Frontiers In Zoology

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Jörger and Schrödl Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 1/59RESEARCHOpen AccessHow to describe a cryptic species? Practicalchallenges of molecular taxonomyKatharina M Jörger1,2* and Michael Schrödl1,2AbstractBackground: Molecular methods of species delineation are rapidly developing and widely considered as fastand efficient means to discover species and face the ‘taxonomic impediment’ in times of biodiversity crisis. Sofar, however, this form of DNA taxonomy frequently remains incomplete, lacking the final step of formal speciesdescription, thus enhancing rather than reducing impediments in taxonomy. DNA sequence informationcontributes valuable diagnostic characters and –at least for cryptic species – could even serve as the backboneof a taxonomic description. To this end solutions for a number of practical problems must be found, including away in which molecular data can be presented to fulfill the formal requirements every description must meet.Multi-gene barcoding and a combined molecular species delineation approach recently revealed a radiationof at least 12 more or less cryptic species in the marine meiofaunal slug genus Pontohedyle (Acochlidia,Heterobranchia). All identified candidate species are well delimited by a consensus across different methodsbased on mitochondrial and nuclear markers.Results: The detailed microanatomical redescription of Pontohedyle verrucosa provided in the present paper doesnot reveal reliable characters for diagnosing even the two major clades identified within the genus on moleculardata. We thus characterize three previously valid Pontohedyle species based on four genetic markers(mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 16S rRNA, nuclear 28S and 18S rRNA) and formally describe ninecryptic new species (P. kepii sp. nov., P. joni sp. nov., P. neridae sp. nov., P. liliae sp. nov., P. wiggi sp. nov., P. wenzlisp. nov., P. peteryalli sp. nov., P. martynovi sp. nov., P. yurihookeri sp. nov.) applying molecular taxonomy, based ondiagnostic nucleotides in DNA sequences of the four markers. Due to the minute size of the animals, entirespecimens were used for extraction, consequently the holotype is a voucher of extracted DNA (‘DNA-type’). Weused the Character Attribute Organization System (CAOS) to determine diagnostic nucleotides, explore thedependence on input data and data processing, and aim for maximum traceability in our diagnoses for futureresearch. Challenges, pitfalls and necessary considerations for applied DNA taxonomy are critically evaluated.Conclusions: To describe cryptic species traditional lines of evidence in taxonomy need to be modified. DNAsequence information, for example, could even serve as the backbone of a taxonomic description. The presentcontribution demonstrates that few adaptations are needed to integrate into traditional taxonomy noveldiagnoses based on molecular data. The taxonomic community is encouraged to join the discussion and developa quality standard for molecular taxonomy, ideally in the form of an automated final step in molecular speciesdelineation procedures.* Correspondence: Katharina.Joerger@zsm.mwn.de1Mollusca Section, SNSB-Bavarian State Collection of Zoology,Münchhausenstr 21, 81247 München, Germany2Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Großhaderner Str. 2,82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany 2013 Jörger and Schrödl; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of theCreative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use,distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Jörger and Schrödl Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 1/59BackgroundSpecies boundaries are frequently hard to delimit based onmorphology only, a fact which has called for integrativetaxonomy, including additional sources of informationsuch as molecular data, biogeography, behavior and ecology [1,2]. Founding a species description on a variety ofcharacters from different, independent datasets is generallyregarded as best practice [3]. When species are consideredas independently evolving lineages [4], different lines ofevidence (e.g., from morphology, molecules, ecology or distribution) are additive to each other and no line is necessarily exclusive nor need different lines obligatory be usedin combination [3,5]. Taxonomists are urged to discriminate characters according to their quality and suitability forspecies delineation, rather than to just add more and moredata [5]. The specifics of the taxon in question will guidethe way to the respective set(s) of characters that will provide the best backbone for the diagnosis. In cases ofpseudo-cryptic species (among which morphological differences can be detected upon re-examining lineages separated e.g. on molecular data) or of fully cryptic species(that morphology fails to delimit), the traditional lines ofevidence have to be modified by using, e.g., molecular information to break out of the ‘taxonomic circle’ [6,7].Cryptic species are a common phenomenon throughoutthe metazoan taxa, and can be found in all sorts of habitatsand biogeographic zones [8-10]. Groups characterized bypoor dispersal abilities (e.g., most meiofaunal