Book Of The Middle Ages 2nd Ed - Memoria Press

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HISTORY COLLECTIONThe Book of theMiddle AgesDorothy MillsEdited by Memoria Press

www.MemoriaPress.comThe Book of the Middle Ages Dorothy MillsEdited by Memoria PressISBN 978-1-5477-0239-8Second Edition 2020 Memoria Press Cover illustration by Katie KhanAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in anyform by any means without written permission from the publisher.

5CONTENTSPreface.5Part I: The Early Middle AgesChapter 1: The Foundations of the Middle Ages.11I. The Heritage from the Past.12II. The Germanic Invaders of the Roman Empire.13Chapter 2: The Early Christian Church.25I. The Organization of the Early Church.25II. The Worship of the Early Church.28III. Early Missionary Work.33a. Irish Missionaries.33b. St. Augustine in England.38c. St. Martin of Tours.47d. St. Boniface in Germany.48Chapter 3: The Byzantine Empire.53I. The Empire.53II. Byzantine Civilization.56Chapter 4: Islam and the Arab Conquests.65I. Mohammed and His Teaching.65II. Arab Conquests.69III. Arab Civilization.72Chapter 5: Charlemagne.75I. Germanic Law.75II. The Franks and the Conquest of Gaul: Clovis.77III. The Mayors of the Palace.80IV. Charlemagne, A.D. 768-814.81Chapter 6: The Norsemen.103I. The Vikings and Their Adventures.103II. The Norsemen in Iceland.107III. The Norsemen in Normandy.108IV. The Danes in England.110

6Chapter 7: The Beginning of National States.115I. England.115a. Anglo-Saxon England.115b. Alfred the Great, 871-901.122c. End of Anglo-Saxon England.127II. France.130Part II: The Unity of the Middle AgesChapter 8: The Medieval Church.139I. The Place of the Church in Medieval Life.139II. The Growth of the Papacy as a Temporal Power.143III. The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire.146IV. The Papacy and England.148Chapter 9: Monks and Monasteries.157I. The Monastic Ideal.157II. The Daily Life of a Monk.161III. The Monastic Orders.164IV. The Architecture of the Church.168Chapter 10: Feudalism.173I. The Feudal Lord.173II. The Castle.178Chapter 11: The Age of Chivalry.183I. Knighthood.183II. Tournaments.192III. Troubadours and Minstrels.196Chapter 12: The Manor.203Chapter 13: The Crusades.211I. The Eve of the Crusades.211II. The First Crusade.218III. The Third Crusade.222IV. The Military Orders.230V. The Later Crusades.232VI. The Results of the Crusades.235

7Chapter 14: The Towns.237I. The Origin of Medieval Towns.237II. The Guild Merchant.239III. The Craft Guilds.242IV. The Medieval Drama.246Chapter 15: Medieval Trade and Commerce.249I. Markets and Fairs.251II. The Hansa.255III. Venice, the Bride of the Adriatic.260IV. The Trade Routes.262a. Land Routes.262b. Sea Routes.263Chapter 16: Medieval Travelers.267I. The Highways.267II. Pilgrims.270III. Medieval Travelers to the East.273Chapter 17: The Friars.281I. St. Francis of Assisi.282II. St. Dominic.290Chapter 18: Medieval Education.293I. Children and Schools.294II. Universities.296III. The Education of Girls.303Chapter 19: Medieval Learning.309II. Roger Bacon.312III. Medieval Science.314IV. The Making of a Medieval Book.315V. Medieval Libraries.320Part III: The Later Middle AgesChapter 20: Adventures in Government.325I. England and Parliament.326II. France and Absolute Monarchy.333a. Philip Augustus, 1180-1223.333b. St. Louis.341

8Chapter 21: The Hundred Years' War.347I. The Black Prince and Crécy.349II. Limoges.365III. Henry V and Agincourt.367IV. Jeanne d'Arc.373Chapter 22: The Close of the Middle Ages.379I. The Black Death and the Passing of Feudalism.380II. John Wycliffe.385Middle Ages Timeline. 393Bibliography

