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MotherCare Country AssessmentEl SalvadorApril 15 - April 26, 1991Team Members:Patricia TaylorMotherCare Associate DirectorJohn Snow, Inc.Debra KeithConsultantAmerican College of Nurse MidwivesPrepared For:USAID/San Salvador and the PROSAMI ProjectReport Prepared for theAgency for International DevelopmentContract #DPE-5966-2-00-8083Z1Project #936-5966

NTRODUCTIONA.PurposeB.ActivitiesII.MATERNAL AND NEONATAL HEALTH STATUSA.IntroductionB.Maternal MortalityC.Perinatal and Neonatal MortalityI.PRIMARY PREVENTION OF MATERNAL, PERINATAL AND NEONATAL DEATHSA.Family PlanningB.Maternal NutritionC.Birthing PracticesD.BreastfeedingIV.SECONDARY PREVENTION: RESPONDING TO THE CONDITIONS THAT KILLWOMEN AND INFANTSA.ToxemiaB.HemorrhageC.Puerperal (Woman) InfectionD.Obstructed, Prolonged LaborsE.Prematurity/Low Birth WeightF.Neonatal Infections (Sepsis, Meningitis, Pneumonia, Tetanus)V.HEALTH SERVICE FACTORSA.The Coverage and Utilization of Health ServicesB.The Organization of Maternal and Neonatal Health CareC.The Partera, or Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA)D.Health PromotersE.Graduate Nurses, Maternal Infant Health Technicians, and Auxiliary NursesF.Integrated Norms for Maternal and Infant CareG.Simplified Perinatal HistoryH.TBA Birthing CentersI.Maternity Waidng HomeJ.Emergency Obstetrical and Neonatal Services

VI.PVO ACTIVITIES IN MATERNAL AND NEONATAL HEALTHA.PVO CharacteristicsB.The Role of the PVO in Maternal and Neonatal Health .improvementVII.PROPOSAL FOR MOTHERCARE ASSISTANCE TO PROSAMIA.Goals and ObjectivesB.Description of Suggested ActivitiesC.Management and Funding of Proposed ActivitiesVIII.OTHER COMMENTS AND ope of WorkList of ContactsSummary of PVO InterviewsHospital Data on Maternal and Early Infant Morbidity and Mortality

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe MotherCare Team would like to thank all of the individuals who took time from theirbusy schedules to meet with us during this assessment. Your help and the valuable informationand insights you shared with us made it possible to cover a great deal of material in a relativelyshort period of time. A special thanks as well to Dr, Elizabeth Burleigh and Lic. Flor de Mariaof PROSAMI, who coordinated and provided support for our visit, and to Christine Adamczykof USAID/Sap. Salvador for her guidance and continuing support.The contents of this report are the sole responsibility of its authors. We apologize for anymistakes, misinterpretations or missed information, and we welcome your comments andcorrections.It is our hope that this assessment and its recommendations lead to new activities that willcomplement the extremely important work that is already underway in El Salvador to improvematernal and neonatal survival.

ACRONYMSACNM - American College of Nurse MidwivesADS - Salvadoran Demographic AssociationAPPROCSAL - Asociacion Salvadorena Promotora de la SaludASAPROSAR - Asociacion Salvadorena ProSalud RuralCALMA - Centro de Apoyo para Lactancia Matema, Breastfeeding Support CenterCISI - Interagency Commission for Child SurvivalCLAP - Latin American Center of PerinatologyCONAMUS - Comision Nacional de Mujeres SalvadorenasGOES - Government of El SalvadorIEC - Information, Education and CommunicationIMR - Infant Mortality RateINCAP - Nutrition Institute of Central America and PanamaIRC - International Rescue CommitteeJSI - John Snow, Inc.LBW - Low Birth WeightMMR - Maternal Mortality RatioMSCI - Medical Services Corporation InternationalMSPyAS - Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance of El SalvadorNGO - Non-Gover.nental OrganizationOFASA - ADRA - Adventist Developmental Relief Agency

PAHO - Pan American Health OrganizationPATH - Program for Appropriate Technology in HealthPHC - Primary Health CarePiH - Pregnancy-Induced HypertensionPROCADES - Asociacion Salvadorena de Promocion, Capacitacion y DesarrolloPROSAMI - USAID Maternal and Child Survival ProjectPVO - Private Voluntary Organization, also referred to as Non-GovernmentalOrganizationTBA - Traditional Birth AttendantUSAID - United States Agency for International DevelopmentWFP - World Food Program