organisms oranimals inhabiting special regions where direct developerspredominate, such as Antarctica), are especially prone tocryptic speciation [11,12]. Uncovering these cryptic speciesis fundamental for the understanding of evolutionary processes, historical biogeography, ecology, and also to conservation approaches, as distribution ranges that are smallerthan initially assumed mean a higher risk of local extinction [8,10]. The lack of morphological characters to distinguish cryptic species should not lead to considerable partsof biological diversity remaining unaddressed.The utility of DNA barcoding and molecular species delineation approaches to uncover cryptic lineages has beendemonstrated by numerous studies (e.g., [11,13-19]). Unfortunately, inconsistencies in terminology associated with theinterface between sequence data and taxonomy have led toconfusion and various criticisms [6,20]. First of all, oneneeds to distinguish between species identification via molecular data (DNA barcoding in its strict sense) and speciesdiscovery [6,21,22]. While species identification is a primarytechnical application, species delimitation requires meansof molecular species delineation that is either distance, treeor character based [6,23]. Under ideal circumstances sufficient material is collected from different populations acrossthe entire distribution area of a putative group of crypticspecies. Using population genetics the distribution of haplotypes can be analyzed and different, genetically isolatedPage 2 of 27lineages can be detected [24]. Population genetic approaches are, however, not always feasible with animals thatare rare or hard to collect, which might actually be a common phenomenon across faunas of most marine ecosystems [25-28]. Derived from barcoding initiatives, thresholdbased species delimitation became the method of choice,aiming for the detection of a ‘barcoding gap’ between intraand interspecific variation [29-31]. This approach has beencriticized, however, due to its sensitivity to the degree ofsampling, the general arbitrariness of fixed or relativethresholds, and to frequent overlap between intra- and interspecific variation [6,32,33]. In the recently developedAutomatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) [34], progresshas been made in avoiding the dependence of a prioridefined species hypotheses in threshold based approaches,but reservations remain concerning the concept of abarcoding gap [25]. Several independent delineation toolsexist, e.g. using haplotype networks based on statistical parsimony [35], maximum likelihood approaches applying theGeneral Mixed Yule-Coalescent model [36,37], or Bayesianspecies delineation [38,39]. Empirical research currentlycompares the powers of these different tools on realdatasets [25,32,40]. The effect of the inclusion of singletons in analyses is considered as most problematic [25]. Atthe present stage of knowledge, independent approachesallowing cross-validation between the different methods ofmolecular species delineation and other sources of information (morphology, biogeography, behavioral traits) seemthe most reliable way of delimiting cryptic species [25].The second inconsistency in terminology concerns usages of ‘DNA taxonomy’. Originally, DNA taxonomy wasproposed to revolutionize taxonomy by generally foundingdescriptions on sequence data and overthrowing theLinnaean binominal system [41]. Alternatively, it wassuggested as a concept of clustering DNA barcodes intoMOTUs [42]. Since then, however, it has been appliedas an umbrella term for barcoding, molecular speciesdelineation, and including molecular data in speciesdescriptions (see e.g., [13,14,20,36,43,44]). In a strict sense,one cannot speak of molecular taxonomy if the processof species discovery is not followed by formal speciesdescription (i.e. there are two steps to a taxonomic process:species discovery (delimitation) and attributing them withformal diagnoses and names.) Taxonomy remains incomplete if species hypotheses new to science are flagged asmerely putative by provisional rather than fully establishedscientific names. For practical reasons and journal requirements, most studies on molecular species delineationpostpone formal descriptions of the discovered species(e.g., [13,14,25,33,36,40,43-46]), and then rarely carry themout later. DNA barcoding and molecular species delineation are promoted as fast and efficient ways to face the‘taxonomic impediment’, i.e. the shortage of time andpersonnel capable of working through the undescribed

