Training Module On Disaster Risk Reduction For Panchayat Department

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VIRTUAL CADRE TRAINING PROGRAMMETraining Module on Disaster Risk Reductionfor Panchayat DepartmentPublished byKerala State Disaster Management AuthoritySupported by

Virtual Cadre Training ProgrammeTRAINING MODULE ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FOR PANCHAYAT DEPARTMENTFirst Edition: 05th June 2021; Pages: 90Published byKerala State Disaster Management AuthorityDepartment of Revenue and Disaster ManagementGovernment of Kerala,2nd Floor, Revenue Complex, Public Office Compound,Thiruvananthapuram. Pin – 695033Email: keralasdma@gmail.comTel/Fax: 91 (0) 471 – 2331345Website: https://sdma.kerala.gov.in/Technical Assistance byUNICEF and All India Disaster Mitigation InstituteDisclaimerThis document is for official purposes only. All reasonable precautions have been taken by theState Executive Committee of Kerala State Disaster Management Authority to verify theinformation and ensure stakeholder consultation and inputs prior to publication of thisdocument. The publisher welcomes suggestions for improved future editions. June 2021Cover page images source: https://sdma.kerala.gov.in/brochures-2/

Training Module on Disaster Risk ReductionPublished byKerala State Disaster Management AuthoritySupported byUNICEF IndiaandAll India Disaster Mitigation InstituteJune 2021

ContentsAbbreviations . 7Scope and Objective of the Module . 8Executive Summary. 91. Introduction to Disaster Management Cycle and Key Terminologies in Disaster Risk Reduction. 111.1 Introduction to Key Terminologies . 121.2 Introduction to the Disaster Management Cycle. 172. Introduction to International, National and State Level Frameworks on DRR . 212.1 History of Disaster Management in India . 222.2 Disaster Management Act 2005. 232.3 Institutional Mechanism for DRR . 233.4 International Frameworks on DRR . 263. Mechanism and Governance Related to DRR at the State Level in Kerala . 313.1 Kerala State Disaster Management Policy (2010). 323.2 Kerala State Disaster Management Plan (2016) . 323.3 Kerala State Disaster Management Authority . 323.4 State Executive Committee (SEC) of KSDMA . 333.5 Orange Book of Disaster Management. 343.6 State Nodal Departments . 343.7 Crisis Management Group – Natural Hazards. 343.8 Crisis Management Group . 343.9 State Emergency Operation Centre (SEOC) . 353.10 State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF) . 363.11 District Disaster Management Authorities . 363.12 District Disaster Management Plans . 363.13 Nodal Departments for Various Hazards . 373.14 Role of Specific Departments in DRR Activities – Kerala Specific . 373.15 District Emrgency Operation Centre . 393.16 Government Order on Virtual Cadre (VC). 394. Introduction to Hazard Vulnerability of Kerala . 424.1 General Profile of Kerala . 434.2 Vulnerability of Kerala to Different Types of Disasters . 444.3 Hazard Profile of Kerala along with the List of Major Hazards . 454.4 Major Hazards of Kerala. 474.4.1 Flood . 47

4.4.2 Landslide . 514.4.3 Earthquake . 534.4.4 Drought . 544.5.5 Lightning. 554.4.6 Soil Piping . 564.4.7 Coastal Erosion. 574.5 List of State Specific Disasters . 584.6 Major Anthropogenic Hazards in Kerala . 594.6.1 Stampedes. 594.6.2 Fire Cracker Explosions . 594.6.3 Petro-chemical Transportation Accidents . 594.6.4 Industrial Accidents. 604.6.5 Accidental Drowning . 604.6.6 Road Accidents . 604.7 Early Warning Systems in Kerala. 605. Introduction to IRS and IDRN . 635.1 Incident Response System (IRS) . 645.2 India Disaster Resource Network. 675.3 Inter-Agency Group. 685.4 Civil Defence. 685.5 Voluntary Mechanism or Samoohika Sannadha Sena . 695.6 Emergency Response Teams. 696. Brief Profile of the Panchayat Department . 716.1 Important Duties of the Panchayat Department . 716.2 Vision and Mission of the Department . 726.3 Organizational Structure of the Department . 736.4 Role of the Department as Mentioned in the SDMP . 746.5 Role of Virtual Cadre as Defined in State Disaster Management Plan (SDMP) . 746.6 Alignment of Virtual Cadre with NDMP and SFDRR. 747. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in Panchayat Department . 767.1 Role of Local Self Government Institutions (LSGIs) in Disaster Management . 777.2 Preparation of Departmental Disaster Management Plan . 777.3 Standard Operating Procedures of the Panchayat Department. 817.4 Integrating DRR in Major Schemes of the Panchayat Department . 838. Financial Arrangements . 848.1 State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF) . 84