MOTHERCARE COUNTRY ASSESSMENT - EL SALVADORSUMMARYAt the request of USAID/San Salvador, a MotherCare Team worked in El Salvador from April15-26, 1991, to conduct a rapid assessment of the maternal and neonatal health situation. Theassessment included an extensive literature review; documentation of the PVO, Ministry of PublicHealth and Social Assistance (MSPyAS) and international donor agency programs addressiigmaternal and neonatal health; identification of deficiencies in current activities, as well asopportunities through PVOs and others to expand them. On the basis of this analysis, a seriesof recommendations were made and a proposal for MotherCare assistance to the USAID Maternaland Child Survival Project (PROSAMI) was prepared. The following paragraphs summarize theassessment's findings and recommendations.Maternal and Neonatal Mortality: Estimates place El Salvador among the highest prioritycountries in the Latin American Region for reduction of both maternal and neonatal mortality.The leading clinical causes of maternal death recorded in El Salvador are toxemia, puerperalinfection, hemorrhage, and abortion complications. For the newborn, the probable causes includeinfections (sepsis, respiratory infection and others), birth asphyxia, birth trauma, and low birthweight. These immediate causes of maternal and neonatal mortality are directly related to thehealth status of women, and to the health care they receive during pregnancy, childbirth and thepostpartum period.Primary Prevention: Health and socio-demographic indicators give some notion of theunderlying causes of maternal and neonatal mortality in the country. They include pregnanciesin young, unmarried women and older, higher parity women, and the persistence of traditionalbirthing and neonatal care practices, including breastfeeding practices. Maternal nutrition doesnot appear to be as serious a problem in El Salvador as in other countries, perhaps due toextensive food aid targeted at pregnant and lactating women. Government and PVO programsaddressing family planning and brzastfeeding promotion have also been relatively successful.However, very little is known or understood about women's preferences and practices related tomaternity care, except that the majority of births in rural areas continue to be in the home withuntrained TBAs, relatives or women themselves attending.Secondary Prevention: Improving the quality and use of prenatal and institutional birthing carecould result in earlier detection and management of maternal and neonatal complications.However, families, communities and all levels of the health system must also be ready to handlelife-threatening complications when they occur. Health service factors that must be addresscdover the short term if maternal and neonatal deaths are to be reduced include limited access toand under-utilization of institutional maternity care, particularly in rural areas; too few trainedTBAs in the communities; and the poor quality or unavailability of emergency referral servicesfor complicated births and the treatment of sick women and neonates.1

Health Service Factors: The MSPyAS has taken iraportant steps to address these problems by:*** increasing the numbers of trained TBAs and Health Promoters;revising the training curricula for both of these community workers;revising national norms for maternal and infant care at all levels of the publichealth system;introducing the CLAP Simplified Perinatal History form; and,announcing that the MSPyAS will work in close collaboration with PVOs toachieve the national goal of improved maternal and infant survival.Two new models for improved hom-e birth and referral are also being tested by the MSPyAS,with assistance from UNICEF--the TBA Birthing Center and the Maternity Waiting Home. TheMaternity Waiting Home is of special interest because it will improve the potential for referralof women with complications and reduce delays in medical intervention if it is required. A newIzroiject planned with World Bank funding should also improve the quality of referral careavailable to women and neonates in government hospitals and health centers.PVO Characteristics: The PVOs visited during the assessment can be divided into those thathave:*community-level health programs in five or more, communities, and those thathave such activities in less than five communities;*public health trained program staff and those that do not;*worked with and/or trained TBAs in the past and those that have not; and,*established systems for training, information collection and the planning andevaluation of their community activities, and those that do not.All of the PVOs interviewed during the assessment have experience in primary health care, asit is defined by WHO, and all have trained some type of community "promotor" or "volunteer"health worker. Very few, however, have experience either training or working with TBAs. Mostof the smaller PVOs am also uninformed about the content of MSPyAS training for TBAs. Allof the PVO's appear to have learned and applied important child survival principais as a resultof their participation in the conferences and training programs sponsored by the InteragencyCommission for Child Sui-vival (CISI)--indicating that this type of training would be an effectiveway to transfer new information to the PVOs.The Potential Role for PVOs in Maternal and Neonatal Health Improvement: Because oftheir grassroots approach, PVOs could be important players in:communications campaigns designed to change pregnancy and childbirthbehaviors, and/or to teach the danger signs of life-threatening problems in womenand neonates and the need to seek medical attention when these occur.efforts to inform and work with community leaders to create emergencytransportation and referral systems;2

