GOVERNMENT VISHWANATH YADAV TAMASKARPOST GRADUATE AUTONOMOUS COLLEGEDURG (C.G.)(Former Name – Govt. Arts & Science College, Durg)Phone-0788-2211688, Fax- 0788-2212030NAAC Accredited Grade ‘A ’; CPE Phase - III (UGC, N. Delhi);Website – www.govtsciencecollegedurg.co.inSYLLABUSMASTER OF SCIENCEBIOTECHNOLOGY2021-22SEMESTER-IIM.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22
GOVT. V.Y.T. PG. AUTONOMOUS COLLEGE DURGM.SC. SUBJECT : BIOTECHNOLOGY I/II/III/IV SEMESTERApproved syllabus for M.Sc. Biotechnology by the members of Board of Studies forSession 2020-21-22The proposed syllabus with the paper combinations is as underSemester II:CourseCodePaper No. & Title of the PaperCourseCodePaper No. & Title of the PaperMBT 201Paper I: Molecular BiologyMBT 202Paper II: Environmental BiotechnologyMBT 203Paper III: EnzymologyMBT 204Paper IV: ImmunologyLab Course I:Lab Course II:Field work/Project work: Rules :- The External Project will be carried out by students between Semester IIand III in lieu of Paper IV of Semester III and IV. Besides project work, students are supposed to participate inexcursion tour also.Method of Evaluation and Marking: Appended at last of the SyllabusM.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 1
Syllabus and Marking Scheme for First/ Second/Third/FourthSemesterMarks Allotted inTheoryPaperNo.Marks Allotted inInternal AssessmentCourse Code & Title of thePaperMaxMinMax.Min.IMBT 201- Molecular Biology80162004IIMBT 202- EnvironmentalBiotechnology80162004IIIMBT 203 - Enzymology80162004IVMBT 204 - Immunology80162004Total3204 Theory papers-32004 Internal Assessment-8002 Practical-200Total Marks-600MarksAllottedinPracticalLabCourse I100LabCourse II80100200For particular SemesterField Work/ Project work – Rules : The External Project will be carried out by students betweenSemester II and III in lieu of Paper IV of Semester III and IV.Marks allotted for field Report/ Project work – 80/ 150 Marks allotted for Viva/ Presentation – 20/50 Total marks – 100/200M.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 2
GOVT. V.Y.T.PG. Autonomous College(Syllabus for PG Classes)Session -2020-21-22Second Semester ExaminationClass – M.Sc. Previous.Paper No. 1 (MBT 201)Title of Paper – MOLECULAR BIOLOGYMax. Marks – 80.SpecificOutcome –The outcome of the course will be development of competency among students forinterpretation of molecular biology among students.Learning Outcome –The student will be able to understand and interpret molecular biology and itsapplication for life science.SEMESTER IIPAPER I – MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (MBT 201)Unit I184.108.40.206.4DNA replication: Enzymes of DNA replication, Chemistry of DNAreplication, Replication Fork, Mechanism and Regulation of replicationin prokaryotes and eukaryotes.DNA damage, Mutation and Repair: Causes and Consequences ofDNA Damage, Mutagens, Molecular basis of mutation, Types ofMutations. Types of DNA Repairs (Direct Repair, Excision Repair,Mismatch Repair, Recombination Repair, SOS Response).Transcription:RNA Polymerase and Transcription unit, Transcriptionin prokaryotes and eukaryotes, Activators, Co-activators,Enhancers,Motifsand post transcriptional modifications (Capping, Polyadenylation, Splicing, RNA Editing, Processing of pre-tRNA and rRNA),Translation: Translational machinery components,Genetic code andWobble hypothesis, Process of Translation (Initiation, Elongation andTermination in prokaryotes & eukaryotes) Translation regulation(translation dependent regulation of mRNAs and protein stability), Posttranslational modification of peptides (Chemical modification,proteolytic cleavage and protein splicing).M.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 3
