mo (Fig. 9B) the number of geometric classeswas reduced to 9 and 8 in contaminated and controlsediment respectively and reduced further to 7 for bothtreatments after 13 mo (Fig. 9C). The highest numberof species was found in geometric class 1 both incontrol and contaminated sediment. A significantlylower number of species were found in contaminatedsediment than in control sediment for most geometric0 0Fig. 8. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordination for macrofauna data from the boxes in the Raunefjord experimentMarch the immigration rate (I) was significantly higherin control boxes whereas the extinction rate (E) wassignificantly higher in the oiled boxes when calculatedon a per species basis (S/Sdb) (Table 5).K-dominance curves showed an increasing diversityand a reduction in dominance with time both in controland oil-contaminated sediment (intercept with y-axismoves towards origo) and the curves for the 2 treatments tended to converge by March 1982 (Fig. 6Ato C).Hurlbert's rarefaction curves show a clear timerelated effect in both treatments, with a high abundance (A) and low species numbers (S) in the first partof the experimental period, shifting to a low A and highS at the end of the experiment (Fig. 7). The plots forreplicate boxes varied little. The effects of oil wereclear and consistent and showed lower E(Sn) values inthe oiled boxes on all 3 samplings.The MDS plot showed that assemblages in the boxeschanged both with time and oil treatment (Fig. 8). Thereplication within treatments was good with successional changes moving from left to right and pollutioneffects being evident vertically.The distribution of individuals among speciesshowed a maximum of 10 geometric classes after 4 moGeometric classFig. 9. Distribution of individuals among species in individualboxes in the Raunefjord for the fauna in (0)control sedimentand (m) oil-contaminated s e d m e n t . Geometric classes as inFig. 1. Interpolated curves for treatments are drawn. (A) June1981; (B) November 1981; (C) March 1982

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 66: 103-115, 1990110classes. Only for geometric class 2 in June and 3 inNovember were numbers of species higher in contaminated sediment.Different feeding groups of macrofaunal polychaeteswere affected differently in the course of the experiment (Figs. 10 and 11). None of the major feedinggroups showed higher densities in the oiled sedimentthan in the control s e d m e n tthus;no stimulation occurred. Generally the oiUcontro1 ratio for number of individuals within each feeding group showed a largevariation in June and November and had converged tovalues in the range 0.35 to 0.52 by March (398 d )except for subsurface deposit feeders where the ratiowas as low as 0.16.Figs. 10 and 11 show that for all feeding groupsexcept the interface feeders (species Living on the surface of the sediment which can collect food particlesboth from the water just above the sediment and fromthe sediment surface, e.g. Polydora socialis) theincrease in number of individuals was initially muchlarger in the control boxes than in the oil-contaminatedboxes. For the interface feeders (mainly the opportunistic P. socialis), however, densities were approximatelythe same in oiled and control sediment throughout theexperimental period (Fig. 11B). The numbers of individuals of filter feeders (Fig. 10A) and surface depositfeeders (Fig. 11A) in control and oil-contaminated sediment followed the same pattern with a gradualincrease in abundance in the contaminated sedimentthroughout the experimental period and a initiallylarger increase in the control sediment followed by aperiod of slight reduction or stabilization. The largestrelative difference between control and oiled sedimentwere seen for the subsurface deposit feeders (Fig. 10B).After 4 mo the numbers of filter-feeders and surfacedeposit feeders were most severely reduced (Figs. 10Aand 11A) whereas the interface-feeders were leastreduced (11B). At the end of the experiment the subsurface deposit feeders were most severely reducedwhereas the other feeding groups were less but similarly effected.Oil affected recruitment of different feeding groups.integrated over the whole experimental period, andbased on the oiUcontro1 ratio of individuals, in thefollowing decreasing order: subsurface deposit feeders,carnivores, filter feeders, surface deposit feeders, surface deposit feeders/filter feeders.The core samples in the Raunefjord were dominatedby crustaceans (mainly harpacticoid copepods) andpolychaetes (mainly newly settled Polydora spp.) (Table 6). Except for bivalves a higher density was foundin oiled sediment than in control sediment (Table 6). Inthe core samples 90 to 94 O/O of the individuals werefound in the uppermost 3 cm of the sediment.Surfacedeposit feeders-m --Carnivores(I)lnleriace feedersaU.-'a.-C40DaysFig. 10. Number of (A) filter-feeders, (B) subsurface depositfeeders, and (C) carnivores during the experiments in theRaunefjord0100200300400DaysFig. 11. Number of (A) surface deposit feeders, and (B) interface feeders during the experiments in the Raunefjord