9Part IThe EarlyMiddle Ages

11CHAPTER 1The Foundationsof the Middle AgesIn A.D. 476 Rome fell, the Western Empire came to an end,and never again was there an emperor in Rome, never again wasRome the seat of the government of the Roman Empire. But whatwas it that had come to an end? Rome had given to the worldjustice, peace, and an ordered government that deeply impresseditself upon the imagination not only of those who dwelled withinthe Empire and who were subject to it, not only of those who livedupon its borders and who came from the uncivilized land that laybeyond it, but also upon those who were to live centuries later.Since the beginning of recorded history, empires andcivilizations have risen and fallen; sometimes they wouldseem to have completely disappeared. It would probably betruer to say that the races who have developed the varyingcivilizations have disappeared, but that their gifts to the worldhave survived, not always in the form in which they gave them,but in the form in which the world has needed them.Rome herself owed to Greece all that was most worthwhilein the things of the higher intellectual life, and Greece hadlearned much from the earlier civilizations that had precededher. And so, when the Western Roman Empire came to an end,it was the outward organization, the material things, that gaveway. The principles of honor and loyalty, of justice and orderthat had made Rome great were to endure.The immediate cause of the downfall of Rome wasthe invasion of the empire by the Germanic tribes from the

12THE BOOK OF THE MIDDLE AGESnorth. Though these invaders were not as uncivilized asthey have sometimes been painted, and though at the timeof their invasions they were already learning much from theRomans, they were, nevertheless, not civilized as the Greeksand Romans understood civilization. But they were to play animportant part in the making of the new world that was togrow out of the break-up of the Roman Empire.There was one other powerful influence at work in theEurope of the fifth century. Christianity had brought newideals to the spirit of man. It had an influence and a power thattransformed the lives of those who believed in it, and, as willbe seen later, it was the Christian Church that kept alive muchof the priceless legacy of the ancient world, and that in a timeof disorder preserved the Roman ideals of law and discipline.I. The Heritage from the PastRome had been profoundly influenced by Greece, butGreek civilization was first known in Western Europe in itsLatin dress, and it was not until after a thousand years fromthe fall of Rome that the springs of Greek thought and poetry,philosophy and science were opened in any wide measure tothe West. The immediate heritage of Europe came from Rome.She had ruled and civilized the lands that were to make part ofthe new Europe, and when the days of her might had passed,her imperishable gifts to the world were preserved.One of the most important factors in preserving Romancivilization was the Latin language. Latin had been commonto all parts of the Western empire, and throughout the periodknown as the Middle Ages, it was the language most widelyused in Europe. It was the language of the Church, of theuniversities, of all who were educated; and when, out ofwhat had once been the Roman Empire, new nations arose,the peoples of those nations developed languages directly

Chapter 113descended from Latin. Because Rome had once ruled in Italy,Gaul, and Spain, the Italian, French, and Spanish languagescame into being.Rome had civilized the lands she had conquered, and thewhole Empire, north and south, east and west, was connected bygreat roads which served as channels along which her civilizationpassed. These roads are still some of the best in Europe, and inmost cases modern railways follow the same route.Rome also left the tradition of law and order and of awell-governed dominion. After the breakup of the Empire,the Church, in her organization, preserved this tradition, andRoman ideas of justice and order profoundly influenced thelaw of the growing states of Europe and have never been lostto the world. In whatever direction we turn today, we findourselves on a path made possible to us by Rome.II. The Germanic Invadersof the Roman Empire1For nearly five hundredyears Rome had kept herfrontiers safe and the barbariantribes who lived beyond themhad been unable to seriouslythreaten the Roman boundaries.But towards the end of thefourth century, these tribesbegan to push into the Empire.Many reasons brought them.Their own lands, lying outsidethe Empire, were poor, theforests were not cleared, the1German auxiliariesThe greater part of this section is taken from Chapter XXIV of my Book of theAncient Romans.

Middle Ages Dorothy Mills Edited by Memoria Press. www.MemoriaPress.com The Book of T he Middle Ages dorothy Mills edited by Memoria Press isBN 978-1-5477-0239-8 . Middle Ages Timeline . 393 Bibliography 8. Part i The early Middle Ages 9. CHAPTER 1 The Foundations of the Middle Ages In A.D. 476 Rome fell, the Western Empire came to an end

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