Unit II220.127.116.11.4DNA recombination:Types of recombination (Homologous and SiteSpecific recombination), Models of Homologous Recombination, Proteinmachinery involved in homologous recombination, Biologicalimportance of recombination.The maintenance of DNA sequence: Nucleosome model, Barrbodies,Role of methylation, Telomerization, Phosphorylation,Acetylation and deacetylation in the maintenance of DNA Sequences.The genetic system of mitochondria and plasmids: Introduction, Mtand Cp DNA, Chloroplast inheritance: Corren’s experiment, maternalinheritance of mitochondria in humans, Mitochondrial mutation andhuman diseases.Molecular basis of cancer cell behavior: Tumor cells and Onset ofCancer (Metastasis and angiogenesis), Gain of function and loss of function ofgenes and proteins involved in cancer progression.Unit III18.104.22.168.4Molecular Chaperons: Location and function, Human chaperoneproteins, Bacterial chaperone, Nomenclature, Clinical significance,Chaperonin and Proteasomes: Ubiquitination, Structure and organization,Assembly, Protein degradation process, Inhibitors, Biological role,Clinical significance.Epigenetic Mechanism:Heterochromatin and Histones, CpGiland,Chromosome condensation.Overview of gene control: Operon and its types, Gene control inestablishment of lytic and lysogeny, Restricting multiple replication inprokaryotes and eukaryotesDNA binding and motif in gene regulatory protein: Types, Function,Structure, DNA binding protein in genomes.Unit IV22.214.171.124.4The RNA world and origin of lifeGenome sequences and evolution.Catalytic RNAs.Non-coding and Regulatory RNAs.M.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 4
Suggested Readings –ooooooMolecular Biology; Watson.Gene VIII; Benjamin Lewin.The Cell, A molecular Approach; Geoffrey M. Cooper.Molecular Biology of the Cell; AlbertsCell and Molecular Biology; Lodish.Cell and Molecular biology; Gerrald& Karp.M.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 5
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GOVT. V.Y.T.PG. Autonomous College(Syllabus for PG Classes)Session -2020-21-22Second Semester ExaminationClass – M.Sc. Previous.Paper No. 2 (MBT 202)Title of Paper – ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGYMax. Marks – 80.SpecificOutcome The outcome of present course will be development of understanding ability andholistic biotechnological approach for sustainable maintenance of environment.Learning Outcome –The learning outcome will be development of biotechnological capability to assess andtreat environmental problems.SEMESTER IIPAPER II – ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (MBT 202)Unit –I1.1 Role of Biotechnology in Environment Protection.1.2 Air pollution and its control through Biotechnology.1.3 Water pollution and its control: water is a scarce naturalresource. Needfor water management , measurement of water pollution, source of waterpollution1.4 Methods for measurement of water & air pollution.Unit – II2.1 Waste water Treatment:Waste water collection, waste water treatmentphysical, chemical and biological treatment process.2.2 Microbiology of waste water treatment: Aerobic process: activatedsludge, oxidation ditches, trickling filter tower, rotating biologicalcontactors (RBC), rotating drums, oxidation ponds.2.3 Anaerobic process: anaerobic digestion, anaerobic filters, up flowanaerobic sludge blanket reactors.2.4 Industrial Waste Water Treatment:Treatment schemes for waste waterof dairy, distillery, tannery, sugar, antibiotics industries.M.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 7
Unit – III3.1 Xenobiotcs:Microbiology of degradation of xenobiotics in environment,ecological consideration. Decay behaviour and degradative plasmid,hydrocarbons, substituted hydrocarbons, Oil surfactant, pesticides.3.2 Bioremediation:Bioremediation of contaminated soil and wasteland.3.3 Biopesticides:Biopesticide in integrated pest management.3.4 Solid waste: Source and management (composting, wormiculture and methaneproduction)Unit – IV4.1 Global environmental problems:Climate Change.4.2 Biotechnology and Environment:Biotechnological approach formanagement of global environmental problem.Regulation / legislation forhazardous products.4.3 Regulations for Environmental Protection: The Environment ProtectionAct, The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution)Act, the Water(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, Indian Forest Act, WildlifeProtection Act.4.4 Patenting: Process of patenting of biotechnological process and productsin different countries.Suggested Readings –o Text book of Environmental Chemistry and Pollution Control: S.S Dara, S. Chand &Company Ltd.o Environmental biology And Toxicology: P.D. Sharma, Rastogi Publications, Merut.o Environmental Biotechnology, PrathamVashishith. Dominant Publishers AndDistributors, N.Delhi.o Environmental Chemistry: A.K.De, Wiley Eastern ltd, N.Delhi.o Wastewater Engineering- Treatment, Disposal & Reuse. Metall and eddy, inc, TataMcgraw Hill, N.Delhi.M.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 8