* the training, supervision and on-going support of TBAs;collection of information about the maternal and neonatal health situation in theirareas, i.e. problems, access to primary and referral services, transportation, etc.- information that is not currently available;developing and testing new roles in emergency obstetrical and neonatal first aidfor TBAs and Health Promoters; and,testing appropriate technologies and new concepts in maternal and neonatal care,like the Maternity Waiting Home; and,providing staff and examples of established prngrarn systems to other smallerPVOs as they embark upon new maternal and neonatal activities.In order to undertake new maternal and neonatal health activities, most PVOs will need:a basic understanding of the problems of maternal and neonatal health in ElSalvador and the MSPyAS programs that are designed to address them;encouragement, ideas and support that will enable them to add new activities totheir current health programs;training for their health personnel in maternal and neonatal topics and, in somecases, additional public health trained staff;training curricula, educational materials, and information systems, or the meansto develop these locally;technical assistance fur the design of their project interventions.Proposal for MotherCare Assistance to PROSAMI: On the basis of the above analysis, a twoyear training and technical assistance project is proposed. FROSAMJ would administer this effortin El Salvador, with all local training costs and project support coming from the PROSAMIbudget. MotherCare would provide technical assistance at key points for the training of PVOstaff and their MSPyAS counterparts; the development of special projects by these PVO-MSPyASteams; and, the evaluation of these projects. The level of effort required is approximately 12person months of MotherCare staff and consultant tinie over a two year period. In-country costswill be calculated by PROSAMI.Other Recommendations for USALD and PROSAMI Consideration: A number of additionalrecommendations are made in the report for improvements in El Salvador's maternal and neonatalheaith strategy. These include:developing standard management/treatment protocols for the most common andthe most serious maternal and neonatal conditions at each level of the healthservice;focusing more attention in TBA and Health Promoter training on life-threateningdanger signs during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum and neonatalperiods, and on the need for immediate action when these occur;testing emergency first aid roles for TBAs and Health Promoters faced with life threatening maternal and neonatal situations;3

conducting a mortality case investigation of maternal, perinatal and neonataldeaths in the community to better determine the factors (medical, behavioral,finane;'al, logistical) associated with these deaths and designing communicationsand health service interventions based on these findings;conducting a national workshop for the dissemination of the findings of thematernal mortality, TBA practice and conditions of efficiency studies.MotherCare has experience with a number of the above interventions and could be available toprovide technical assistance or reference maierials, if these are needed.4

MOTHERCARE COUNTRY ASSESSMENT - EL SALVADORApril 15-26, 1991I.INTRODUCTIONA.PurposeUSAID/San Salvador requested MotherCare technical assistance in March 1991, tocomplete a country assessment of maternal and neonatal health problems and services, and torecommend a strategy for training the private voluntary organizations (PVOs) that work with theUSAID Maternal and Child Survival Project (PROSAMI) in these topic areas. On the basis ofthis request, a detailed scope of work was developed for a MotherCare team of two persons,Patricia Taylor, MotherCare Associate Director, and Debra Keith, a consultant to MotherCarefrom the American College of Nurse Midwives. The scope of work for the assignment is foundin Appendix 2 of this report.The PROSAMI Project is a seven-year project, funded by USAID/San Salvador andadministered locally under a technical assistance contract with Medical Services CorporationInternational (MSCI). PROSAMI's goal is to improve the health status of the rural and marginalurban population by increasing the percentage of this population which has access to basic healthservices. Towards this goal, PROSAMI will assist up to 50 local PVOs now operating clinicsand/or community-based health programs to expand and extend their programs to areas of ElSalvador where such services have been weak or nonexistent. The Project has three categoriesof activities: 1) maternal health/child survival service delivery which will include providingtechnical assistance, commodities, training and some start up costs to PVOs for health careinterventions at the community level; 2) institutional strengthening of PVOs; and, 3)coordination,policy development and research which are expected to provide a forum for policy dialogue withthe Government of El Salvador.PROSAMI was in its ninth month of activity at the time of the MotherCare visit. At thispoint, over 100 PVOs had been identified throughout El Salvador and PROSAMI staff wereinvolved in the review and selection of the first cycle of PVO project proposals.B.ActivitiesThe MotherCare Team met with PROSAMI Director, Dr. Elizabeth Burleigh, and withUSAID Health and Nutrition Officer, Christine Adamczyk, upon arrival in country. During theirtwo week visit, Ms. Taylor and Ms. Keith also met with a wide range of organizations andindividuals to collect information about the health conditions of women and newborns, thegovernmental and non-governmental programs that are on-going or planned to address theseproblems, and the programmatic gaps that might be filled through greater PVO, PROSAMI andUSAID involvement.5

