New Developments In PCMP Cleaning Technology

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New Developments in Post-CMPCleaning TechnologyR.K. Singh, D. Trio, E. McNamara, C. Patel and C.R. WargoEntegris, Inc.ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIALFebruary 10, 2011

Overviewà CMP Trends and Post-CMP (PCMP) Cleaning Challengesà Next-Generation Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Brushes Negative Zeta Potential (NZP) Planarcore PVA Brushes New Brush Designs for Enhanced Wafer Edge Cleaningà Effect of Cleaning Chemistries on Brush PVA Propertiesà Desirable Attributes of Next Generation Brushesà Brush Operating Parameters for Optimum Performanceà Summary and ConclusionsNew Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL2

CMP Consumables - Industry and Applications Trends Increasing complexity and changing requirements of next-generation CMP processesà More demanding CMP solutions for 32 nm, 22 nm and smaller technology generationsà Introduction of larger/thinner wafers, copper, ultra low-k, high-k, and newer materialsà Improved planarity and metrology specifications in Cu/low-k, STI, and poly-si CMP Emerging applications, new consumables, APC, integrated metrology and RTPCà Different IC solution might have unique CMP, PCMP cleaning, and metrology requirementsà eSIC, TSVs, T-RAM, 22 nm SOI, GaAs, 3-D ICs, MEMS, DWB and photonic bandgap devicesà Changed operating parameters (lower polishing pressure, higher PVA brush speeds, etc.)à Innovation/evolution in PCMP clean methods (laser, gaseous aerosols, supercritical CO2) CMP consumables/system suppliers and end users more interested in collaborationà Ability to evaluate and fine-tune next generation consumables independently and as a setà Reduce CMP CoO and minimize development/optimization time as well as repetition of effortsà Improve understanding of CMP process needs and share cost of research & development Parallel evaluation of CMP disruptive technologies by the end users and tool suppliersà Fixed abrasive, Electro-CMP (ECMP), and Chemically Enhanced Planarization (CEP) mayoffer advantages for productivity, low stress for ULK dielectrics, and Cu loss in new applicationà Reduced need for CMP processing, PCMP cleaning, and slurry and chemical filtrationNew Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL3

PCMP Cleaning Challenges for Advanced Applications CMP intensity (i.e., number of wafer starts) as well as complexity (e.g., 15 CMPsteps for a typical 180 nm Logic device and 32 CMP steps for a 32 nm Logicdevice) is increasing with the shrinking feature sizes of the new ICs. CMP continues to be the enabling process and PCMP cleaning is critical forpreserving device performance/yield. In Cu process, it is essential to removeCu contamination from some areas of wafer (front-side dielectric, edge, andbackside) while avoiding/limiting Cu removal from other areas (the Cu lines). In smaller node ICs, particles often cannot be distinguished from the ICstructures in terms of the size or adhesion forces. The challenge of removingsmaller particles without causing damage to the wafer structures is becomingincreasingly difficult. The lateral force required to remove particles from wafer surface may have thesame order of magnitude as would collapse a line on a typical advanced gatestructure. This requires extreme consistency and continuous innovation in thePVA brush-based PCMP cleaning technology.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL4

Next Generation PVA Brush Development PVA brushes for next-generation PCMP cleaning need to be more tunable in nature,with usage in many applications, created through PVA cleanliness improvements,and PVA structure, material, and charge modifications. The brushes must provideconsistent and more gentler cleaning performance throughout their lifetime. Planarcore molded-through-the-core (MTTC) design brushes (with positive PVAanchoring with the core) were developed to meet above requirements and providemost effective and consistent PCMP cleaning performance in advanced nodes. New MTTC brushes have been developed with PVA charge modification for moreeffectively removing the smaller particles from the wafer surface, without potentialredeposition on brush PVA or the wafer. These brushes provide the combination ofhighest wafer cleanliness with longer lifetime in advanced Cu PCMP cleaning. Next generation devices with high pressure sensitivity and/or more fragile featuresrequire gentler action of the brush in the central region of the wafer surface, andenhanced cleaning in the wafer edge region. Planarcore MTTC modified geometrybrushes offer such differentiation in demanding PCMP cleaning applications.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL5