8.2 National Disaster Mitigation Fund . 848.3 Recommendations of the Fifteenth Finance Commission . 848.4 Allocation by Ministries and Departments . 858.5 Flexi Funds as Part of Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS). 85Consolidated List of Resources . 86Annexure 1: Guidelines for Preparing Departmental Disaster Management Plans . 87

AbbreviationsAIDMIAll India Disaster Mitigation InstituteCCAClimate Change AdaptationCSAClimate-Smart AgricultureDDMADistrict Disaster Management AuthorityDDMPDistrict Disaster Management PlanDEOCDistrict Emergency Operations CentreDMDisaster ManagementDRRDisaster Risk ReductionHDIHuman Development IndexHVRAHazard, Vulnerability and Risk AssessmentIMDIndian Meteorological DepartmentINCOISIndian National Centre for Ocean Information ServicesKSDMAKerala State Disaster Management AuthorityKSDMPKerala State Disaster Management PlanKSDMPoKerala State Disaster Management PolicyLSGDLocal Self-Government DepartmentLSGILocal Self-Government InstitutionNDMANational Disaster Management AuthorityNDMPNational Disaster Management PlanNDMPoNational Disaster Management PolicyPDNAPost Disaster Needs AssessmentPESPayment for Ecosystem ServiceSDMPState Disaster Management PlanSECState Executive CommitteeSEOCState Emergency Operations CentreTNATraining Needs AssessmentUNDPUnited Nations Development ProgrammeUNICEFUnited Nations Children's Fund

Scope and Objective of the Module1. ScopeThe training module for the virtual cadre members of Panchayat department shall cover thefollowing details: Introduction to key disaster risk reduction policies, frameworks and legislations at theinternational, national and state levelIntroduction to the various disaster risk reduction terminology and conceptsTypes of disasters to which different parts of the State are hazard prone and vulnerableRoles & responsibilities of Department in the event of any disaster or threatening situationand the emergency support functions in responseStandard operating procedures to be followed by a department in the event of disasters andemergencies2. ObjectivesThis training module has been designed for the Virtual Cadre officials of the Panchayat department,Government of Kerala with the following objectives: Imparting knowledge on DM/DRR to the members of virtual cadreMainstream DRR into departmental PlanningTo assist the virtual cadre members in the formulation of Department DM planIntegration of department DM activities with state/district level mechanism of DMTo assist the virtual cadre members in understanding Emergency Support Functions of theirdepartment during a disaster/emergencyTo build understanding of the virtual cadre members on their department’s role duringdisasters/emergency for better coordination with DDMA and other departments