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GOVT. V.Y.T.PG. Autonomous College(Syllabus for PG Classes)Session -2020-21-22Second Semester ExaminationClass – M.Sc. Previous.Paper No. 3 (MBT 203)Title of Paper – ENZYMLOGYMax. Marks – 80.SpecificOutcome The outcome of course will be understanding of enzyme mechanism and applications.Learning Outcome –The major learning outcome will be development of ability among students forenzymatic applications for environment, health and agriculture.SEMESTER IIPAPER III – ENZYMLOGY (MBT 203)Unit I126.96.36.199.4Enzyme classification and nomenclature: Trivial and Systematicname, EC number, Six classes of enzyme with example and workingmechanism.Methods of enzyme assay: Enzyme units, Types of assay, Factors tocontrol in assay. Coenzyme: General information and examples,Nonenzymatic cofactors and cofactorsActive site of enzyme and factor affecting enzyme activity (pH,Temperature, Inhibitors and Substrate Concentration)Isoenzyme and allosteric enzymesUnit II188.8.131.52.4Enzyme catalysis mechanism: Acid base catalysis, covalent catalysis,metal ion catalysis, electrostatic catalysis, catalysis through proximityand orientation effect catalysis by preferential transition state binding.Transformation of Michelis – Menton Equation: the double reciprocalplot.Enzyme Kinetics:Kinetic tests for determining inhibition mechanism.Evidence of enzyme: transition state complementarities.M.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 10
Unit III184.108.40.206.4Enzyme Production: Synthesis, recovery, purification and formulation.Enzyme Processes: the evolution from degradation to synthesis.Enzyme Biocatalysis: Catalysis in aqueous and non conventional media.Enzyme immobilization:Techniques, effect of immobilization onkinetic Parameters, principle and industrial application of immobilizedenzymes.Enzymes in organized system and cell.Unit IV220.127.116.11.4Case Study I: Protease as catalyst for peptide biosynthesisCase Study II: Synthesis of β lactam antibiotics with protein acylases.Case Study III: Oxidoreductase an important biocatalyst for greenchemistryCase Study IV: Use of aldolases for asymmetric synthesis.Suggested Readings –oooooLehninger Principles of Biochemistry; Nelson & Cox.Biochemistry; Voet& Pratt.Principles of Enzymology; Price & Stevens.Enzyme Biocatalysis, Principle & Applications; Andres Illanes.Enzyme Kinetics; Hans BisswangerM.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 11
GOVT. V.Y.T.PG. Autonomous College(Syllabus for PG Classes)Session -2020-21-22Second Semester ExaminationClass – M.Sc. Previous.Paper No. 4 (MBT 204)Title of Paper – IMMUNOLOGYMax. Marks – 80.SpecificOutcome –The outcome of this course will be development of understanding and application ofImmunological Science.Learning Outcome –The students will develop competency for antigen-antibody interactions, analysis andapplication especially its therapeutic applications.SEMESTER IIPAPER IV – IMMUNOLOGY (MBT 204)Unit I1.1Cells and organs of the immune system: Hematopoiesis, Cells of the ImmuneSystem, Organs of the Immune System, Systemic Function of the ImmuneSystem, Lymphoid Cells and Organs—Evolutionary Comparisons1.2 Antigen and Antibody Structure:Immunogenicity Versus Antigenicity,Factors That Influence Immunogenicity, Epitopes, Haptens and the Study ofAntigenicity, Basic Structure of Antibodies, Antibody-Mediated EffectorFunctions, Antibody Classes and Biological Activities, Antigenic Determinantson Immunoglobulins, The B-Cell Receptor, Monoclonal Antibodies1.3 Antigen – antibody interaction:Strength of Antigen-Antibody Interactions,Cross-Reactivity, Precipitation Reactions,Agglutination Reactions,Radioimmunoassay,Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, WesternBlotting, Immunoprecipitation, Immunofluorescence, Flow Cytometry andFluorescence, Alternatives to Antigen-Antibody Reactions, ImmunoelectronMicroscopy1.4 Leukocyte activation and migration: Lymphocyte Recirculation, hocyteExtravasation, Chemokines—Key MediatorsofInflammation,TheInflammatory Process, Anti-Inflammatory Agents.M.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 12