Jörger and Schrödl Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 1/59species richness in the middle of a biodiversity crisis[7,47,48]. However, keeping discovered entities formallyunrecognized does not solve the taxonomic challengesbut adds to them by creating parallel worlds populatedby numbered MOTUs, OTUs or candidate species. Inmany cases the discovered taxa remain inapplicable tofuture research, thus denying the scientific communitythis taxonomic service, e.g. for species inventories orconservation attempts. Without formal description or atestable hypothesis, i.e. a differential diagnosis, 1) thediscovered species might not be properly documented orvouchered by specimens deposited at Natural HistoryMuseums; and 2) their reproducibility can be hinderedand confusion caused by different numbering systems. Adeterrent example of the proliferation of informal epithetscirculating as ‘nomina nuda’ (i.e. species which lack formaldiagnoses and deposited vouchers) in the literature isgiven by the ‘ten species in one’ Astraptes fulgeratorcomplex [31,49]. Thus, we consider it as all but indispensable for DNA taxonomy to take the final step andformalize the successfully discovered molecular lineages.The transition from species delimitation to species description is the major task to achieve. Nearly ten years afterthe original proposal of DNA taxonomy [41], revolutionizing traditional taxonomy has found little acceptance in thetaxonomic community, as most authors agree that there isno need for overthrowing the Linnaean System. Consequently, the challenge is to integrate DNA sequence information in the current taxonomic system. Several studieshave attempted to include DNA data in taxonomic descriptions, albeit in various non-standardized ways; see the review by Goldstein and DeSalle ([21]; box 3): In some cases,DNA sequence information is simply added to the taxonomic description (in the form of GenBank numbers orpure sequence data), without evaluating and reporting diagnostic features [21]. Others rely on sequence informationfor the description, either reporting results of species delineation approaches, e.g. raw distance measurements ormodel based assumptions, or extracting diagnostic characters from their molecular datasets. There still is a consensusthat species descriptions should be character based [50](but see the Discussion below for attempts at model basedtaxonomy), and that tree or distance based methods fail toextract diagnostic characters [6]. Character based approaches, like the Characteristic Attribute Organization System (CAOS), are suggested as an efficient and reliable wayof defining species barcodes based on discrete nucleotidesubstitution, and these established diagnostics from DNAsequences can be used directly for species descriptions asmolecular taxonomic characters [51,52]. Yet, the applicationof CAOS or similar tools requires an evaluation of how toselect and present molecular synapomorphies and how toformalize procedures to create a ‘best practice’ linking DNAsequence information to existing taxonomy [20].Page 3 of 27In the present study, we formally describe the candidate species of minute mesopsammic sea slugs in thegenus Pontohedyle Golikov & Starobogatov (Acochlidia,Heterobranchia) discovered by Jörger et al. [25]. Thiscryptic radiation was uncovered in a global sampling approach with multi-gene and multiple-method molecularspecies delineation [25]. The initially identified 12 MOTUs,nine of which do not correspond to described species, areconsidered as species [following 4] resulting from a conservative minimum consensus approach applying differentmethods of molecular species delineation [25]. The authorsdemonstrated that traditional taxonomic characters (external morphology, spicules and radula features) are insufficient to delineate cryptic Pontohedyle species [25]. Toevaluate the power of more advanced histological and microanatomical data, we first provide a detailed computerbased 3D redescription of the anatomy of Pontohedyleverrucosa (Challis, 1970) and additional histological semithin sections of P. kepii sp. nov. In the absence of reliablediagnostic characters from morphology and microanatomy,we then rely on DNA sequence data as the backbone forour species descriptions. For the three previously validPontohedyle species we extract diagnostic characters usingthe Character Attribute Organization System (CAOS) basedon four standard markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 16S rRNA, and nuclear 18S rRNA and 28SrRNA). In addition, nine new species are formally describedon molecular characteristics and evidence from other datasources. Various approaches to the practical challenges formolecular driven taxonomy – such as critical considerationof the quality of the alignment, detection of diagnostic nucleotides and their presentation aiming for maximum traceability in future studies – are tested and critically evaluated.ResultsEvaluation of putative morphological charactersThe diversity within Pontohedyle revealed by moleculardata cannot be distinguished externally: the body showsthe typical subdivision into the anterior head-foot complexand the posterior visceral hump. Bodies are whitishtranslucent, digestive glands are frequently bright greento olive green. Rhinophores are lacking, labial tentacles arebow-shaped and tapered towards the ends (see Figures 1and 2). Monaxone rodlet-like spicules distributed allover the body and frequently found in an accumulationbetween the oral tentacles are characteristic for Pontohedyle.These spicules can be confirmed for P. wenzli sp. nov., forP. yurihookeri sp. nov., P. milaschewitchii (Kowalevsky,1901) and P. brasilensis (Rankin, 1979), and, in contrast tothe original description [53], also in P. verrucosa. No spicules could be detected in P. peteryalli sp. nov. from Ghana.The absence of spicules is insufficient, however, to delineatemicrohedylid species, since their presence can vary underenvironmental influence [54].