Post-CMP Cleaning Chemistries Evolution PCMP cleaning chemistry should effectively remove: Organic residues, provide corrosion protection (static etch rate), galvanic corrosion protection,dendrite protection, and minimize CuO formation post cleaning. Trace metal ions from the wafer surface, provide excellent cleaning on TEOS/OSG/CDOdielectrics and excellent film wetting properties (water mark free cleaning), and not supportbiological growth. Acidic cleans: Typically comprise of organic acids, employ an under etching mechanism, where a layer of CuO(outermost Cu oxide) and Cu2O (underlying Cu oxide) is dissolved from the wafer surface,thereby liberating the lodged particle. Ideally this would be capable of under etching foreign particles embedded in Cu, and smoothover mild physical CMP induced damage. However, there are potential downfalls (such asorganic residue and Cu corrosion) of using an acidic PCMP clean chemistry. Alkaline cleans: Typically use a dissolution mechanism with water soluble organic solvents, which penetrates,swells, and dissolves the BTA film while lifting off surface particles by dissolving the CuO film,but only minimally attacking the Cu2O film. In alkaline pH cleans, the negative zeta potential (NZP) aids in keeping the removed particles inthe solution and does not allow them to reattach to the wafer surface or brush PVA.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL6

PCMP Cleaning and PVA Charge Modification PCMP cleaning is accomplished employing different cleaning tools (mostly integrated with the CMPpolisher) and PCMP cleaning chemistries. The CMP cleaning chemistries are typically sprayed on top ofthe brush PVA, with the DI water flowing out through the brush core. A combination of chemical action(provided by the cleaning chemistry) and mechanical action of the rotating PVA brush removes the wafersurface deposits.From: Handbook of Semiconductor For example, with diluted ESC 784 clean at pH 10,Manufacturing Technology, 2000PVA brush, wafer and the silica slurry particles,all have similar negative zeta potential (NZP). This results in:Æ Repulsion between PVA and slurry particlesÆ No particles deposit on PVA and no scratches Higher magnitude of Negative ZP of the PVAminimizes the possibility of particle depositionon the brush or wafer and results in enhancedpost-CMP cleaning performance. This further reduces the potential of any wafercircular-arc scratching issues due to theparticle(s) entrapment between the brushnodule top surface and the wafer.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL7

1. Enhanced NZP PVA Brushes Development Depending on PCMP cleaning chemistry and application, the higher negative chargemagnitude PVA brushes can provide more effective wafer cleaning performance ascompared to the regular PVA brushes. Planarcore NZP brushes have been found toprovide much improved PCMP cleaning in advanced production fab. Planarcore Standard PVA and NZP brushes were analyzed for ZP variation with pH(for pH range 2–11), employing SurPASS Electrokinetic Analyzer at the EntegrisAnalytical & Product Evaluation Laboratory and Anton Paar Applications Laboratory. Anton Paar system determines ZP at the solid/liquid interface of macroscopicsurfaces based on measurement of streaming potential and streaming current. ZPdata for the different brushes PVA are presented in next slide in the normalized form. NZP brushes show higher magnitudes of the negative charge, as compared to regularPVA brushes, for complete pH range. NZP brushes PVA maintained its negativecharge even at lower ( 3) pH condition and was found to be stable even at the end ofbrush useful lifetime, in an advanced fab PCMP cleaning application.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL8

Zeta Potential Variation with pH for PVA BrushZeta Potential (ZP) Variation with pH for theUntreated and Negative ZP Modified PVA1.0Untreated (Control)Neg ZP ModifiedZeta Potential(Normalized)0.50.0-0.5012345678910 1112-1.0-1.5-2.0-2.5pHNormalized Zeta Potential Variation with pH for the Standard and NZP PlanarcoreBrushes. Data Normalized with the ZP Value of Untreated Brush PVA at pH 11.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL9

