Water Supply In Japan 2017 - Jwwa

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WATER SUPPLYIN JAPAN 2017Published by Japan WaterWater WorksWorks AssociationAssociation

Executive Director’s MessageThis report is published annually by JWWA and presents data fromwater utilities across Japan. The data is predominantly from FY 19752015.As executive director of JWWA, I am pleased to share this reportwith domestic and foreign water professionals. I really appreciate thesupreme endeavors that the publication of this report has made incontributing towards an international exchange of information.Ei YoshidaExecutive DirectorProfile of Japan Water Works AssociationAt the time when the Federation of Water Authorities (JWWA’s predecessor) wasestablished in 1904, Japan was in an early stage of introducing modern water supply.Modern water supply services were provided only in major port cities including Yokohama(service started in 1887), Hakodate, Nagasaki, Osaka, Tokyo, Hiroshima and Kobe.In those days, there were growing tendency among water utilities toward research andstudy of subjects related to construction, public hygiene and administration of watersupply, and water quality was the most critical issue. Dr. Toyama Chinkichi (Director ofTokyo Institute of Public Health), who advocated establishing a “standard method ofwater quality examination”, called on holding a “Consultative Meeting for Establishing aStandard Water Quality Examination Method” (the first meeting was held in Tokyo), andthis became the origin of JWWA.In the second meeting held in the following year and subsequent meeting, not only waterquality but general issues relating to water supply including purification and distributionwere also included in the meeting.This led to the current tradition in the water-supply industry that all stakeholders of watersupply are involved to collectively find solutions for various operational issues in water supply services.As water supply started spreading to various cities in Japan and the number of cities participating in the consultative meetingincreased, the role of the “Federation of Water Authorities” became increasingly important. This trend led to the establishmentof JWWA on May 12th, 1932 under the approval of the then Minister of Interior. (The name was changed to IncorporatedAssociation of JWWA in 1956 and became Public Interest Incorporated Association of JWWA in 2013 in line with a lawamendment.)The structure and secretariat of JWWA have changed several times over the years. Currently, there are seven regionalbranches, 46 prefectural branches as well as five consultative committees in Hokkaido. The secretariat consists of fivedepartments, one regional office, one institute and one center. With these branches and secretariat, JWWA is committed tofulfilling our members’ objectives for advancing water supply services and providing safe and sustainable water supply for thepublic.Activities Annual eventsJWWA General Assembly / JWWA Annual Conference andSymposium. Lobby ActivityWe concerns government affairs and organize lobby activitiessuch as;To submit petition / list of demands to government raised bymember utilitiesTo organize actions by members to influence politicians onspecial issues. Training ProgramsJWWA provides more than 30 training courses inmanagement / engineering / science / technical areasannually. Research / ConsultationWe conduct researches / studies on issues raised bymembers and compile report / guideline / manual andstandards of water supply equipment and materials.Also, we provide consultation services to member utilitieson water supply management/technologies. PublicationsWe publish a journal, manuals, guidelines, reports for watersupply. Inspection ServicesJWWA implement inspection of water supplymaterials, to secure "Safe and Stable Water Supply" by fairand strict performance test uponmanufacturer's request. Certfication ServicesJWWA issues certifications according to the Regulation ofJapanese Waterworks Lawon water supply equipments / tools.

1 IntroductionHistory of Japan Water SupplyJapan’s first modern water supply system was introduced in Yokohama and began its operation in 1887. At the time, themodern water supply system, which provides purified water with pressure through mains, was needed to prevent the infectionof water-borne diseases.Following the operation in Yokohama, the water supply system spread in municipalities all over Japan. However, thenumber of patients suffering from water-borne diseases had not been decreasing until the chlorination was imposed by theWaterworks Act, which wasimplemented in 1957.Through the strict waterquality control required bythe Act, tap water got to besafe and drinkable withoutboiling.To d a y, v e r y f e w p e o p l esuffer from water-bornediseases, thanks to theachievement of nearly 100% coverage of water supplyin Japan. Development modern water worksLeakage ControlLeakage affects the management of water supply businesses since the process of water treatment requires huge costs.Therefore, water utilities have made great efforts to reduce leakage. In 1970s, only 78% of water distributed reached taps,but in 2006, more than 92% of water distributed reached taps (This ratio is called effective water ratio). Therefore, leakagehad improved down to only 8%. The goal of effective ratio is set to be 98% for large water utilities and 95% for small waterutilities by the national government.Leakage is caused by some sort of pipe damages. Pipes could have cracks caused by load or vibration from traffic, or pipesmight be corroded by acidic soil. When leakage appears on the ground, it is easily detected and pipe can be rehabilitatedimmediately.However, when leakageoccurs underground,its detection is note a s y. T h e r e f o r e ,leakage control survey,rehabilitation andrenewal of old pipesshould be conductedaccording to plans madeby water utilities. Effective water ratio( Reference:Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfarehttp://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/index.html )