Unit II2.1B-cell generation, activation and differentiation:B-Cell Maturation, B-CellActivation and Proliferation, The Humoral Response, Germinal Centers andAntigen-Induced B-CellDifferentiation, Regulation of B-Cell Development2.2 T cell maturation , activation and differentiation:T-Cell Maturation and theThymus, Thymic Selection of the T-Cell Repertoire, TH-Cell Activation, T-CellDifferentiation, Cell Death and T-Cell Populations2.3 T cell receptors: T-Cell Receptors: Structure and Roles, Organization andRearrangement of TCR Genes, T-Cell Receptor Complex: TCR-CD3, T-CellAccessory Membrane Molecules, Three-Dimensional Structures of TCRPeptide-MHC Complexes, Alloreactivity of T Cells2.4 Complement system:The Functions of Complement, The ComplementComponents, Complement Activation, Regulation of the Complement System,Biological Consequences of Complement Activation, Complement DeficienciesUnit III3.1Cytokines:Properties of Cytokines, Cytokine Receptors, Cytokine Antagonists,Cytokine Secretion by TH1 and TH2 Subsets, Cytokine-Related Diseases,Therapeutic Uses of Cytokines and Their Receptors, Cytokines in Hematopoiesis3.2 The Major Histo Compatibility agent: Organization and Inheritance,Regulation of MHC expression, MHC and Disease Susceptibility.3.3 Cell mediated cytotoxic response:Effector Responses, General Properties ofEffector T Cells & Cytotoxic T Cells, Natural Killer Cells, AntibodyDependent Cell-Mediated CytotoxicityUnit IV4.1Hypersensitivity reaction:Gell and Coombs Classification, IgE-Mediated (TypeI) Hypersensitivity, Antibody-Mediated Cytotoxic (Type II) Hypersensitivity,Immune Complex–Mediated (Type III) Hypersensitivity, Type IV or DelayedType Hypersensitivity (DTH)4.2 Tolerance and Autoimmuntiy:Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases, SystemicAutoimmune Disease, Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases; Herd Immunity.4.3 Transplantation Immunology:Immunologic Basis of Graft Rejection, ClinicalManifestations of Graft Rejection, General Immunosuppressive Therapy,Specific Immunosuppressive Therapy, Immune Tolerance to Allografts, ClinicalTransplantation4.4 Vaccines and Immunodificiency diseases: Active and Passive Immunization,Designing Vaccines for Active Immunization, Types of Immunodeficiencydiseases, AIDS.M.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 13
Suggested Readings –ooooooImmunology – KubyText book of microbiology – Anantnarayan&PanikarImmunology – RoittImmunology – NandiniSethiFundamentals of Immunology – William PaulImmunology – A short course 5thEdn – Eli Benjamin , Richard Coico.M.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 14
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SEMESTER IILAB COURSE IMolecular Biology :1.Isolation of genomic DNA.(Plant , Bacteria, Fungus)2.Isolation of RNA.3.Isolation of plasmid DNA4.DNA Purification.5.RNA purification6.DNA molecular size determination7.Preparation of probes.8.Metabolic labeling of proteins &Immunoprecipitation.9.Northern blotting.10.Southern blotting.11.Whole blood DNA extraction12.Invitro Transcription.13.Action of T4 DNA ligase14.Action of T7 RNA polymerase15.Taq DNA polymerase action16.Phage titration17.Bacterial transduction18.Bacterial conjugationEnvironmental Biotechnology :1.Detection of coliforms for determination of the purity ofpotable water.2.Determination of dissolved oxygen concentration of water sample .3.Determination of BOD of a sewage sample.4.Determination of COD of a sewage sample.5.Determine the efficiency of removal of air pollutant using fibrous air filter6.Isolation of xenobiotic degrading bacteria by selective enrichment technique .7.Test for the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon by bacteria.8.Study of biogenic methane production in different habitats.9.Estimation of heavy metals in water / soil by atomic absorptionspectrophotometry.M.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 16