2. Modified Nodular Design PVA Brushes During cylindrical roller brush-wafer interaction, the central region of thewafer experiences more aggressive contact rubbing of PVA and relateddownforce. This concentration can be modified by: (i) Optimizing wafer andbrush speeds, and/or (ii) Reducing the number or nodules touching wafer. The above wafer central region enhanced (non-uniform) tribological actioncan be balanced by employing modified nodule shapes for the brush in thewafer central region and the edge region. Such brush designs may requirean unique distribution of different shape nodules along the brush length. While regular cylindrical nodule PVA brushes provide stronger cleaningstrength in the wafer central region, they may result in less than optimumcleaning action in near wafer edge region. Elongated nodule shapes resultin better brush-wafer contact and cleaning efficiency in wafer edge region.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL10

Modified Nodular Design PVA Brushes (Contd ) Modified nodules provide increased contact force and contact area in wafer edge region.With reduced initial compression than regular brushes, such brushes can be designed toprovide optimum contact force in the wafer central as well as the wafer edge region.Type 1: T1Type 2: T2 These designs result in enhanced cleaning action in the wafer outer region. Based on thenear end nodule alignments with the brush axis, brush may provide less continuouscontact in the wafer edge region, but optimum contact force for effective cleaning.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL11

Contact Pressure Profiles for Different Nodule Design Brushes(a) Regular Cylindrical Nodule Brush(b) Elongated Nodule Brush(c) T1 Design Brush with Elongated Nodules Near Brush EndsNew Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL12

3. Effect of PCMP Cleaning Chemistries on PVA The PCMP cleaning performance of brushes depends on the chemical and mechanical properties andstability of the brush PVA, magnitude/consistency of the brush-wafer frictional force, and adhesion forcesbetween the particles and the wafer, and the particles and the brush. It is important to understand the PCMPcleaning chemistries effects on PVA properties over time to achieve consistent PCMP cleaning performance. In this study, a series of soak tests were conducted with new MTTC brushes to determine the effect of dilute(1:60 ratio of PCMP cleans:DI water) PCMP cleans (4 acidic cleans, pH range 2.5 to 3.1, and 1 alkaline clean,pH 10.5; all typically used for the copper/low-k PCMP cleaning applications) on the brush PVA, in terms ofthe coefficient of friction, porosity, water absorption capacity, and 30 % compressive stress. Short term (6 weeks) and extended (over 1-1/2 year) soak tests of the new PVA brushes from one lot wereperformed in the above PCMP cleans. There was not much change in the visual appearance of brushes after6 weeks soaking in dilute chemistries, except for some discoloration. This is as expected in typical real-lifeapplications of PVA brushes. The brush sample (A1) PVA from the soak test in an advanced high pH ( 11)ALK1 alkaline clean looked very much like a new brush PVA even at the end of the above extended test. The four acidic cleans dilute solutions caused significant discoloration to the soaked PVA brushes andchanges in the soak solution cleanliness, whereas the alkaline clean caused minimal changes, over theextremely extended duration of the above test (beyond any practical applications). It is important to note thatthe main objective of such extended period test was to quantify any changes in the PVA physical propertiesover time, which may be a factor in the brush cleanliness effectiveness variation with usage.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL13

PVA Brushes Soak Test in Different PCMP CleansACD3ACD2ACD1ACD4ALK1Effect of 1-1/2 year soaking in 5 dilute PCMP cleans. ACD1 – ACD4 are acidic cleans andALK1 is an alkaline clean. All commonly used and commercially available.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL14