Executive SummaryThis training module has been developed under the ambit of the project ‘Virtual Cadre TrainingProgramme for the Officials from Various Departments on DRR, Government of Kerala’. Theobjective of this module is to introduce the key concepts of disaster risk reduction to the officials ofvirtual cadreThe following executive summary covers the main highlights from all of the six chapters in thismodule.Chapter 1: Introduction to Disaster Management Cycle and Key Terminologies in Disaster RiskReductionThis chapter introduces the readers to the key concepts and terminologies associated with the fieldof disaster risk reduction (DRR). It is meant to build the knowledge base of the reader to analyzedisaster scenario through the prism of complex concepts such as hazard, vulnerability, risk, copingcapacity and risk reduction. Parallelly, this chapter also introduces the disaster management cycle tothe reader by lucidly explaining it through an example of a previous disaster.Chapter 2: Introduction to International, National and State Level Frameworks, Laws and Policieson DRRThis chapter introduces the readers to the various legislations, policies, regulatory frameworks andexecutive bodies related with DRR at the international, national, state level. This chapter containsthe evolution of DRR in India by citing examples of how the 2005 DM Act paved the way for variousState Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) working under the stewardship of National DisasterManagement Authority (NDMA). A detailed analysis of the Sendai Framework for Disaster RiskReduction (SFDRR) and the international evolution of DRR have also been provided.Chapter 3: Mechanism and governance related to DRR at the state level in KeralaThis chapter contains information on the mechanism and governance related to DRR at the statelevel in Kerala. It highlights the evolution and functions of the Kerala State Disaster ManagementAuthority (KSDMA), the State Executive Committee (SEC), State Emergency Operation Centre (SEOC),District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) and District Emergency Operation Centre(DEOC).Chapter 4: Introduction to Hazard Vulnerability of KeralaThis chapter introduces the general profile of Kerala State along with the its detailed hazardvulnerability, including natural and anthropogenic hazards. A discussion on the major natural andanthropogenic hazards in Kerala are discussed along with hazard zonation maps for each of them. Abrief table on the early warning systems against various natural phenomena is also included in thischapter.Chapter 5: Introduction to IRS and IDRNThis chapter consists of an in-depth introduction to Incident Response System (IRS) in Kerala acrossthe state, district and taluk levels. Moreover, this chapter also introduces the India Disaster ResourceNetwork (IDRN) in detail to the reader.

Chapter 6: Brief Profile of the Panchayat DepartmentThis chapter consists of a brief overview of the Panchayat Department with its vision, objectives androles and functions. This chapter also explores how the department can help in disaster riskreduction activities in Kerala.Chapter 7: Mainstreaming DRR into Panchayat DepartmentThis chapter focuses on various ways to mainstream disaster risk reduction (DRR) into the activitiesof the Panchayat Department. The various activities to be undertaken by Panchayat Department inpreparedness, mitigation, response and recovery phases of the DM cycle are highlighted in thischapter.Chapter 8: Financial ArrangementsThis chapter discusses the various financing mechanisms and arrangement available for thedepartment to undertake DRR work and activities.Annexure: Model Template for Preparation of Departmental Disaster Management PlanThis annexure is meant to guide the officers of the Panchayat Department to draft their owndepartmental disaster management plan.

11. Introduction to Disaster Management Cycle and KeyTerminologies in Disaster Risk ReductionLearning objectives of this chapter To introduce the key terms related with disaster risk reduction (DRR) to the reader.To highlight the key concepts in the disaster management cycle to the reader.To build the understanding of the reader on these theoretical concepts by providing anexample from the real world.At the end of this chapter, the reader should be able to: Define the key terms related with disaster risk reduction such as hazard, vulnerability,risk, capacity, disaster, etc.Understand the disaster management cycle and its various phases, viz. response;recovery; mitigation; and preparedness.Relate the theoretical concepts with the real-life example of the 2018 Kerala Floods andLandslides.Key concepts discussed in this chapter Disaster: A catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising fromnatural or man-made causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantialloss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to,or degradation of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyondthe coping capacity of the community of the affected area. Disaster Management: The organization, planning and application of measurespreparing for, responding to and recovering from disasters. it focuses on creating andimplementing preparedness and other plans to decrease the impact of disasters and“build back better”. Failure to create and apply a plan could lead to damage to life,assets and lost revenue. Hazard: A process, phenomenon or human activity that may cause loss of life, injury orother health impacts, property damage, social and economic disruption orenvironmental degradation. Multi-hazard means (1) the selection of multiple major hazards that the country faces,and (2) the specific contexts where hazardous events may occur simultaneously,cascading or cumulatively over time, and considering the potential interrelated effects. Disaster Risk: The potential loss of life, injury, or destroyed or damaged assets whichcould occur to a system, society or a community in a specific period, determinedprobabilistically as a function of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and capacity. Vulnerability: The conditions determined by physical, social, economic andenvironmental factors or processes which increase the susceptibility of an individual, acommunity, assets or systems to the impacts of hazards.TRAINING MODULE ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTION11