Berge. Recolonization of oil-contaminated sedimentsTable 6. Number of individuals retained on 0.25 mm and0.5 mm sieves from the 0 to 3 cm depth interval in cores fromthe Raunefjord in March 1982. One replicate from eachexperimental box (n 3). ' Significant (t-test, 2-tailed,p 0.05) difference between mean density in control and 5'1.27.5162.721.5'1.3DISCUSSIONExperimental designThe design of these experiments was based on theassumption that identically treated boxes behave similarly in terms of recolonization events after they havebeen submerged. The probability of replicate boxesdiverging because of stochastic processes is expectedto increase with time until the variability approachesthat of the ambient community. Replicability betweenboxes is thus best tested at the end of the experiments.The variability seen among boxes within treatmentswas mainly caused by stochastic elements of recruitment, less likely by biological interactions in the sediment. Homogenization of the sediment prior to theexperiments should have reduced biological variabilitycaused by physical and chemical variability to amininlum. The community data showed little variability at the end of the experiments in the Raunefjord. Theassumption that identically treated boxes behave similarly in terms of recolonization events was, thus, fulfilled here. In the Oslofjord experiments the replicationvariance was larger (Table 2A). Variability mayincrease after oil contamination (Sanders et al. 1980)and may explain some of the variability observed in theoiled sediment.The defamation and homogenization of the sediment in the control boxes is itself a type of disturbancesince it destroys the original stratification, structure andtexture of the sediment and its surface. Local-scaledisturbance is however a common phenomenon insedimentary environments and may arise from physical, chemical and biological events like hypoxia,deposition and resuspension of sediment, bioturbation,pelletization and feeding activity (Probert 1984, andreferences therein). In addition to the physical treatment of the sediment described above, the oil repre-sents a chemical and physical disturbance whichresults in primary toxic effects and secondary changesin sediment properties including organic enrichment(Berge et al. 1987) which may have influenced recolonization more than the toxicity of the oil directly.There were no dramatic effects of the added oil in theOslofjord, due in part to the high variability betweenreplicate boxes (Table 2). The community structurefound in the control boxes and in the oil-contaminatedboxes was roughly similar to the community structureof the sediment outside the boxes (Berge & Valderhaug1983). Thus restoration of major biological features ofthe community took less than 3 mo in an area with abenthic fauna typical for a eutrophicated fjord. Basedon reported effects of hydrocarbons on benthic communities (Dixon 1987) it was surprising that the effectof the added oil was not dramatic, especially as the oilcontent in the sediment was high (3920 ppm wet wt)and was not reduced during the experimental period(Berge et al. 1987). Despite the fact that densities werereduced for some of the taxa for the total box samples(Berge unpubl.), it is concluded that the stress added tothe system by the addition of oil did not affect thesystem profoundly and thus supports the notion thatcommunities with few species, low diversity, and highdominance and high reproduction rates are more stresstolerant (have a higher resilience) than more complexsystems (Jernlerv & Rosenberg 1976).The oil added to sediments in the Raunefjord reducedthe mean equilibrium number of species S(,, from 90 to55. The number of species increased significantly in thecontrol boxes between November 1981 and March1982. This indicates that absence of settling larvae wasnot responsible for the lack of increase in species in oiledboxes during the last part of the experimental period.The sediment was stable and unfavorable during thisperiod resulting in no increase in the number of species.Full restoration after an environmental disturbancetherefore cannot be claimed simply on the basis that a nasymptotic number of species has been found. It isexpected, however, that the equilibrium number ofmacrofauna species in the oiled sediment would haveincreased eventually as the oil was degraded/depuratedbut over what time-scale cannot be predicted. It isobvious that much longer times are needed to achieveconditions approaching those of the control. When equilibrium is reached, cyclic fluctuations may, however,still be present (Arntz & Rumohr 1982) and densitydependent processes may become significant resultingin a slight loss of species (Simberloff 1969, Hughes1984). No such loss in the species numbers was seen inthe Raunefjord and may indicate that equilibrium wasnot obtained or was only recently reached. With increasing time the probability of stochastic disturbanceincreases also (Santos & Simon 1980a, b).

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 66: 103-115, 1990From these experiments restoration of communitystructure in a patch similar to the boxes will aftercontamination with 4520 ppm of crude oil take at least14 mo. Although the amount of oil added was initiallysomewhat

ment, species composition and the life-history traits of the biota. Estimates of ecosystem resilience are essential for evaluation of the effects of man-made activities. Attempts to measure resilience in ecosystems where spatio-temporal changes rather than constancy are the most influential feature involves the problem of finding

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Résumé Le site de Dongodien (GaJi4) correspond à une séquence de sédiments de la marge du lac classifi-ables comme étant sous-lacustre, de plage, et sous-éolien. Typiques de la formation Galana Boi à Koobi Fora, au lac Turkana, au Kenya, ces sédiments se sont accumulés dans un contexte d’aridité croissante

Rietveld Autoquan/BGMN software [9]. Determination of the Distribution Coefficient Sediments are composed of layered silicates and amor-phous substances characterized by specific sorption and ion exchange properties. These properties play an important role in water purifying processes by retention of many harmful substances in the sediments.

Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) for fine sediments Marvin Brinke, Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany 11.30-11.50 Stepwise approach for the derivation of sediment quality criteria at different spatial scales: case study of mercury contamination in river basins from North Spain

cohesive sediments is depends on interaction between the particles, and for non-cohesive sediments, the size and weight of the each sediment particle is the main factors (Mendez, 2007). This paper will primarily discuss about the non-

Cohesive sediments (able to flocculate with each other, 20–30 m in size, see [15,16]) have properties that coarser, non-cohesive sediments do not have (as reminder, mud is made of particles 62.5 m or 1/16 mm in diameter and sand of particles between 62.5 m and 2 mm in diameter). Cohesive

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