PVA Samples of Brushes Soaked in Various PCMP Cleans PVA physical properties, PVA discoloration and dilute clean solutionsdiscoloration were monitored during soak tests. A few of the acidic cleansshowed significant color change of PVA under extended exposure (see samplesA2 – A5, from soaked brushes at the end of 1-1/2 years, in figure below). The important point to note: not much changes in the physicalproperties of PVA seen even with such significant color changes.A1A2A4New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIALA3A515

Physical Properties of PVA Brushes after Dilute PCMPClean Solutions Soak Tests Common physical properties of brushes PVA: porosity (%), water absorptioncapacity (weight %), and 30 % compressive stress (g/cm2), are presented inTable 1 below in the normalized form. The data were normalized with respectiveparameters values for the brush soaked in DI water over the same period. It can be seen that there is not much change in the PVA physical properties andcompressive stress values, especially considering the extremely long period ofthe test and the measurement uncertainty of these parameters.TABLE 1. Normalized physical properties of brushes PVA after PCMP cleans soak tests.Diluted PCMPClean and its pHA1, pH 10.5A2, pH 2.7A3, pH 1.9A4, pH 2.5A5, pH 3.1A6, DI 1.000Water AbsorptionCapacity (Normalized)1.0491.0370.9941.0251.0361.000New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL1630 % CompressiveStress (Normalized)1.0531.0001.0441.1161.0341.000

4. Desirable Attributes of Next Generation PVA Brushes 1. Installation Benefits (ease of use)à Eliminates core-mounting errors and mounting timeà Most consistent (lot-to-lot) and fastest gapping bybest-in-class dimensional consistency andconcentricity 2. Brush Break-in Cycleà Lower particle shedding and reduced break-in withproprietary cleaning / break-in process 3. PVA Stability and Cleaning/Process Consistencyà Aligned, concentric brush with industry-leading ODtoleranceà Low extractables with custom manufacturing andcleaning process and the PP coreà Absolute adhesion of PVA to core for no slip 4. Defect Reduction and Extended Lifetimeà Non-slip and well-aligned brush wears more slowlyà Customers have qualified longer lifetimeNew Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL17

Ease of Installation - MTTC Designsimplifies/improves brushmounting/gappingProcess Consistency - MTTC Designimproves brush cleaning process andprovides longer lifetime Zero risk of brush slippage on the coreà Proprietary treatment of PP-core creates absoluteadhesion of PVA to PP-core matrixà Eliminates misalignment of brushVarying density of the sponge material No need to “pre-mount” brushà Reduces risk of handling/contaminationà Eliminates misalignment of brush Best OD Toleranceà Only one manufacturing tolerance (rather thanthree - brush ID, OD, and core OD)à Zero “mounting tolerance”Before treatmentProcess Capability of Left, Center and Right (max)LSLUSLWithinOverallP rocess D ataLS L69Target*USL71S ample M ean69.8712S ample N141S tDev (Within)0.111595S tDev (O v erall) 0.163985P otential (Within) C apabiliCp2.99C P L 2.60C P U 3.37C pk 2.60O v erall C apabilityPpPPLPPUP pkC pm2.031.772.291.77*After treatment69.0O bserv ed P erformanceP P M LSL 0.00P P M U S L 0.00P P M Total0.0069.369.6Exp. Within P erformanceP P M LS L 0.00P P M U S L 0.00P P M Total0.0069.970.270.570.8E xp. O v erall P erformanceP P M LSL 0.05P P M U S L 0.00P P M Total0.05New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL18

Defect Reduction – Consistent Nodule Shape and Skin-LessPVA Brushes Provide More Effective PCMP CleaningMolding Flash New, proprietary molding process for best-inclass nodule qualityà New molding technology encompasses all facesof the nodule with one continuous surfaceà Eliminates the “shrink-wrap” process – zero “flash”at the top edges of the nodules Improved nodule quality - limits defects inducedby this “flash”Skin EffectImproved NoduleConsistencyNo Skin EffectNew Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL19