As part of the assessment, a large number of publications and program documents onmaternal and early infant health topics and programs in El Salvador were reviewed. TheMaternity Hospital of San Salvador, Bloom Children's Hospital, the Ministry of Public Healthand Social Assistance (MSPyAS), INCAP and Dr. Jose Douglas Jarquin of the Association ofObstetrics and Gynecology were instrumental in providing the MotherCare Team withinformation on maternal and neonatal health status. Information about existing and plannedprograms was gleaned from discussions with USAID, UNICEF, and INCAP representatives; staffof the Salvadoran Demographic Association (ADS); and staff of the Maternal Infant Health andthe Community Health Divisions of the MSPyAS.Interviews were also conducted with a number of the non-governmental organizations thatare the potential recipients of PROSAMI's support, many of which are already working toimprove maternal and newborn care at the community level. These include: CARITAS ofZacatecoluca, ASAPROSAR, CALMA, Corporacion Ministerios Para Vida, PROCADES,CONAMUS, Fundacion Marco Antonio Vasquez, International Rescue Committee, OFASA,CALMA and the Fundacion Maqui!ishuatl. Unfortunately, the limited amount of time availablefor this assessment and the continuing civil unrest in El Salvador made visits to the communitieswhere PVOs are working impossible. In a number of cases, however, PVO promoters and healthcommittee members participated in meetings with MotherCare at the organizations' headquarters.A complete list of the organizations and individuals contacted is provided inAppendix 3.6

ILMATERNAL AND NEONATAL HEALY H STATUSA.IntroductionAs infant and child mortality rates have fallen throughout the Amexicas over the lastdecade, the proportion of infant deaths attributed to the neonatal period has risen dramatically.In many countries, including El Salvador, neonatal deaths may -ow account for from 40% to50% of all deaths in children under one year of age. Maternal and perinatal mortality rates arealso high throughout the region, a fact that is motivating governments, health service agonciesand international donors to give new attention to the health problems of women and newborns.To effectively reduco high rates of maternal, perinatal and neonatal mortality, programsmust include:1.A focused intervention strategy that addresses the leading causes of death andillness in women and infants;2.A primary health care system that reaches women and families in theircommunities with:0* **information about the prevention and the signs of life-threateningproblems;screening and appropriate care during and after pregnancy;trained birth attendants for normal deliveries;referrals to higher levels of health care for "high risk" pregnancies, birthsand neonates; and,the means to space and limit pregnancies.3.An emergency transport network or system that insures that women and neonateswith problems can be moved as quickly as possible to the appropriate level ofhealth care.4.Referral facilities that are equipped, staffed and ready to treat those women andneonates with serious problems and to perform emergency procedures to save theirlives, when necessary.The following analysis attempts to describe the degree to which these conditions exist,or that they are being addressed in El Salvador.7

Three studies conducted between 1987 and 1990, on maternal deaths and maternal healthservices in Ei Salvador were extremely useful and have been cited extensively. They are:1.Jarquin, Jose Douglas, "Analisis Clinico y Epidemiologico de 471 Casos deMaerte Materna Ocurridas en los Hospitales y Centros de Salud Del Ministeriode Salud Publica y Asistencia Social de El Salvador 1983-1990" (" Clinical andEpidemiological Analysis of 471 Cases of Maternal Death Occurring in theHospitals and Health Centers of the Ministry of Public Health and SocialAssisance of El Salvador from 1983-1990"), UNICEF, 1990.2.Mendez-Dominguez, Alfredo and Jarquin, Jose Douglas, "Avaluacion del Rol deLa Partera Empirica en El Salvador" ("Evaluation of the Role of the TraditionalBirth Attendant in El Salvador"), Salvadoran Demographic Association, 1990.3.Jarquin, Jose Douglas, "Analisis al Modelo Institucional de Atencion Materna enEl Salvador" (Analysis of the Institutional Model for Maternal Care in 1ElSalvador"), MSPyAS, 1989.While sponsored by different agencies, all three studies have as either their principal orcontributing author, Dr. Jose Douglas Jarquin Gonzalez, the current President of the Gynecologyand Obstetrics Association of El Salvador. Readers are referred to these documents for additionalinformation on the topics covered below.B.Maternal Mortality1.RatesThe Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR)' for El Salvador cited in the UN DemographicYearbook is 74 maternal deaths/100,000 live births; the official figure published by theGovernment of El Salvador (GOES) is double that at 148/100,000; and, in a recent publication,PAHO has estimated that the MMR may actually be as high as 300/100,000. While the higherratios are undoubtedly closer to the actual situation, the validity of all such statistics isquestionable since there has never been a population-based study of maternal mortality in ElSalvador.The Maternal Mortality Ratio (MWR) is the number of deathsduring or within 42 days after the termination of a pregnancy,Maternal Mortality Ratio is an indicator of a woman's risk ofexcellent barometer of both the health of women of reproductive8of women 14-49 years of age that occurcalculated per 100,003 live births. Thedeath from each new pregnancy, and anage and the health care available to them.

