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MUNICIPALINFRASTRUCTURESTANDARDSPart 25 Plant Species forUrban Landscape ProjectsTCCSTransport Canberra City ServicesFebruary 2021ACT Government1

ACT Government2

Publication Number:MIS 25 Edition 1 Revision 0Date of Effect:10/02/2021Supersedes:Design Standard for Urban Infrastructure Works Section xxEdition 1 Revision 0 September 2002Endorsed By:Approved By:Document InformationDocumentKey InformationDocument TitleMIS 25 Plant Species for Urban Landscape ProjectsNext review dateKey wordsAUS-SPEC BaseDocumentXxxx Document 1Revision RegisterEdition/ RevisionNumberClause NumberDescription of RevisionAuthorised ByDate1/0ACT Government3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF COUNTRYTransport Canberra and City Services (TCCS) acknowledge that Aboriginal people are the TraditionalOwners of Australia.We acknowledge and pay respect to the Ngunnawal peoples as the custodians of the land and waters thatwe live and thrive on today here in the ACT.TCCS acknowledge that Canberra’s cultural and natural heritage was maintained by the Ngunnawalpeople for many generations before colonial settlement on Australian soil.Aboriginal people’s management of the land preserved the natural balance of local plants and animals.This knowledge of the environment in which we live is critical to the protection and restoration of ourland today.It is our responsibility to preserve and encourage Aboriginal cultural integrity. When using this document,consider opportunities to to incorporate Ngunnawal and Aboriginal culture into our urban landscapes byutilising the cultural knowledge identified in the plant species list.ACT Government4

CONTENTS1 PLANT SPECIES. 71.1General . 7Cross references . documents . 10Interpretations . 11Tabulated category definitions . 121.1.6Additional design clearances required . 191.2Design criteria . 211.2.1Available soil volume. 211.2.2Species selection . 231.3Documentation . 23ANNEXURE A - TREES .24ANNEXURE B – SHRUBS .53ANNEXURE C – GRASSES.73Definitions . 73ANNEXURE D – WATER PLANTS .77Definitions . 77ANNEXURE E – DELETED PLANT LIST .80ANNEXURE F – NAME CHANGES FROM PREVIOUS LIST .85ANNEXURE G – PEST PLANTS IN THE ACT .88INDEX .92LIST OF TABLESTable 25-1Table 25-2Minimum clearances from powerlines and other electricity infrastructure . 21Native trees higher than 15 metres . 24Table 25-3Table 25-4Table 25-5Table 25-6Table 25-7Native 10 to 15 metres high . 27Native trees less than 10 metres high . 30Introduced trees higher than 15 metres . 32Introduced trees 10 to 15 metres high . 35Introduced trees less than 10 metres high . 43ACT Government5

Table 25-8Conifer trees . 50Table 25-9Native shrubs higher than 4 metres . 53Table 25-10Native shrubs 2 - 4 metres high . 54Table 25-11Table 25-12Table 25-13Native shrubs 1 – 2 metres high. 58Native shrubs less than 1 metre high . 59Introduced shrubs higher than 4 metres . 60Table 25-14Introduced shrubs 2 to 4 metres high . 61Table 25-15Table 25-16Table 25-17Table 25-18Table 25-19Introduced shrubs 1 to 2 metres high . 62Introduced shrubs less than 1 metre high . 63List of special plants: Shrubs . 63Native ground covers . 68Introduced ground covers . 69Table 25-20Table 25-21Table 25-22List of special plants: ground covers . 69Native climbers. 71Introduced climbers . 71Table 25-23Table 25-24List of Special Plants: Native Grasses . 73List of Special Plants: Introduced Grasses . 76Table 25-25Table 25-26Table 25-27Edge zone plants . 77Margin zone plants. 78Water zone plants . 79LIST OF FIGURESFigure 25-1Tree shape categories . 16Figure 25-2Figure 25-3Tree shape categories clearance requirements – Category 1 . 17Tree shape categories clearance requirements – Category 2 . 17Figure 25-4Tree shape categories clearance requirements – Category 3 . 18Figure 25-5Figure 25-6Tree shape categories clearance requirements – Category 4 . 18Minimum clearance from building setback. 19Figure 25-7Figure 25-8Minimum clearance from paths . 20Typical Section. 22ACT Government6