10.Soil sample analysis – determination of bulk density, moisture content, textureof soil sample, water holding capacity, calcium carbonate, chloride, nitrogen,phosphorus , potassium pH.11.Water sample analysis – total dissolve solid, total solid, total suspended solid,alkalinity (titrimatric method) , chloride, chlorine(resuidual by iodometricmethod) hardness, nitrogen (by titration)M.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 17
LAB COURSE – ISCHEME OF MARKS DISTRIBUTIONDuration –1 days (8 hrs.)M.M. 1001.2 Expts .based on Molecular Biology ( Each carrying 20 marks )2.2 Expts. based on Environmental Biotechnology(Each carrying 15 marks )3.4.4030Viva10Sessional20Total 100 marksM.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 18
SEMESTER IILAB COURSE IIEnzymology :1.Protein electrophoresis – native and denaturing conditions.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.10.N &C terminal analysis of proteins.Enzyme purification and kinetic analysis.Method for immobilization of enzyme.Chemical modification of proteins.Hydrodynamic properties –measurement and applications.Protein – DNA interactions.Kinetic analysis of TyrosinaseIsolation, subfractionation and enzymatic analysis of beef heart mitochondria.Activity and thermal stability of gel – immobilized peroxidase.Immunology :1.Blood film preparation and identification of cells.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.12.Lymphoid organs and their microscopic organization.Immunization, collection of serum.Ouchterlony Double diffusion for antigen – antibody patternOuchterlony Double diffusion for antibody titrationRocketImmuno electrophoresis.Radial Immunodiffusion.Purification of IgG from serum.DOT ELISA.Immunodiagnostics (using commercial kits)Immunohisto chemistryPreparation of hapten conjugatePreparation of antibody – biotin conjugationDetection of β- gal in transferred cellsM.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 19
LAB COURSE – IISCHEME OF MARKS DISTRIBUTIONDuration –1 days (8 hrs.)M.M. 1001.2 Expts. based on Enzymology ( Each carrying 20 marks )402.2 Expts. based on Immunology (Each carrying 15 marks )303.Viva104.Sessional20Total 100 marksM.Sc. (Biotechnology) 2020-21-22Page 20
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III MBT 203 - Enzymology 80 16 20 04 Lab Course II 100 IV MBT 204 - Immunology 80 16 20 04 Total 320 . adenylation, Splicing, RNA Editing, Processing of pre-tRNA and r-RNA), 1.4 . 1.4 Methods for measurement of water & air pollution.
Unit B: Plant Biotechnology 75 1. Overview of Biotechnology (1 3 10 hrs) 14 hrs Introduction : A) Origin and History of biotechnology, B) Scope and importance of biotechnology: a) Biotechnology in Medicine, b) Biotechnology in food industry, c) . Dubey R.C. 2009. A text Book of Biotechnology
What is agricultural biotechnology? Biotechnology is a broad collection of tools and technolo-gies that involve the manipulation of living cells and/or biological molecules to solve problems and make useful products. Agricultural biotechnology is the application of biotechnology to agriculture. Agricultural biotechnology
UNIT I - INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY . Lesson 1: An Overview of Biotechnology . Competency/Objective: Summarize the importance of biotechnology to agriculture. Study Questions . 1. What is biotechnology? 2. What has been the role of biotechnology in agr iculture? 3. What is the current
Biotechnology BT 20412 BT Plant Biotechnology 3 1 - 20 15 15 50 70 120 4 3 Biotechnology BT 20413 BT Food Biotechnology 3 1 - 20 15 15 50 70 120 4 4 Biotechnology BT 20414 BT Recombinant DNA Technology 3 1 . A textbook of Biotechnology by R.C. Dubey, S.Chand & company Ltd. References Books:
DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY GOVT. V.Y.T. PG. AUTONOMOUS COLLEGE DURG Approved syllabus for B.Sc. Botany (I, II & III year) by the members of Board of Studies for the Session 2019-2020 The syllabus with the paper combinations is as under B.Sc. Part-I: Paper I: Bacteria, Viruses, Fu
students of Botany at University level, which is organised every year since last 7 years. The Department aims to be a Centre of Excellence. The Department of Biotechnology established in 2002, at present offers UG, PG and Ph.D. programmes in Biotechnology. There are 4 recognized research guides for Ph.D. in Biotechnology and M.Sc. (by research) in Biotechnology. Name of the research centre .