Estimates from studies in hospitals and among smaller populations indicate that ElSalvador's actual MMR may be close to the ratio of 148/100,000, cited by the GOES (SeeTable 1). For example, the study of maternal deaths from 1983-1990, in government hospitalsand health centers across the country founu an in-hospital MMR of 141 per 100,000 live births(Jarquin, 1990). At the end of this period, the study of traditional birth attendants (TBA) alsoestimated a MMR of 131 per 100,000 from community data, which approximates the officialrate(Mendez-Dominguez, et al 1990).The recent analysis by PAHO, referred to above, bases the relatively high rate of300/100,000 on existing data adjusted for contraceptive prevalence, the percent of births attendedin hospital, the condition of the health services and other reproductive health and health servicefaciors. If this ratio is found to be valid, it means that approximately 600 women die in ElSalvador each year of pregnancy-related causes.2As shown in Table 2, these higher estimates leave El Salvador with a MMR that iscomparable to the most recent estimates for its Central American neighbors--Guatemala andHonduras. On the basis of its MMR and the condition of its health services, PAHO recentlyclassified El Salvador as a Group One country, or one of ten countries in the Americas forpriority intervention to reduce maternal mortality. In general, Group One countries have MMRsover 100 and health service delivery systems that are either seriously deficient and/or under utilized.2Under-reporting of maternal deaths is common because of misclassification and because of a general lackof information about those deaths tht occur outside of a hospital. One study in Guatemala found 50%under-reporting in hospitals alone. (Bocaletti, 1989)9

TABLE 1MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO(per 100,000 live births)All Hospitals (1)141SS Maternidad (2)Community (3)98131PAHO Estimate (4)300GOES148Causes of Maternal DeathHospital (1)Community 56%11%Anesthesia5%--Obstructed LaborOthersNumber of Deaths4%15%47111%11%9Sources of Information:(1)Jarquin, Jose Douglas, "Analysis Clinico Y Epidemiologico de 471 Casos de Muerte M Materna Ocurridas enLos Hospitals Y Centros de Salud Del de Salud Public y Asistencia Social De El Salvador 1983-1990.(2)Personal Communication, Hospital de Maternidad, San Salvador, data for 1986-1990.(3)Mendez-Dominguez and Jarquin, "Av3iuacion del Rol de La Partera Empirica en El Salvador" Mayo 1990.(4)PAHO, "Regional Plan of Action foT the Reduction of Maternal Mortality in the Americas", 1990.2.CausesThe hospital study of maternal deaths mentioned above found toxemia, infection andhemorrhage to be the three principal causes of maternal death, for women who die in hospital.In this study, over 69% of hospital deaths were related to these three causes alone. Overall, 85%of all hospital deaths were found to be directly related to pregnancy, 15.1% due to otherconditions that are exacerbated by pregnancy (hepatitis, tuberculosis, etc.) and 4% werecategorized as being unrelated to pregnancy (suicide, homicide, accidents, etc.) (Jarquin 1990).10