1 PLANT SPECIES1.1 tive: Provide appropriate plant species, for urban public unleased land in the ACT managed by TCCS.Provide details of suitable plant species for verge designs associated with municipal streets in the ACT andopen spaces on unleased territory land in the ACT in order to: Ensure trees have adequate soil volume suitable to support healthy root growth and healthy trees; Minimise adverse impacts on adjacent buildings, urban infrastructure and utilities above and below ground;Minimise average maintenance needs;Minimise future management problems;Provide plant species which are best suited to the ACT climate; andMaximise benefits of plant species for climate change mitigation and adaptation.Territory Plan: This Design Standard provides technical support to the Estate Development Code toprovide more detailed design requirements for the design of verges in the ACT.Scope: This Design Standard applies to all plants on public lands (road reserves and urban open space). Allfactors that influence the design shall be considered including: Existing vegetation and protection requirements;Environmental conditions and requirements;Site conditions and functional requirements;Requirements of affected Authorities;Relevant design standards; andNgunnawal and Aboriginal cultural site requirements1.1.1.2Designer’s qualificationsRequirement: The design of all soft landscape shall be by a Registered Landscape Architect (AILA). Theproponent shall submit evidence of designer’s AILA Registration to TCCS. any document issued, except legislation or the Territory Plan, referenced in this MunicipalInfrastructure Standard (MIS) includes technical requirements that conflict with this MIS, consult with theservice authority and TCCS for clarification.ACT Government7

1.1.2Cross references1.1.2.1Commonwealth LegislationThe following Commonwealth Legislation is relevant to this Standard:Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection ActAustralian Capital Territory Planning and Land Management ActDisability Discrimination ActEnvironment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation ActWork Health and Safety Act1.1.2.2ACT LegislationThe following ACT Legislation is relevant to this Standard:Discrimination ActEmergencies ActEnvironment Protection ActHeritage ActLegislation ActLakes ActNational Capital PlanNature Conservation ActPlanning and Development ActPlanning and Development RegulationPest Plants and Animals ActPest Plants and Animals (Pest Plants) Declaration (No. 1)Public Roads ActPublic Unleased Land ActTerritory Plan and related CodesParking and Vehicular Access General CodeCrime Prevention through Environmental Design General CodeWaterways: Water Sensitive Urban Design General CodeTree Protection Act and related instrumentTree Protection (Guidelines for Tree Management Plans) DeterminationACT Tree RegisterUtilities ActUtility Networks (Public Safety) RegulationWater and Sewerage ActWater and Sewerage Regulations (ACT)ACT Government8

Water Resources ActWork Health and Safety Act1.1.2.3ACT Government Strategic DocumentsACT Pest Animals Management Strategy 2012-2022ACT Weeds Strategy 2009-2019ACT Climate Change Adaption StrategyThe ACT Planning Strategy – Planning for a sustainable cityActive 2020: A Strategic Plan for Sport and Active Recreation in the ACT & Region 2011-2020Canberra Plan; Towards Our Second CenturyThe City Plan 2014The ACT Strategic Bushfire Management Plan 2014-2019Nature Conservation Strategy 2013-2023Strategic Bushfire Management Plan for the ACT, ACT Emergency Services AuthorityThreatened Species Action PlansTransport for Canberra. Transport for a sustainable city 2012-20311.1.2.4Design StandardsThis Design Standard references the following component standardsMIS 01Street planning and designMIS 04Subsurface drainageMIS 05Active travel facilities designMIS 06VergesMIS 07DrivewaysMIS 08StormwaterMIS 11Off street ParkingMIS 15Urban Edges Management ZoneMIS 16Urban open spaceMIS 18IrrigationMIS 20Street and park furnitureMIS 24Soft Landscape Design1.1.2.5SpecificationsThe following Specifications are related to this Standard:MITS 09LandscapeACT Government9 Reference DocumentsThe following TCCS Reference Documents are related to this standard:Reference Document 6Requirements for design acceptance submissionsReference Document 7Requirements for operational acceptance submission for hard publicinfrastructure worksReference Document 8Requirements for works as executed recordsReference Document 9Requirements for final acceptance submission for hard landscape assets andcivil worksReference Document 10 Requirements for landscape consolidation and handover1.1.2.7Design GuidesThe following design guides are related to this standard:Canberra Central Design ManualEnvironment Protection Guidelines for Construction and Land Development in the ACT (EPA)ACT Crime Prevention and Urban Design Resource Manual, ACT Department of Urban Services, Planningand Land Management, 2000.Development Control Code for Best Practice Waste Management in the ACT (ACT No Waste)Network Architecture and Technology (NBN)Underground Services in a Shared Trench Agreement, (Telstra, TransACT, ActewAGL)Water Supply and Sewerage Standards (Icon Water)1.1.3Referenced documentsThe following documents are incorporated into this Design Standard by reference: 4373Pruning of amenity treesAS 4970Protection of trees on development sitesAS 2303Tree stock for landscape use1.1.3.2Other publicationsACTMAPi (for the location of Registered Trees and significant plants and animals)ACT Crime Prevention and Urban Design Resource Manual, Planning and Land Management, ACTDepartment of Urban Services, CanberraACT Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design General Code (CPTED)Belconnen’s Urban Parks, Sportsgrounds and Lake Ginninderra, Canberra Urban Parks and Places,Department of Urban Services, CanberraInner Canberra’s Urban Parks and Sportsgrounds, Canberra Urban Parks and Places, Department of UrbanServices, CanberraTuggeranong’s Urban Parks and Sportsgrounds, Canberra Urban Parks and Places, Department of UrbanServices, CanberraWoden and Weston Creek’s Urban Parks and Sportsgrounds, Canberra Urban Parks and Places,Department of Urban Services, CanberraACT Government10