2 Water ConsumptionThere are 15,310 waterworks in Japan and most of them are small scale utilities. Supplied watervolume is 15.1 billion m3 in FY 2015 and it is 38 million m3 lower than the volume in 2014. 124.4 millionpeople (97.9% of total population) are using supplied tap water in FY 2015.Water supply utilities have been increasing their capacity to cope with an increasing water demand. The current trendhowever, is a decrease in water consumption due to the population reducing their annual water usage.Public Water Supply Trend of Annual Water Consumption and Maximum Daily Water SupplyServed PopulationNumber ofSuppliesMore than 1,000,000500,000 999,999250,000 499,999100 ,000 249,99950,000 99,99930,000 49,99920,000 29,99910,000 19,9995,000 9,999Less than4,999Under ConstructionTotalSmall Public Water Supply1412561461992021442682429441,3815,629Daily Demand per CapitaPopulation Served Supplied Water Volume(thousand) (100 million m3/year) Maximum( )Average( ) Capacity of Facility( 0386120,000144.9―3995534,0305.9Private Water ―― Number of Waterworks in FY2015Types of Water SupplyUnder the Water Works Law, water system shall mean the whole facilities to supply water for human consumption including waterconduit and other structures. However, temporary facilities shall be excluded. The water supply system is classified as follows:1) Large Public Water Supply : the facilities to supply to the population of more than 5,001.2) Small Public Water Supply : the facilities to supply to the population of between 101 and 5,000.3) Private Water Supply : the facilities to supply for privately owned water supply to the lodginghouses, apartmenthouses of private or public firms owned by enterprises having a population exceeding 100.

3 Water Resources & Treated WaterRivers and dams makes up 73% of the raw water. The total annual volume collected is around 15.33 billion cubic meters. Water Sources of Public Water Supplies and Bulk Water Intake Amount and Water ResourceSupplies(as of March, 2015)At present, chlorination is an obligatory form of disinfection for all water. Recently, the advanced water treatment systems,using ozone-GAC treatment (including membrane filtration) has been introduced in Japan, offering a viable method fortreating water. The advanced water treatment system completely eliminates musty odors and THM substances that cannot beremoved by conventional treatment systems. Annual Fresh Water Volume by Water Treatment Systems(Large Public Water Supply Bulk Water Supply)

4 Water Supply FacilitiesHuman industry and daily life act on the premise that stable water will always be available. Our waterutilities are making positive steps towards future stability by building plural distribution systems,reconstructing aging facilities and ensuring water works are resilient to earthquakes.The total capacity of service reservoirs is increasing annually. It has grown from 14.2 million cubic meters in FY 1975 to 35.6million cubic meters in FY 2015. Retention time of service reservoirs: [(Effective Capacity of Service Reservoir / MaximumDaily Support of Model) X 24 hours] has also increased from 5.9 hours in FY 1975 to 13.7 hours in FY 2015. Effective Capacity, Retention Time and Maximum Daily SupplyThe total length of water mains in Japan comes up to 666,310km. According to the aged pipe-renewal project, gray cast ironpipes and asbestos cement ones are decreasing. These replacements follow on the basis of long term plan which facilitatesthe introdution of the quake-resistant pipes.Fiscal Year1975198019851990Ductile Iron Pipe(Seismic Type ※ 6.65)(19.67)(29.77)Steel d-type PVC 1.08Cast-iron Pipe---46.9933.2529.7925.9018.7614.5Asbestos Cement peTotal NLength of Pipelines by its Type(unit : 1,000 )※ No data for the FY (69.97)(Length of Pipelines are included for Bulk Water Supplies.)