Jörger and Schrödl Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 1/59Page 4 of 27Figure 1 External morphology (living specimens) and radula characteristics (SEM micrographs) in Pontohedyle species (part 1).A) Pontohedyle kepii sp. nov. (Pontohedyle sp. 1 in [25]); B) Pontohedyle joni sp. nov. (Pontohedyle sp. 2 from WA-5 (Belize) in [25]); C) Pontohedyleliliae sp. nov. (Pontohedyle sp. 4 in [25]), * marks putative 4th cusp on rhachidian tooth. cc central cusp of rhachidian tooth, llp left lateralplate, rlp right lateral plate, rt rhachidian tooth.The radulae of eight species were investigated using SEM(see Figures 1 and 2). Radulae of P. neridae sp. nov., P.martynovi sp. nov. and P. yurihookeri sp. nov. were not recovered whole from molecular preparations, and thus wereunavailable for further examination [25]. The radula of P.wiggi sp. nov. could only be observed under the lightmicroscope, but not successfully transferred to a SEMstub. All radulae are hook-shaped with a longer dorsaland a shorter ventral ramus, typical for Acochlidia. Radulaformulas are 38–53 1.1.1, lateral plates are curvedrectangular, and the rhachidian tooth is triangular and bearsa central cusp and typically three smaller lateral denticles.Most radulae bear one pointed denticle centrally onthe anterior margin of each lateral plate and a corresponding notch on the posterior side. Only the radulaof P. kepii sp. nov. and P. verrucosa can be clearly distinguished from the others by the absence of this denticle and the more curved lateral teeth (see Figure 1Aand [25], Figure 1D,E). Uniquely, P. verrucosa bearsfive lateral denticles next to the central cusp of the

Jörger and Schrödl Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 1/59Page 5 of 27Figure 2 External morphology (living specimens) and radula characteristics (SEM micrographs) in Pontohedyle species (part 2).A) Pontohedyle peteryalli sp. nov. (Pontohedyle sp. 7 in [25]); B) Pontohedyle wenzli sp. nov. (Pontohedyle sp. 6, picture of living animal from WP-1(holotype), radula from IP-2, see [25]); C) P. brasilensis (living animal from WA-3 (Belize), radula from WA-10 (Brazil), see [25]). cc central cusp ofrhachidian tooth, llp left lateral plate, rlp right lateral plate, rt rhachidian tooth.rhachidian tooth [25]; in P. liliae sp. nov. a tiny fourthdenticle borders the central cusp (see * in Figure 1C).Previous phylogenetic analyses [25] recovered a deepsplit into two Pontohedyle clades: the P. milaschewitchiiclade and the P. verrucosa clade. This is supported bynovel analyses in a larger phylogenetic framework andadditionally including a second nuclear marker (18S rRNA)(own unpublished data). Since no detailed histologicalaccount exists of any representative from the large P.verrucosa clade, we redescribe P. verrucosa (based on ZSMMol-20071833, 20071837 and 20100548), supplementingthe original description with detailed information ofthe previously undescribed nervous and reproductivesystems. The central nervous system (cns) of P. verrucosalies prepharyngeal and shows an epiathroid condition. Itconsists of paired rhinophoral, cerebral, pleural, pedal andbuccal ganglia and three unpaired ganglia on the visceralnerve cord, tentatively identified as left parietal ganglion,median fused visceral and subintestinal ganglion and rightfused parietal and supraintestinal ganglion (Figure 3A). An

Jörger and Schrödl Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 1/59osphradial ganglion or gastro-oesophagial ganglia were notdetected. Anterior and lateral to the cerebral ganglia aremasses of accessory ganglia. Due to the retracted conditionof all examined specimens, tissues are highly condensedand no separation in different complexes of accessory ganglia could be detected. Attached to the pedal ganglia arelarge monostatolith statocysts. Oval, unpigmented globulesare located in an antero-ventral position of the cerebral ganglia, interpreted as the remainder of eyes (see Figure 3B).P. verrucosa is a gonochoristic species. The three sectioned specimens include two males and one female.The male reproductive system is comprised of gonad,ampulla, postampullary sperm duct, prostatic vas deferens, ciliated (non-glandular) vas deferens, genital opening and a small ciliated ‘subepidermal’ duct leading to asecond genital opening anterodorsally of the mouthopening (Figure 3C). The sac-like gonad is relativelysmall and bears few irregular distributed spermatozoa.The large tubular ampulla emerges from the gonad without a detectable preampullary sperm duct; it is looselyfilled with irregularly distributed spermatozoa (Figure 3D).The ampulla leads into a short, narrow ciliated postampullary duct widening into the large tubular prostaticvas deferens (staining pink in methylene-blue sections,Figure 3D). Close to the male genital opening, the ductloses its glandular appearance