Defect Reduction - Thicker PVA Brush is More Tunable forNext–Generation More Fragile Structures/Surfaces(i) Applications Trend – Copper and Low-k processes have morefragile surfaces requiring lower downforce on the wafer(ii) By using a thicker pile of PVA, Planarcore achieves constantwafer contact at lower downforce on the wafer New Planarcore -Methodology: A paper thin sensor that is divided into 1000s of individualcells is applied to a flat hard surface. The Reflexion brush is held by it’send-connections to be parallel to this flat surface. Pressure profile mapis measured, when the brush is brought in contact parallel with thesensor; brush PVA is compressed by 2 mmà Thicker PVA depth Less Downforce ( 74%)Original brush: PVC core – 3.8 kgfMore “Tunable” at lower downforcesNewNewbrush:PP PPcore,(thickerPVAformulationpile) – 0.98kgfbrush,core,std PVA– 1.3 kgfNew Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL20

PVA Stability on the Core: Brush PVA Edge Movement Seen inSoft PVA SOTC Design Brushes at High Rotational Speeds During brush rotation at higher speeds (e.g., 800 RPM)the brushes made of softer PVA, slip-on-the-core (SOTC)design expand slightly in the diameter (in the center partof the brush) and shrink in the axial direction (near theclosed core end of the brush) – As expected, no suchobservations were made for the MTTC design brushes.After high speedspinning, the brushPVA edge moves onthe coreNew Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL21SoftBrush 800RPM.wmv

Brushes Skin Friction (COF) Stability:Test Parameters and Operating Conditions Dynamic coefficient of friction (COF) data for the slip-on-the-core (SOTC) andmolded-through-the-core (MTTC) brushes were measured at different brushrotational speeds and DI water flow rates, for brushed soaked in DI water as wellas various PCMP cleaning chemistries (6 weeks soak in diluted cleans solutions). An initial compression of 2 mm was used for most of the study. Planarcore (PLAN) are Entegris MTTC design brushes, SOFT are softer PVA SOTC brushes,HARD are harder PVA SOTC brushes, and ELON are elongated nodule brushes (allcommercially available). Brush rotational velocity was varied from 50 to 800 RPM for the 70 mm OD PVAbrushes (suitable for AMAT Reflexion Cleaner), while the wafer velocity was heldconstant at 100 RPM for the 3” oxide wafer. Total force data acquisition frequency was 20 kHz, for frictional force (Fx), normalload (Fy), and temperature (Tm) measurements. Most PVA brushes were similar in dimension (suitable for 300 mm cleaner) andhad cylindrical nodules, except for the ELON – elongated nodule brush.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL22

PVA Brush Tribological Measurement SystemA new 300 mm brush – capable benchtop tribology testing tool was codeveloped with the Center for Triobology Research (CETR)New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL23

PVA Brushes Mean Skin Friction DataSkin Friction (COF)Stribeck Curves for PVA 00600HARDELON8001000Brush Rotational Speed (RPM)Test conditions: 2 mm initial compression, 0.5 Lpm flow, and 100 RPM wafer speedVariation in COF likely due to expansion of PVA at higher speed for the SOFT PVA brushELON is Elongated nodule brush. All other brushes have cylindrical nodules and 70 mm OD.PLAN is a MTTC Planarcore brush. COF of PVA brushes can be varied by nodule geometry change.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL24

PVA Brushes Fluctuating Skin Friction DataCOF Standard Deviation Data for PVA Brushes0.14Std Dev of 04006008001000Brush Rotational Speed (RPM)In general, SOFT PVA brush has high fluctuation in COF data, especially at higher speeds.Test conditions: 2 mm initial compression, 0.5 Lpm flow, and 100 RPM wafer speedELON is Elongated nodule brush. All other brushes are cylindrical nodule brushes.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL25