EPA - Environment Protection Policies – eg. General, Waste Water Reuse, Air, Contaminated sites,Outdoor concert noise, Water qualityEPSD - Nature Conservation web site includes information and strategy plans regarding ecological issuesin the ACT, for example - Action Plan 27 (Woodlands for Wildlife), Grassland Conservation andAquatic/Riparian ConservationHeart Foundation - Active Living Impact Check list – A tool for developments in the Australian CapitalTerritoryParks and Recreation Zone Development CodeClark, R 1996, Purchasing Landscape Trees: A Guide to Assessing Tree Quality, NATSPEC 2 Guide,Construction Information Systems Australia, Milsons Point, NSW.Draper DB and Richards PA 2009, Dictionary for Managing Trees in Urban Environments, CSIRO Publishing,Victoria.Proprietary products: To TCCS Products previously considered for use listSchneemann B, Brack C, Brookhouse M & Kanowski P 2019, Urban Forest Tree Species Research for theACT, The Australian National University, Canberra. Prepared on behalf of EPSDD. Available at data/assets/pdf rpretations1.1.4.1AbbreviationsGeneral: For the purposes of this standard the following abbreviations apply:AILA:Australian Institute of Landscape ArchitectsASV:Available Soil VolumeCPTED:Crime Prevention through Environmental DesignEPA:Environment and Protection Authority, ACT Government and its successorsEPSDD:Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate, ACT Government and itssuccessorsIZV:Initial Zone VolumeSZV:Soil Zone VolumeTCCS:Transport Canberra and City Services Directorate, ACT Government and its successors1.1.4.2DefinitionsGeneral: For the purposes of this Design Standard the definition given below applies:Active Living: A way of life that integrates physical activity into daily routines.Active Recreation: Recreation activities that involve physical input or interactions. Examples includerunning, ball games, climbing and riding.Biodiversity: The variety of life on earth, comprising countless species living in different but interdependent ecosystems. Variability among living organisms in terrestrial, marine and other aquaticenvironments (and the ecological systems of which they are part) includes: Diversity within species and between species; and Diversity of ecosystems.ACT Government11