and bears cilia. The primarygenital opening is located on the right side of the bodyat the visceral hump and close to the transition withthe head-foot complex. Next to the genital opening, theanterior vas deferens splits off as an inconspicuoussubepithelial ciliated duct that leads anteriorly on theright side of the head foot complex. It terminates in asecond genital opening between the oral tentaclesanterodorsally from the mouth opening.The female reproductive system consists of gonad,nidamental glands and oviduct (Figure 3E) and a genitalopening located on the right side, in the posterior partof the visceral hump (not visible in Figure 3E, due tothe retracted stage of the individual). The gonad is saclike and bears one large vitellogenic egg (see Figure 3F)and several developing oocytes. Three histologically differentiated tube-like nidamental glands could be detectedwith a supposedly continuous lumen and with an epithelium bearing cilia. From proximal to distal these glandsare identified as albumen gland (cells filled with dark bluestained granules), membrane gland (pinkish, vacuolatedsecretory cells) and winding mucus gland (secretory cellsstained pink-purple). In its proximal part the distal oviductshows a similar histology as the mucous gland, but thenloses its glandular appearance. The epithelium of the distaloviduct bears long, densely arranged cilia.Additional notable histological features are numerousdark-blue-stained epidermal gland cells (see e.g., arrowhead in Figure 3D) and refracting fusiform structures inPage 6 of 27the digestive gland (see Figure 3B). An additional seriesof histological semi-thin sections of Pontohedyle kepiisp. nov. was sectioned and brief investigation revealedno variation in the major organization of the organ systems in Pontohedyle as described herein and in previousstudies [55,56].Remarks on the presentation of molecular charactersDiagnostic characters for each species of Pontohedylewere extracted using the ‘Characteristic AttributeOrganization System’ (CAOS) [51,57,58]. We definediagnostic characters as single pure characters, i.e.unique character states that respectively occur in all investigated specimens in a single Pontohedyle speciesbut in none of the specimens of its congeners. As additional information single heterogeneous pure characters (i.e., different character states present within thespecies but absent from the congeners) are reported(for further details on the chosen approach see theMaterial and methods and Discussion sections). Positions refer to the position of the diagnostic nucleotidewithin the respective alignment (see Additional files 1,2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). Where alignment positions differ fromthose in the deposited sequences, positions within thesequence of the holotype or in another reference sequence are also provided.Taxonomy of PontohedyleFamily: Microhedylidae Odhner, 1938 [59]Genus: Pontohedyle Golikov & Starobogatov, 1972 [60]Synonymy: Mancohedyle Rankin, 1979; GastrohedyleRankin, 1979; Maraunibina Rankin, 1979Type species (by subsequent designation): Pontohedylemilaschewitchii (Kowalevsky, 1901) [61]Phylogenetic analyses of the genus Pontohedyle [25]confirmed earlier assumptions, that the three generaestablished by Rankin [62] (see above) present juniorsynonyms of Pontohedyle.Morphological characteristics of genus Pontohedyle:Minute (0.7–6 mm) marine interstitial microhedylaceanacochlid. Body divided into anterior head-foot complexand posterior visceral hump. In case of disturbancehead-foot complex can be entirely retracted into visceral hump. Body whithish translucent. Foot with shortrounded free posterior end. Head bears one pair ofbow-shaped dorso-ventrally flattened oral tentacles.Rhinophores lacking. Monaxone, calcareous spicules irregularly distributed over head-foot complex and visceral hump. Radula hook-shaped band (lateral view),formula 1-1-1, lateral plates curved or with one pointeddenticle, rhachidian tooth triangular with one centralcusp and 2–4 lateral cusps on each side. Nervous

Jörger and Schrödl Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 1/59Page 7 of 27Figure 3 Microanatomy of P. verrucosa. A) 3D-reconstruction of the central nervous system, frontal view (ZSM Mol 20071832). B) Histologicalsemi-thin section of the cerebral ganglia showing unpigmented eyes and rhinophoral ganglia. C) 3D-reconstruction of the male reproductive systemin a partially retracted specimen, right lateral view (ZSM Mol 20071833). D) Histological semi-thin section showing prostatic vas deferens and spermfilled ampulla (arrowhead dark blue stained epidermal gland). E) 3D-reconstruction of the female reproductive system in a completely retractedspecimen, right lateral view (ZSM Mol 20100548). F) Histological semi-thin section showing nidamental glands and gonad with oocyte.