5 A Clean and Safe Drinking Water SupplyThe Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare established the drinking water quality standards containing51 items, to ensure the sanitation and safety of drinking water. In response to these standards, allwater utilities renovate facilities and operate them properly. They also regularly examine the waterquality of tap water, to see if it meets these 3242526ItemCommon BacteriaE. coliCadmiumMercurySeleniumLeadArsenicChromium (VI)Nitrite NitrogenCyanide ion and Cyanogens chlorideNitrate and NitriteFluoideBoronCarbon Tetrachloride1,4-dioxanecis-1,2-Dichloroethylene & etic acidChloroformDichloroacetic acidDibromochloromethaneBromateStandard Value100 per 1 ml less or equalNot to be detected0.003 mg/L less or equal0.0005 mg/L〃0.01 mg/L〃0.01 mg/L〃0.01 mg/L〃0.05 mg/L〃0.04 mg/L〃0.01mg/L as Cyanide 〃10mg/L as Nitrogen〃0.8 mg/L〃1.0 mg/L〃0.002 mg/L〃0.05 mg/L〃0.04 mg/L〃0.02 mg/L〃0.01 mg/L〃0.01 mg/L〃0.01 04142434445464748495051Itemof Chloroform, Dibromochloromethane,Total Trihalomethanes (TotalBromodichloromethane and Bromoform)Trichloroacetic luminiumIronCopperSodiumManganeseChlorideCalcium, Magnesium (Hardness)Total residueAnionic surface active agent(4S, 4aS, ,2,7,7 - Tetramethylbicyclo[2,2,1]Heptane-2-olNonionic surface active agentPhenolsOrganic substances (Total Organic Carbon)pH ValueTasteOdorColorTurbidityStandard Value0.1 mg/L less or equal0.2 mg/L〃0.03 mg/L〃0.09 mg/L1〃0.08 mg/L〃1.0 mg/L〃0.2 mg/L〃0.3 mg/L〃1.0 mg/L〃200 mg/L〃0.05 mg/L〃200 mg/L〃300 mg/L〃500 mg/L〃0.2 mg/L〃0.00001 mg/L〃0.00001 mg/L 〃0.02 mg/L〃0.005mg/L in terms of Phenol 〃3 mg/L〃5.8-8.6Not abnormalNot abnormal5 degree less or equal2 degree〃 Water Quality Standards of Drinking WaterWhen concentrations possibly exceed those set out by the standards, it is necessary to ascertain the causes and hence takepreventative action; modifying operation management of the treatment plant is usually a good solution as is renovating thewater purification facilities. All these measures are necessary to supply a constant, stable and safe service. Water Quality ManagementIt is vital to make prudent managerial decisions regarding water quality in order to ensure the future safety of tap water. Aguideline has therefore been established, identifying 26 items to look for when examining water. Pesticides that are used inagriculture and other such are activities are also included in a 120-item list. Local pesticide usage is monitored accordingly. Revision of Drinking Water Quality Standards and Improvement to Water SupplyDrinking water quality standards are constantly updated by integrating the latest scientific approaches (eg. health effectsinformation). Water utilities are improving their facilities and testing water quality severely to match new drinking water qualitystandards so as to supply good quality, safe tap water for the future.

6 Cost of Water : Capital Cost and Operation CostDepreciation costs and interest expenses account for about 34% of the total cost of water. This isespecially true in cases of bulk water supply, where, the cost rises by about 57%.Production costs of water per cubic meter increase annually relative to the individual charges, despite decreasing staffcosts and interest paid. The reason for this is the renovation of the old water supply facilities as well as increasing of waterreservoirs' capacity; these are measure implemented to improve our service, securing a safe and stable water supply. Trend and Composition of Cost of water per cubic meterPipeline renewal projects, one of the key developments to operate water supply, require 1.10 trillion yen annually. Theseprojects account for about 46 % of the capital expenditure in the fiscal year of 2015, which increased from 13 % in the fiscalyear of 1975.Fiscal YearItem197519801985199019952000200520102015New & Expansion Improvement Redemption Cost onRevenue emption Cost onLong-term ,251OthersTotal Trend of Capital Expenditure (unit : 100million yen)

7 Water ChargesMost water supply utilities in Japan are established by prefecture or municipality and are operated ona self-sufficient basis. The water charge is set separately by each water supply utility; for an averagehousehold, it takes up about 0.7% (1,960 yen per month) of the household expenditure.The average monthly water sales decline in the past few years. Water consumption expenses account for about 0.7 % in thetotal domestic expenses. Trend if Total Household Expenditure and Water Charge in Monthly Average for the cities with Population over 50,000Water suppliers are deemed to be self-sufficient, such that they are expected to meet their own costs of construction andfacility operation through customer charges. Charges differ depending on region because there are differences in condition,distance from source, construction year, scale, staff costs, maintenance costs, etc. Number of Water Supplies and Water Charge for Domestic Usage of 20 m3 / month for a Family Living in a HouseConsuming(as of March , 2015)

Future Water Supply ServicesWater supply infrastructure is indispensable for our life. But there are still some problems facing, suchas need for anti-seismic measures, rehabilitation of aged facilities etc. For our future, it is importantto resolve these issues by enhancing the information disclosure, ensuring user understanding andparticipation.

WATER SUPPLY IN JAPANJAPAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION4-8-9, Kudan-Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0074, JapanTelephone. 81-3-3264-2307 Facsimile. p://www.jwwa.or.jp/english/Sep.2018

A Clean and Safe Drinking Water Supply The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare established the drinking water quality standards containing 51 items, to ensure the sanitation and safety of drinking water. In response to these standards, all water utilities renovate facilities and operate them properly. They also regularly examine the water

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