Climate change: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) defines climate change as “achange in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in themean and/or the variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period, typically decades orlonger. It refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result ofhuman activity.”Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED): Aims to prevent crime by designing spaces andbuildings that foster human activity and interaction using four key principles: natural surveillance to limitthe opportunity for crime; natural access to encourage the movement of people into spaces that are openand inviting; territorial reinforcement to maintain a sense of ownership by the local community; andtarget hardening to make it difficult to steal or vandalise property.Path: A paved off-road facility of varying width and surfacing for shared use by pedestrians and cyclists.All paths, including paths adjacent to streets, are shared by pedestrians and cyclists in the ACT, differingfrom NSW and Victoria where cyclists over 12 years of age are not permitted to ride on paths unlessappropriately designated.Road verge: The part of the road reserve between the carriageway and the boundary of adjacent blocks(or other limit to road reserve). It may accommodate public utilities, footpaths, stormwater flows, streetlighting poles and planting.Root barrier: A physical or chemical obstruction located in the ground to prevent or divert the spread ofroots, usually to protect nearby infrastructure.Urban Open Space: Unleased Territory Land within the urban area set aside for public use. (Defined in theTerritory Plan, zoned as PRZ1)Water Sensitive Urban Design: An approach to urban planning and design that aims to integrate themanagement of the urban water cycle into the urban development process.Weed species: Any plant species exotic or native which is known to spread by the production of viableprogeny often in large numbers, outcompeting and disrupting existing vegetation, e.g. in gardens, parksor bushland. The species concerned may be introduced from outside its area of natural distribution to anarea where there are few or no natural predators, or it may have an ability to spread due to changes inland use creating a favourable habitat1.1.5Tabulated category definitionsBotanical name: Recognised scientific name used for the current genus, species, subspecies and cultivar(abbreviation CV, that is, cultivated plant variety) names. The previous name of a plant may be includedbelow the botanical name in brackets.Code: A standardised unique code or abbreviation for each plant, primarily for use on landscape plans (inparticular planting plans and schedules). An example would be Aml Acacia melanoxylon. The capitalletter(s) are drawn from the genus name, followed by the lowercase letter(s) drawn from the speciesname and/or cultivar name.Design characteristics: Features of a plant that set it apart for design consideration. Examples includeautumn colour or symbolic meaning such as the ANZAC lone pine. Foliage and flower colour are usuallylisted. Other notable descriptions include common name, bark, fruit, canopy density and shape.Flowering times: Typical seasons in which trees flower and produce pollen and/or nectar.Forager: Wildlife that utilise pollen, nectar or fruit.ACT Government12

Height x width: Average mature height and width in metres under typical conditions in the ACT urbanlandscape.Management and siting notes: Specific problems attributed to the species. Examples include diseaseoccurrence, insect attack, nuisance fruit drop and any other known considerations such as irrigationrequirement. Three main management/siting notes are detailed below: Frost tolerance – if not listed, the plant has a high frost tolerance. It is suitable for exposed sites butmay not be suitable in hollows or frost pockets. If not, the following explanations apply: low – requires shelter from frost in the ACT landscape; andmedium – suitable in unsheltered sites but not in very exposed sites. Shade tolerance – if not listed, full sun requirement is assumed. If not, the following explanationsapply: shade – requires shade; andshade/sun – will tolerate shade but will also grow in sun. Pruning – the amenity of plants in the urban landscape can often be improved by well-judgedpruning. Pruning maintenance can extended the longevity of a plant species in the urban landscape.Plant species that require more frequent pruning, therefore greater maintenance, are noted. Thefollowing explanation also applies: Responds to severe pruning – will tolerate hardwood pruning.Nectar, pollen, fruit: Resources provided by plants to be utilised by foragers.Ngunnawal cultural notes: An outline of how selected plants were used by Ngunnawal and Aboriginalpeoples for food, medicine, tools, shelter and cultural purposes. Utilising Ngunnawal and Aboriginal plant species in local landscape projects helps incorporateAboriginal culture into our environment and is strongly encouraged.Root barrier zone: A linear root barrier zone has been identified for trees to specify when a root barrier isrequired. If the tree is closer to a path or kerb than the distance given, then a root barrier is required.N/A Not applicable. N/R Not required (if planted at minimum distance from path or kerb).Target soil volume & site restrictions: Plants within the MIS 25 plant list are not always suitable for aparticular site or certain purpose. This category ensures the following: Minimal adverse impacts on urban infrastructure; Minimal average maintenance needs; and The plant is used in its suitable location or environment.Available soil volume: (greater than or equal to) – is a figure in cubic meters (m3) to indicate theavailable unobstructed soil volume provided through sound design to encourage healthy trees withinurban infrastructure (see further discussion in Design Criteria).ACT Government13