Mean and Std Deviation COF for MMTC and SOTC BrushesSKIN-FRICTION BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT BRUSHESMean and StandardDeviation COF1.00MCOF MTTCSD-COF MTTCMCOF SOTC20.80MCOF SOTC1SD-COF SOTC1SD-COF SOTC20.600.400.200.000200400600800Brush Rotational Speed (RPM)1000All 3 brushes ( 38 mm OD) had cylindrical nodules. MTTC brush is Entegris Planarcore brush, whereasSOTC1 and SOTC2 are other manufacturer slip-on-the-core design brushes. The mean and standarddeviation of the COF for the MTTC brush were smaller than corresponding values for the 2 otherSOTC brushes. Tests conducted in DI water.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL26

PLAN, HARD, SOFT, and ELON are Planarcore, hard PVA, softPVA, and elongated nodule PVA brushes, respectively, fromdifferent brush suppliers. As seen in Figures 1-3, various brushesresult in slightly different down-force, flow-rate and skin friction(COF) data. For example, in a HARD PVA POR brush fine-tuned Fab recipe, aninitial compression of 2.0 mm in HARD brush would producenearly same down-force as a SOFT brush would produce with aninitial compression of 3.5 mm. Similar adjustments may beessential also for the DI water flow-rate to get optimum PCMPcleaning performance.Down-Force (Kgf)5. New Brushes Operating Parameters Fine-Tuning for Optimum Performance:Considering Down-Force, DI Water Flow-Rate and Skin-Friction DistributionsWafer Dow n-Force Vs. PVA Brush InitialCom 4.05.0Brush Initial Com pression (m m )Figure 1PVA Brush DI Water Flow Rate and Pressure DropStribeck Curves for PVA Brushes1.0PLANHARDSOFT2.01.5Skin Friction (COF)Pressure Drop (psi)2.51.00.50.00.01.02.03.0Flow Rate (Lpm )PLANSOFT0.3200400Figure 327HARDELON0.0600800Brush Rotational Speed (RPM)Figure 2ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL0.504.0New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 20110.81000

Summary and Conclusions New developments in the design and characterization of PCMP cleaning PVA brushes arepresented. Special nodular design and negative zeta potential (NZP) brushes weredeveloped to achieve more effective near-wafer-edge cleaning and improved overall PCMPcleaning performance in advanced applications. Special nodule design brushes provide more favorable contact area as well as contactforce at the brush-wafer interface in the wafer edge region and the central part of thewafer, whereas NZP brushes result in improved PCMP cleaning in the next-generationcopper/low-k processes. The effect of extended exposure of 1 alkaline and 4 acidic PCMP cleans on brush PVA wasstudied. All acidic cleans showed significant discoloration, whereas the alkaline cleancaused minimal changes in the color of PVA and the soaking solution. This study did notshow much change in PVA physical properties as a result of above chemical soaking. Considering down-force, flow rate, and skin-friction distribution of different PVA brushes,no new brush designs should be considered a drop in replacement. It may be essential tomake minor adjustments to the brush initial compression and/or DI water flow rate toobtain optimum PCMP cleaning performance with any new brush type.New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL28

Acknowledgmentsà Dr. Ara Philipossian for the opportunity to present this workat the ERC TeleSeminarà Saksatha Lyà Sophie Liuà Xia Manà Alan Kirkwoodà PCMP Cleaning Chemistry Suppliersà Contamination Control Solutions Team at Entegris, Inc., forthe support of this researchNew Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL29

New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology – Singh et al.ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL30

New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology - Singh et al. ERC TeleSeminar, University of Arizona, February 10, 2011 4 ENTEGRIS PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL PCMP Cleaning Challenges for Advanced Applications CMP intensity (i.e., number of wafer starts) as well as complexity (e.g., 15 CMP

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Fundamentals; Harmony; Jazz, Pop, and Contemporary Music Theory (including Twentieth-Century Music); and Form in Music. The format for each volume is consistent: 1. The left column lists terms to help you organize your study and find topics quickly. 2. Bold indicates key concepts. 3. Each volume ends with a Remember-Forever Review and More