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AP RCET 2021SYLLABUSSUBJECT: APPLIED LIFE SCIENCESCode No. : 41BiomoleculesPrinciples of biophysical chemistry (pH, buffer, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, colligativeproperties). Structure of atoms, molecules and chemical bonds. Composition, structure andfunction of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins).Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot, secondary structure, domains, motif and folds).Conformation of nucleic acids, t-RNA, micro-RNA. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, aminoacids nucleotides and vitamins.Cell Biology and EnzymologyProkaryotic and eukaryotic cells, cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes,endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, chloroplast, structure & function ofcytoskeleton and its role in motility. Structure of plasma membrane and membrane proteindiffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, membrane pumps, mechanism of sorting andregulation of intracellular transport, electrical properties of membranes. Mitosis and meiosis,their regulation, steps in cell cycle, regulation and control of cell cycle. Enzymes nomenclatureand classification. Mechanism of action, active site, regulation of enzyme activity, multienzymecomplexes, Principles of catalysis, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation,mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes. immobilized enzymes and protein engineering,immobilized enzymes and their application.

Molecular BiologyDNA replication, repair and recombination (Unit of replication, enzymes involved, replicationorigin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal replicons, DNA damageand repair mechanisms, homologous and site-specific recombination). RNA synthesis andprocessing (transcription factors and machinery, formation of initiation complex, transcriptionactivator and repressor, RNA polymerases, capping, elongation, and termination, RNAprocessing, RNA editing, splicing, and polyadenylation, structure and function of different typesof RNA, RNA transport). Protein synthesis and processing (Ribosome, formation of initiationcomplex, initiation factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination,genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, andtranslational proof-reading, translational inhibitors, Post- translational modification ofproteins). Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level (regulating theexpression of phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, role of chromatin in geneexpression and gene silencing).Cell communication and Cell signalingHormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling through G-protein coupledreceptors, signal transduction pathways, second messengers, regulation of signaling pathways,bacterial and plant two-component systems, light signaling in plants, bacterial chemotaxis andquorum sensing. General principles of cell communication, cell adhesion and roles of differentadhesion molecules, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission andregulation of hematopoiesis. Cancer and the cell cycle, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, ,virus-induced cancer, metastasis, interaction of cancer cells with normal cells, apoptosis,therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth. Different types of stem cells – embryonicstem cells, Cord blood stem cells, fetal tissue stem cells, adult stem cells; stem cell

differentiation, stem cell plasticity – Differentiation versus stem cell renewal. Hematopoieticstem cells and bone marrow transplantation: Cells for hematopoietic reconstitutionMicrobiologyDifferences between gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Staining techniques. Methodsof sterilization, pasteurization and disinfection. Classification and cultivation of bacteria.Bacterial reproduction and growth curve. Microbiology of water, milk, air, soil and sewage.Microbes as pathological agents in plant and animals. Clinically important bacteria. Chemicalnature and classification of bacteriophages. Parasitic and temperate phages. Plant and animalviruses – multiplication of viruses. General characteristics of T Phase, φx174, SV40, TMV.Clinically important viruses, retroviruses, HIV, Hepatitis B Virus and viral infections. Generalaccount of algae molds and yeasts. Economic importance of algae and fungi. Clinicallysignificant protozoans.ImmunologyCells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antigens, antigenicity andimmunogenicity. B and T cell epitopes, structure and function of antibody molecules.generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigenantibody interactions, MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation anddifferentiation of B and T cells, B and T cell receptors, humoral and cell-mediated immuneresponses, the complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector functions,inflammation, hypersensitivity, autoimmunity andvaccines. Detection of molecules usingELISA, RIA, western blot, immunoprecipitation, fluocytometry and immunofluorescencemicroscopy, detection of molecules in living cells, in situ localization by techniques such as FISHand GISH.