1.1 Introduction to Key TerminologiesI. Build Back BetterThe use of the recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction phases after a disaster to increasethe resilience of nations and communities through integrating disaster risk reduction measuresinto the restoration of physical infrastructure and societal systems, and into the revitalization oflivelihoods, economies and the environment.II. CapacityThe combination of all the strengths, attributes and resources available within an organization,community or society to manage and reduce disaster risks and strengthen resilience.Annotation: Capacity may include infrastructure, institutions, human knowledge and skills, andcollective attributes such as social relationships, leadership and management.Coping Capacity is the ability of people, organizations and systems, using available skills andresources, to manage adverse conditions, risk or disasters. The capacity to cope requirescontinuing awareness, resources and good management, both in normal times as well as duringdisasters or adverse conditions. Coping capacities contribute to the reduction of disaster risks.III. Contingency PlanningA management process that analyses disaster risks and establishes arrangements in advance toenable timely, effective and appropriate responses. Contingency planning is an important partof overall preparedness. Contingency plans need to be regularly updated and exercised.Annotation: Contingency planning results in organized and coordinated courses of action withclearly identified institutional roles and resources, information processes and operationalarrangements for specific actors at times of need. Based on scenarios of possible emergencyconditions or hazardous events, it allows key actors to envision, anticipate and solve problemsthat can arise during disasters.IV. Critical InfrastructureThe physical structures, facilities, networks and other assets which provide services that areessential to the social and economic functioning of a community or society.V. DisasterA catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or manmade causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or humansuffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to, or degradation of,environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of thecommunity of the affected area;VI. Disaster ManagementThe organization, planning and application of measures preparing for, responding to andrecovering from disasters.Annotation: Disaster management may not completely avert or eliminate the threats; it focuseson creating and implementing preparedness and other plans to decrease the impact of12TRAINING MODULE ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTION

disasters and “build back better”. Failure to create and apply a plan could lead to damage tolife, assets and lost revenue.VII. Disaster RiskThe potential loss of life, injury, or destroyed or damaged assets which could occur to a system,society or a community in a specific period, determined probabilistically as a function of hazard,exposure, vulnerability and capacity.VIII. Disaster Risk ManagementDisaster risk management is the application of disaster risk reduction policies and strategies toprevent new disaster risk, reduce existing disaster risk and manage residual risk, contributing tothe strengthening of resilience and reduction of disaster losses.Community-based disaster risk management promotes the involvement of potentially affectedcommunities in disaster risk management at the local level. This includes communityassessments of hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities, and their involvement in planning,implementation, monitoring and evaluation of local action for disaster risk reduction.IX. Disaster Risk ReductionDisaster risk reduction is aimed at preventing new and reducing existing disaster risk andmanaging residual risk, all of which contribute to strengthening resilience and therefore to theachievement of sustainable development.X. Early Warning SystemAn integrated system of hazard monitoring, forecasting and prediction, disaster riskassessment, communication and preparedness activities systems and processes that enablesindividuals, communities, governments, businesses and others to take timely action to reducedisaster risks in advance of hazardous events.XI. EmergencyIn the framework of response and recovery, there is a large difference between the termsemergency and disaster. An emergency is an event that can be responded to using theresources available at hand, implying that there is no need to request external assistance. Acrisis or emergency is a threatening condition that requires urgent action. Effective emergencyaction can avoid the escalation of an event into a disaster. Emergency management involvesplans and institutional arrangements to engage and guide the efforts of government, nongovernment, voluntary and private agencies in comprehensive and coordinated ways torespond to the entire 14 spectrum of emergency needs. The expression “disaster management”is sometimes used instead of emergency managementXII. Multi Hazard Early Warning SystemsThese systems address several hazards and/or impacts of similar or different type in contextswhere hazardous events may occur alone, simultaneously, cascading or cumulatively over time,and considering the potential interrelated effects. A multi-hazard early warning system with theability to warn of one or more hazards increases the efficiency and consistency of warningsTRAINING MODULE ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTION13

