Governance Models Across Football Associations And Leagues

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In order to give a representative insight of thesituation at a global level, the analysis includesthirty-two national associations spread acrossthe six continental confederations. Theauthors also highlight that the relationshipbetween national associations and leaguescan be a difficult one. As a matter of fact,each stakeholder requires the support ofthe other, but at the same time neither partywants the other to be too involved in thegovernance of its own organisation.Camille Boillat and Raffaele Poli aregeographers by training. Camille is a scientificcollaborator at the International Centre forSport Studies (CIES), while Raffaele Poli is thehead of the CIES Football Observatory.Editions CIESC. Boillat & R. Poli - Governance models across football associations and leaguesNational associations and leagues sharethe responsibility of organising footballcompetitions. However, governance modelsvary greatly at worldwide level. This bookanalyses the various existing models ofgovernance. It also studies the role of leaguerepresentatives and other stakeholders inthe decision-making processes of nationalassociations.GOVERNANCE MODELSACROSS FOOTBALLASSOCIATIONS AND LEAGUESCamille Boillat & Raffaele PoliA research mandateon behalf of

GOVERNANCE MODELS ACROSSFOOTBALL ASSOCIATIONS AND LEAGUES

CENTREINTERNATIONALD’ÉTUDE DU SPORTRéflexions sportivesEdited by Denis Oswald and Christophe JaccoudVol. 4The collection, Réflexions sportives, features conference proceedings organised or co-organisedby CIES, as well as ongoing studies undertaken by experienced and novice researchers. Its aimis to promote CIES as a platform for academic debate, to produce work on topical subjects aswell as offer publication opportunities to talented researchers.Editorial BoardProf. Denis Oswald (Université de Neuchâtel and CIES Scientific Director), Prof.Christophe Jaccoud (Université de Neuchâtel and CIES), Dr Raffaele Poli (Université de Neuchâtel and CIES), Vincent Schatzmann (CIES General Secretary), RogerBesson (Université de Neuchâtel and CIES), Thomas Busset (CIES) et Kevin TallecMarston (CIES)

GOVERNANCE MODELSACROSS FOOTBALLASSOCIATIONS AND LEAGUESCamille Boillat & Raffaele PoliWith the collaboration of David Rodrigues & Kevin Tallec MarstonEditions CIES - Collection Réflexions sportives - Neuchâtel 2014

Le Centre International d’Etude du Sport (CIES), institution scientifique crée en1995 d’un partenariat entre la Fédération Internationale de Football Association(FIFA), l’Université de Neuchâtel, la Ville et le Canton de Neuchâtel, a pour mission de développer, dans une perspective de type pluridisciplinaire (juridique, sociologique, géographique, économique et historique), des activités de recherche, deformation et de consulting au service de la communauté sportive. Le CIES a pourvocation de servir de passerelle entre les mondes de la recherche, de l’enseignementet la communauté sportive.The International Centre for Sport Studies (CIES), a scientific institution createdin 1995 as a result of the joint venture between the Fédération Internationale deFootball Association (FIFA), the University of Neuchâtel and the Town and State ofNeuchâtel, aims to develop, using a multi-disciplinary approach (legal, sociologic,geographic, economic and historic), research, education and consulting activities toprovide to the sports world. The CIES’ purpose is to serve as bridge between theresearch and education worlds and the sports world. CopyrightCIES - Centre International d’Etude du SportAvenue DuPeyrou 1CH - 2000 Neuchâtel (Suisse)Tél : 41 (0)32 718 39 00 Fax : 41 (0)32 718 39 01Contact : secretariat.cies@unine.chwww.cies.chISBN 2-940241-24-4

AcknowledgementsWe would like to express our gratitude to the following people whoprovided us with relevant information:Alex Miescher, Association Suisse de FootballFlorence Etourneau, Fédération Française de FootballFrank Van Hattum, New Zealand FootballIan Kemble, Jamaica Football FederationJo Setright, Football Federation AustraliaJoko Driyono, Football Association of Indonesia/Liga IndonesiaJonathan Hall, The Football Association (England)Jürgen Paepke, Deutsche Fussball LigaKengo Arima, Japan Football AssociationŁukasz Wachowski, Polish Football AssociationMark Aspden, New Zealand FootballMarkus Stenger, Deutscher Fussball-BundNiccolò Donna, Federazione Italiana Giuoco CalcioNils Fisketjønn, Norwegian Football AssociationPrimo Corvaro, Fédération Internationale de Football AssociationRaymond Grant, Jamaica Football FederationRidzal Saat, Football Association of Singapore/S. LeagueRobert Pongracz, Liga Nacional de Fútbol Profesional (Spain)Victoriano Melero, Fédération Française de FootballViktor Derdo, Football Federation of Ukraine