From:PAHO, "Regional Plan of Action for the ReductionofMaternal Mortality in the Americas", 1990.TABLE 2ESTIMATED NUMBER OF MATERNALDEATHS AS OF 1990 INSELECTED COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIESOF THE ,REGION, BASEDON ADJUSTED RATES OBTAINED FROM FIVEDIFFERENT SOURCES!CountryArgentina (1986)BoliviaBrazil (1986)Canada (1986)Chile (1987)Colombia (1984)Costa Rica (1988)Cuba (1988)Dominican Republic (1985)Ecuador (1987)El Salvador (1984)Guatemala (1984)Guyana (1984)HaitiHonduras (1983)Jamaica (1984)Mexico (1986)NicaraguaPanama (1987)Paraguay (1986)Peru (1983)Puerto RicoTrinidadand Tobago (1986)United Statesof America(1987)UruguayVenezuelaAdtustea Rate10b,000 502,2771634486191,13828,142a)For Argentina the adJustOmt was based onthe umderregstra tion observed in the Cdrdoba study (Illia1987).b) For Brazil. CoLombia,Guyana,Mexicoand Venezuea the esti- mated rate for Brazilused (Lauretiwasc) For Ecuado,El1988).Salvador, Guatemala. Honduras, Nicaragua,Paraguay and Peru, theestimatedfor CostaPeru was used.d) ForCanaa,rate.Chile,Rica. Cuba, Panama. Puerto Rico, Trinidad andState, end Uruguay the correctionTobago, Unitedwas based on thi 39Z underregistrationobserved ina study in the United States (Kooning 1988).e) For Jamaic the figure from a recent study(UniversityofWestIndiesFor Bolivia and Haiti the :ata was estimated1989) was used.Ministry of Social Welfare and Public Health on the besis of data from the Bolivian(1989).Estimated births based on population and birthrate data from CELADE (1989).11

Data from TBAs suggest a similar pattern, with hemorrhage, abortion complications,and obstructed labor reported to be those conditions that kill women who deliver or terminatetheir pregnancies at the community level. (Mendez-Dominguez, 1990). The results from thesetwo studies are consistent with internatonal data which show abortion complications, toxemia,infection and hemorrhage to be the most common causes of maternal death worldwide.Socio-demographic and obstetrical factors which are often related to maternal deaths areage, marital status, and parity. In the hospital study, these factors were also thought to beimportant:Age - 56% of all maternal deaths were to women under 19 or over 35, with a highrate of suicide deaths in the younger age group;Marital Status - 57% of the women who died were in union but not officiallymarried;Prity - 28.9% of the deaths occurred to primiparous women and 28% to grandmultiparous women, with 12% of those who died having had 7 or more births.Since the total number of births in each category are unknown, no definitive conclusionscan be drawn about risk of maternal death ba:ied on parity, age or marital status. However, itappears that both first births and births over 5 place women at greater risk of death.The author of the hospital study categorizes the 471 deaths he investigated as"preventable", "potentially preventable", and "probably not preventable" at the hospital level,according to the following criteria:Preventable (35.7%) - deaths that were judged to have been managedinappropriately in the hospital, either due to medical error cf lack ofresources; situations in which the woman was in the hospital and should not havedied from the condition.Potentially preventable (58%) - deaths that could have been prevented if womenhad arrived earlier at the hospital i.e., in a less serious condition.Probably not preventable (4%) - deaths that were from accidents, homicide,suLide, etc.12

Because we are focusing on primary care interventions in this assessment, those deathsof most interest are those that the author has classified as "potentially preventable", i.e. hospitaldeaths that could have been avoided with appropriate recognition and response to danger signsat the family, TBA and community health provider levels.' It is important to note that thisauthor is referring to secondary prevention of death from obstetrical complications. There is alsoa level of primary prevention that we will address later that refers to the prevention of thecomplications themselves, or keeping pregnaht women healthy in the first place.C.Perinatal and Neonatal Mortality1.RatesThe FESAL-88 Survey (Demographic and Health Survey) found an Infant Mortality Rate(LMR) of 50 per 1,000 live births for the five-year period between 1983 and 1988. However, theresearchers who were involved in the study caution that this may be an underestimate of theactual situation and that the IVIR is probably closer to 71 (personal communication). For thepurposes of this analysis we will use the higher rate.Approximately 41% of the infant deaths reported in the FESAL-88 study were in theneonatal period, resulting in an estimated Neonatal Mortality Rate of 29 per 1,000 live births.Neonatal mortality rates resulting from other smaller studies and hospital statistics can be foundin Appendix 5.As with maternal mortality, there are no national data from which to estimate thecountry's Perinatal Mortality Rate or Ratio. While hospital statistics exist, these cannot be usedto estimate a natio

B. Maternal Mortality C. Perinatal and Neonatal Mortality I. PRIMARY PREVENTION OF MATERNAL, PERINATAL AND NEONATAL DEATHS . 1991, to conduct a rapid assessment of the maternal and neonatal health situation. The assessment included an extensive literature review; documentation of the PVO, Ministry of Public . their current health programs;

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