But recent developments in molecular biology have given biotechnology new meaning, new prominence, and new potential. It is (modern) biotechnology that has captured the attention of the public. Modern biotechnology can have a dramatic effect on the world economy and society (3). One example of modern biotechnology is genetic engineering.
Agricultural biotechnology is the term used in crop and livestock improvement through biotechnology tools. This monograph will focus only on agricultural crop biotechnology. Biotechnology encompasses a number of tools and elements of conventional breeding techniques,
8 Agricultural Biotechnology in the Philippines 143 9 Agricultural Biotechnology in Thailand 151 10 Agricultural Biotechnology in Viet Nam 165 11 Biotechnology Activities of the CGIAR Centers Relevant to Asia 169 12 Intellectual Property Rights 177 13 Increased Public-Private Sector Collaboration 187
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Paramedical Ophthalmic Assistant course from Institute recognized by the Govt of A.P (or) ii).BSc (Optometry) Course from Institute recognized by the Govt. of A.P(or) iii).Diploma in Optometric from institute recognized by the Govt. of A.P (or) iv).Diploma in optometry from institute recognized by the Govt. of A.P. B. The Candidate Must be .
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Const/Works/civil Engg. In Govt./Semi Govt/PSU Project 05 Marks ii) Additional 01 year / 2 year experience In Const/Works/civil Engg. In Govt./Semi Govt/PSU Project 2.5 Marks each year Max. 5 Marks 20 marks . 6 iii) Those are having CAD/CAM/CATIA/Project Management 10 Marks. (iii) Weightage o
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2. History 3 1/2 years Gr. 9: World Geography (1 semester) (35 credits) Gr. 10: World History, World History MAP Gr. 11: U.S. Hist or US Hist MAP or US Hist AP /US Hist.AP MAP Gr. 12: Econ/U.S. Govt or Econ/US Govt AP or Econ/US Govt MAP Or Econ/U.S. Govt AP MAP 3. Mathematics 2 years Gr. 9 - 12: any two years
FIRST PUC ENGLISH QUESTION BANK COMMITTEE Chairperson Sri.PRAVEEN MAHISHI Govt. P U College for Girls B H Road, Shivamogga. Reviewer Sri. A. SRINATH Vishwabharathi P U College Mallasandra, Tumkur. Members Smt. Sandhya Bai Sri. ShivaKumar. P Govt PU College for Girls, Govt PU College, New Town, Bhadravathi. Nyamathi, Davangere.
Biotechnology Career Paths Where Alumni Work Discover the Master of Science in Biotechnology Program The Master of Science in Biotechnology (MSB) is an accelerated nine-month non-thesis research and laboratory training program designed to prepare students for careers in research-related f
The Agricultural Biotechnology Program at the University of Lethbridge Agricultural Biotechnology examines agriculture and the natural world, emphasizing the relationships between food production, the environment, science and society. The program focuses on the life sciences, with prominence given to the application of Biotechnology in agriculture.
Biotechnology ‐U. Satynarayan 2. Biotechnology ‐ R.C. Dubey 3. Gene technology‐ S.N.Jogdand 4. Fundamentals of Biotechnology‐ H.S.Chawala 5. Introduction to Biotechnology‐ B.D.Singh 6. Principle of ge
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, China. This highly contagious disease is currently spreading across the world and throughout EU/EEA Member States, with a daily increase in the number of affected countries, confirmed cases and infection -related deaths. Updated data are publisheddaily on the ECDC and World Health Organization .