GeneticsMendelian principles-Dominance, segregation, independent assortment. Allele, multiple alleles,pseudoallele, complementation tests. Codominance, incomplete dominance, gene interactions,pleiotropy, genomic imprinting, penetrance and expressivity, phenocopy, linkage and crossingover, sex linkage, sex limited and sex influenced characters. Linkage maps, tetrad analysis,Pedigree analysis, genetic disorders. Inheritance of Mitochondrial and chloroplast genes,maternal inheritance. Methods of microbial gene transfer – transformation, conjugation,transduction and sex-duction, mapping genes by interrupted mating, fine structure analysis ofgenes. Mutation types, causes and detection, mutant types – lethal, conditional, biochemical,loss of function, gain of function, germinal verses somatic mutants, insertional mutagenesis.Homologous and non-homologous recombination including transposition.BioinformaticsGenomics and Proteomics. Bioinformatics – Online and offline tools. Biological databases. Typesof data bases – Gen bank, Swiss port, EMBL, NCBL and PDB. Database searching using BLASTand FASTA. Multiple sequence alignment and Dynamic programming. Gene and Genomeannotation – Tools used. Molecular phylogeny-Concept methods of tree construction. Proteinsecondary and 3D structure prediction. Protein docking. Computer Aided Drug Design (CADD) inDrug discovery.Applied BiologyRestriction enzymes, cloning and expression vectors. Gene cloning strategies. Basic techniquesin plant cell and tissue culture. Somatic hybridization and cybridization. Application of tissueculture in crop improvement. In vitro mutagenesis. Transgenic plants - insect-pest resistance,abiotic stress resistance, herbicide resistance, storage protein quality, increasing shelf-life, oilquality. Animal cell and tissue culture. Tissue and organ culture. Production and use of artificialtissues and organs. Production of transgenic animals, Molecular pharming and animal cloning.Transgenic poultry and transgenic insects as bioreactor. Large scale production of recombinantproteins. Principles of microbial growth – Batch fermentation, feed-batch fermentation,

continuous fermentation, high density cell cultures and Bioreactors. Microbial metabolites Organic solvents, Organic acids Wines and beers, Antibiotics, Vitamins, Amino acids. Health careproducts from recombinant DNA Technology - insulin, growth hormone, factor VIII, tissueplasminogen activator, interferons, lymphokines and Hepatitis-B vaccines. DNA probes, Enzymeprobes. Applications in forensic medicine. Gene therapy. Environmental pollution – types,sources and control. Reduction of industrial effluents, chemical herbicides, fertilizers and oilspills. Bioremediation, Bioleaching. Microbiology of waste water treatment. Renewable sourcesof energy – Biogas, energy crops, cellulose, Biofuels. Ozone depletion, Green house effect.Biodiversity Conservation, Molecular Markers- RFLP, AFLP, RAPD, SSR and SNPs.Marine BiotechnologyCulture techniques: Microalgae and fungi , Protozoans and microscopic metazoans Estuarineand mangrove microbiology.Culture of shrimps, crab, oysters , sea-cucumbers,milkfish,mullets, seabass and seaweeds(Porphyra) Marine toxins: Saxitoxin, brevitoxin and ciguatoxinMarine peptides & alkaloids: pyridoacridine, pyrrolocridine indole, pyrrole, isoquinolinealkaloids. Marine prostaglandins and marine cosmetic products. Role of biotechnology tion:Agentsandprotectionmethods.Global environmental monitoring methods: status , objectives and limitations.Application of biotechnology in disease diagnosis; prevention and control; Gene probes.Remote sensing applications in oceanography and marine biology.VirologyNomenclature and classification of viruses: Criteria used for naming and classification.Current ICTV classification of viruses of bacteria, plants and animals and humans. Physicalmorphology and structure, sedimentation, electrophoretic mobility, Isolation, cultivation, assayand maintenance of bacterial, plant and animal viruses, Purification of viruses : Need for viruspurification. Extraction of viruses from tissues, clarification, concentration of viruses in clarifiedextracts by physical and chemical methods, further purification of viruses by rate zonal /equilibrium density gradient centrifugation. Criteria of virus purity. Quantitation and

preservation of purified virus preparations. Quantitation of viruses: Infectivity assay methods(plaque, pock, end point, local / systemic assay of plant viruses), physical (EM), serological (HA,HI, immuno fluorescence, ELISA) and chemical (viral protein and nucleic acid based)approaches.Biophysical TechniquesLight microscopy, resolving powers of different microscopes, scanning and transmissionmicroscopes. Molecular analysis using UV/visible, fluorescence, circular dichroism, NMR andESR spectroscopy. Molecular structure determination using X-ray diffraction and NMR,Molecular analysis using light scattering, different types of mass spectrometry and surfaceplasma resonance methods. General principles of electrophoretic techniques. Poly Acryl amideGel Electrophoresis. Isoelectricfocusing. Isotachophoresis. 2-D Electrophoresis. Capillaryelectrophoresis. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNA. Blotting techniques. DNAfingerprinting. Detection and measurement of different types of radioisotopes normally used inbiological tissues and cells.

Cell Biology and Enzymology Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, . RNA polymerases, capping, elongation, and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, and polyadenylation, structure and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport). . Methods of microbial gene transfer .

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