Each species has been grouped into an ASV Class to indicate the target soil volume: ASV Class 1 15m3ASV Class 2 30m3ASV Class 3 45m3ASV Class 4 70m3ASV Class 5 100m3This is the minimum soil volume required for each species which can be calculated at design stage,particularly verge design. This minimum volume has been set to ensure: Suitable underground space to support healthy tree root growth, for healthy trees that grow to their potential;Suitable underground space for trees to coexist with other urban infrastructure in the verge; andMinimal future management problems for all services in the verge, including trees.The main site restrictions or ‘not suitable’ sites and purposes are: Car parks – used when the plant species has characteristics unsuitable for car park sites. Examples include plants with a light tree canopy which could provide insufficient summer shade. Plants with avigorous root system which could adversely impact urban infrastructure. Lastly plants with a leaf orfruit drop which could increase maintenance costs or inconvenience levels;Clear Zone – that area adjacent to the traffic lanes which should be kept free of fixed roadsidehazards including trees 200m trunk diameter;Creeks and watercourses – this includes ephemeral and permanent water courses, both natural andconstructed often with a low maintenance regime. This criterion is used when the plant species hascharacteristics unsuitable for creeks or watercourses. Examples include plants with vigorous rootsystems which could adversely impact the waterway. Plants with a potential to be invasiveparticularly in low maintenance areas. Lastly plants that could require increased maintenance costs;All plant species listed not suitable for creeks and watercourses remain restricted unless writtenapproval is obtained from TCCS;Dry sites – sites that almost always maintain soil moisture below the water holding capacity of thesoil;Exposed sites – sites always subject to prevailing winds or full sun. An exposed site is oftencharacterised by steep gradients and shallow soils;Large plantings – used when the plant species historically has not performed adequately whenplanted in large numbers. Examples include plants that are susceptible to widespread pest attack. Seealso single species;All plant species listed not suitable for large plantings are better used in low numbers in mixedspecies plantings; andNatural areas including semi-natural open space and native grassland sites – sites containing nativeplants and animal communities where the invasion of non-native plant species should be avoided. Anexample of a natural area includes the 33 separate sites that collectively make up Canberra NaturePark.ACT Government14

All plant species listed not suitable for natural areas including semi-natural open space and nativegrassland sites should not be planted adjacent to or within these areas. Additional clearance zonesapply if the listed plant species has the following characteristics: 500 metre clearance zone if plant has seeds likely to be spread by birds;100 metreclearance zone if plant has a main seed dispersal method of wind dispersal;50 metre clearance zone if plant is likely to sucker; andThe clearance zone distances may be increased by TCCS when necessary. Paved areas – used when the plant species has characteristics unsuitable for paved areas. Examples include plants with a vigorous root system which could adversely impact urban infrastructure. Plantswith a leaf, fruit or resin drop which could increase maintenance costs or inconvenience levels. Plantsthat require more frequent pruning or additional indirect pest control. Lastly plants that historicallyperform poorly in paved areas. *Some species may be considered if suitable root barrier is applied atplanting;Playing fields – used when the plant species has characteristics unsuitable for playing fields. Examplesinclude plants with vigorous root systems that may invade irrigated and dryland grassed areasincreasing maintenance costs.All plant species listed not suitable for playing fields should not be planted within 35 metres of aplaying field;Poorly drained sites – sites that almost always maintain soil moisture above the water holdingcapacity of the soil. A poorly drained site is often due to impeded drainage;Poor soils – sites which limit plant growth due to inadequate chemical or physical properties in thesoil;ASV – used to determine tree size by access to soil.Roads and streets – used when the plant species is unsuitable for the current setbacks for roadhierarchies detailed in Design Standard 4 Road Verges.All plants used on roads and streets should be selected in conjunction with Design Standard 4 RoadVerges;Screening – used when the plant species does not have a dense branching habit or shoot systemsuitable for screening views;Shelter belts – used when the plant species is unsuited to a high degree of wind exposure;Single species – used when the plant species is susceptible to widespread pest attack, particularlywhen grown at high densities. See also large plantings;All plant species listed not suitable for single species are better used in low numbers in mixed speciesplantings;Urban areas – used when the plant species has characteristics unsuitable for urban areas other thannatural areas or open space. Examples include plants which suffer unacceptably high insect or diseaseattack. Plants with a leaf, fruit or resin drop which could increase maintenance costs or inconveniencelevels. Plants that require more frequent pruning.All plant species listed not suitable for urban areas are native in the ACT and common locally; andWet sites – sites that are subject to frequent and prolonged water inundation. A wet site is oftencharacterised by depression topography.ACT Government15

Tree shape category: The following four categories of trees are used to describe clearance requirements:Category 1 – Large to medium, 10m sized rounded tree with cleantrunk and rounded to elliptical form. Examples include Eucalyptusmannifera Design Standards This Design Standard references the following component standards MIS 01 Street planning and design MIS 04 Subsurface drainage MIS 05 Active travel facilities design MIS 06 Verges MIS 07 Driveways MIS 08 Stormwater MIS 11 Off street Parking MIS 15 Urban Edges Management Zone MIS 16 Urban open space

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