Jörger and Schrödl Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 1/59Page 8 of 27system with accessory ganglia at cerebral nerves anterior to the cns. Sexes separate, male reproductive systemaphallic, sperm transferred via spermatophores.Molecular diagnosis of the genus Pontohedyle, based onthe sequences analyzed herein (Table 1) and on sequencesfrom a set of outgroups including all acochlidian generaTable 1 DNA sequence data analyzed in the present study to determine diagnostic nucleotides in PontohedyleSpeciesP. milaschewitchiiP. brasilensisP. verrucosaPontohedyle kepii sp. nov.Pontohedyle joni sp. nov.Museums numberDNAvoucherGenBank accession numbers18S rRNA28S rRNA16S rRNACOIZSM Mol 20071381AB34404214-JQ410926JQ410925JQ410897ZSM Mol 20080054AB34404241HQ168435JF828043HQ168422-ZSM Mol 20080055AB34404239--JQ410927-ZSM Mol 20080925---JQ410928HQ168459ZSM Mol 0 C20 10KJ01-B07AB34402082-JQ410943JQ410942-SI-CBC20 10KJ01-D07AB34500513-JQ410944--SI-CBC20 C20 C20 10KJ01-A10AB34402026--JQ410949-SI-CBC20 10KJ02-E01AB34402030-JQ410950--ZSM Mol ZSM Mol ZSM Mol 20090198AB35081813KC984286JQ410936JQ410935-ZSM Mol ZSM Mol 20080176AB34404286-JQ410980JQ410979JQ410921ZSM Mol ZSM Mol 20100388AB34500547---JQ410916ZSM Mol 20100389AB34402044-JQ410974-JQ410917ZSM Mol 20100390AB34402070-JQ410975-JQ410918ZSM Mol 20100391AB34500531KC984289-JQ410976JQ410919ZSM Mol ZSM Mol SI-CBC20 C20 hedyle neridae sp.nov.AM C. hedyle liliae sp.nov.ZSM Mol 20090471AB35081802KC984293JQ410954JQ410953-ZSM Mol 20090472AB35081838-JQ410956JQ410955-ZSM Mol 20100595AB34402059-JQ410960JQ410959JQ410908ZSM Mol 20100596AB34402001--JQ410961JQ410909ZSM Mol 20100597AB34500571-JQ410963JQ410962JQ410910ZSM Mol dyle wiggi sp.nov.Pontohedyle wenzli sp.nov.ZSM Mol AM C. 476051.001AB34402037KC984295JQ410982JQ410981-ZSM Mol ZSM Mol Pontohedyle peteryalli sp. nov.ZSM Mol dyle martynovi sp. nov.AM C. 476054.001AB34402062-JQ410984JQ410983-Pontohedyle yurihookeri sp. nov.ZSM Mol 20080565AB34402000KC984299JQ410987--Museum numbers (ZSM – Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, SI – Smithsonian Institute, AM - Australian Museum), DNA vouchers (at ZSM) and GenBankaccession numbers. 18S rRNA sequences generated in this study marked with *, all remaining sequences retrieved from GenBank.

Jörger and Schrödl Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 1/59for which data are available [63,64]. Positions refer tothe alignments in Additional files 1 and 2, and to thereference sequences of P. milaschewitchii, ZSM Mol20080054 (GenBank HQ168435 and JF828043) fromCroatia, Mediterranean Sea (confirmed to be conspecificwith material collected at the type locality in molecular species delineation approaches [25]). Molecular diagnosis isgiven in Table 2.Table 2 Molecular diagnostic characters of PontohedyleMarkerDiagnostic characters with positionin alignment (in reference sequence)18S rRNA165 (168), G; 1358 (1365), A; 1360(1367), T; 1371 (1378), T; 1514 (1521), T28S rRNA260, C; 576, T; 622, TPontohedyle milaschewitchii (Kowalevsky, 1901) [61]Hedyle milaschewitchii Kowalevsky, 1901: p. 19–20 [61]Pontohedyle milaschewitchii (Kowalevsky) – Golikov &Starobogatov [60]Mancohedyle milaschewitchii (Kowalevsky) – Rankin(1979: p. 100) [62]Pontohedyle milatchevitchi (Kowalevsky) – Vonnemannet al. (2005:

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