through coordinated and compatible mechanisms and capacities, involving multiple disciplinesfor updated and accurate hazards identification and monitoring for multiple hazards.XIII. EvacuationMoving people and assets temporarily to safer places before, during or after the occurrence ofa hazardous event in order to protect them.XIV. ExposureThe situation of people, infrastructure, housing, production capacities and other tangiblehuman assets located in hazard-prone areas.XV. Extensive RiskThe widespread risk associated with the exposure of dispersed populations to repeated orpersistent hazard conditions 16 of low or moderate intensity, often of a highly localized nature,which can lead to debilitating cumulative disaster impacts. Extensive risk is mainly acharacteristic of rural areas and urban margins where communities are exposed to, andvulnerable to, recurring localised floods, landslides storms or drought. Extensive risk is oftenassociated with poverty, urbanization and environmental degradation.XVI. ForecastIn the context of risk reduction, forecasting as the provision of timely information to improvethe management in the emergency phase, that is, shortly before, during and after a hazardousevent. Hence, it does not include medium‐ and long‐term risk assessments that are carried outto assist decision makers in risk prevention and mitigation activities. Definite statement orstatistical estimate of the likely occurrence of a future event or conditions for a specific area. Inmeteorology a forecast refers to a future condition, whereas a warning refers to a potentiallydangerous future condition.XVII. HazardA process, phenomenon or human activity that may cause loss of life, injury or other healthimpacts, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.Multi-hazard means (1) the selection of multiple major hazards that the country faces, and (2)the specific contexts where hazardous events may occur simultaneously, cascading orcumulatively over time, and considering the potential interrelated effects.Hazards include (as mentioned in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030,and listed in alphabetical order) biological, environmental, geological, hydrometeorological andtechnological processes and phenomena.XVIII. Intensive RiskThe risk associated with the exposure of large concentrations of people and economic activitiesto intense hazard events, which can lead to potentially catastrophic disaster impacts involvinghigh mortality and asset loss. Intensive risk is mainly a characteristic of large cities or denselypopulated areas that are not only exposed to intense hazards such as strong earthquakes,14TRAINING MODULE ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTION

active volcanoes, heavy floods, tsunamis, or major storms but also have high levels ofvulnerability to these hazards.XIX. MitigationThe lessening or minimizing of the adverse impacts of a hazardous event.Annotation: The adverse impacts of hazards, in particular natural hazards, often cannot beprevented fully, but their scale or severity can be substantially lessened by various strategiesand actions. Mitigation measures include engineering techniques and hazard-resistantconstruction as well as improved environmental and social policies and public awareness. Itshould be noted that, in climate change policy, “mitigation” is defined differently, and is theterm used for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions that are the source of climate change.XX. PreparednessThe knowledge and capacities developed by governments, response and recoveryorganizations, communities and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to and recoverfrom the impacts of likely, imminent or current disasters.XXI. PreventionActivities and measures to avoid existing and new disaster risks.Annotations: Prevention (i.e., disaster prevention) expresses the concept and intention tocompletely avoid potential adverse impacts of hazardous events. While certain disaster riskscannot be eliminated, prevention aims at reducing vulnerability and exposure in such contextswhere, as a result, the risk of disaster is removed. Examples include dams or embankments thateliminate flood risks, land-use regulations that do not permit any settlement in high-risk zones,seis

TRAINING MODULE ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTION 11 1. Introduction to Disaster Management Cycle and Key Terminologies in Disaster Risk Reduction loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or dam 1 Learning objectives of this chapter To introduce the key terms related with disaster risk reduction (DRR) to the reader.

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