Table of contentsIntroduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1I. Structural models, legal forms and agreements between nationalassociations and leagues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. League structural models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.1. Legal form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.2. Association model: level of national association involvementand financial relationships with the national association . . . . . . . . . . . 111.3. Separate entity model: level of national association involvementand financial relationships with the national association . . . . . . . . . . . 141.4. Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.5. Specific cases of league governance and financing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172. Documents governing the relationships between leaguesand national associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20II. The league in the national association structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231. League membership in the national association and representationin the general assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252. Power balance between stakeholders in the national associationgeneral assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282.1. League representation and voting power in the nationalassociation general assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.2. Other stakeholders in the national association general assembly. . . 342.3. Election of league representatives to the national associationgeneral assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393. Power balance between stakeholders in the national associationexecutive committee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

VIIIGovernance models across associations and leagues3.1. League representation in the national association executivecommittee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443.2. League representation and voting power in the nationalassociation executive committee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453.3 Other stakeholders in the national association executive committee. 483.4. Election of league representatives to the national associationexecutive committee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504. Standing committees function, presence and members. . . . . . . . . . . 53III. Division of labour between national associations and leagues. . . . 571. Organisation of competitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571.1. National cup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581.2. League cup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611.3. Super cup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621.4. Youth football and women’s football competitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . 642. Players’ status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653. Disciplinary proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704. Sport arbitration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745. Club licensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76IV. League internal governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811. Internal governance: association model leagues with nationalassociation management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822. Internal governance: association model leagues withself-management and separate entity model leagues . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852.1. League executive committees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862.2. League executive powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892.3. League general assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912.4. League members admittance and removal mechanisms. . . . . . . . . 93

Table of contentsIXConclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103Appendices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105Appendix 1: Legal form of leagues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105Appendix 2: Documents governing the relationships betweenleagues and national associations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107Appendix 3: League representation in national association generalassemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109Appendix 4: League representation in national association executivecommittees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111Appendix 5: Original texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

List of figuresFigure n 1: Spanish football pyramid-shaped model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Figure n 2: League structural models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Figure n 3: Type of representation of leagues in national association generalassemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Figure n 4: Frequency of interest groups representation in nationalassociation general assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38Figure n 5: Type of league representation in national association executivecommittees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Figure n 6: Standard players’ status regulations model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66Figure n 7: Standard disciplinary proceedings in football. . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Figure n 8: Stakeholders representation in league executive committees(association model with self-management). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88List of tablesTable n 1: Associations included in the research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Table n 2: General information about leagues and competitions. . . . . . . . 6Table n 3: Legal form of leagues surveyed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Table n 4: Association model – leagues categorisation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Table n 5: Separate entity model – leagues categorisation . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Table n 6: Selected leagues for further analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Table n 7: Type of league membership in the national association. . . . . . 26Table n 8: Number of members at national association generalassemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

XIIGovernance models across associations and leaguesTable n 9: League voting power in national association generalassemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Table n 10: Stakeholders’ representation in national association generalassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Table n 11: Stakeholders representation per category in national associationgeneral assemblies with league representation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Table n 12: Interest groups representation in national association generalassemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Table n 13: Election of league representatives to national associationgeneral assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Table n 14: Number of members at national association general assembliesand executive committees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Table n 15: League voting power in national association executivecommittees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47Table n 16: Election method(s) of national association executive committeemembers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Table n 17: Standing committees – FAZ example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Table n 18: National cups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Table n 19: League cups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62Table n 20: Super cups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63Table n 21: Youth football competitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Table n 22: Entity governing players’ status issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67Table n 23: Entity governing disciplinary proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Table n 24: Entity governing arbitration proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74Table n 25: Entity issuing club licences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77Table n 26: League distribution according to chapter IV analyses. . . . . . 82Table n 27: League governing entity in national association . . . . . . . . . . 83Table n 28: Independent league structural models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Figures and tablesXIIITable n 29: Number of members at league executive committees(association model with self-management). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87Table n 30: Number of members at league executive committees (separateentity model). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89Table n 31: League general assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92Table n 32: Promotion/relegation rules between top tier leagues and thelower ones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94Table n 33: Legal form of leagues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105Table n 34: Documents governing the relationships between leagues andnational associations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107Table n 35: League representation in national association generalassemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109Table n 36: League representation in national association executivecommittees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

DefinitionsChampionship or division: an annual football competition played by teamsusually coming from the same country. For example, Ligue 1 is the top tierchampionship – or first division – in France.Ex officio member: a person who is a member of a body (general assembly,executive committee, etc.) by virtue of holding a position in another body.For example, it is common that league presidents are ex officio member ofassociation executive committee.League: organisation running one or several championships/divisions. Forexample, the Swiss Football League is the organisation running the two toptier championships – Super League and Challenge League – in Switzerland.Youth football: competitions with age limit for participating players (usuallytwenty years at most).

AcronymsAFCAsian Football ConfederationAIAAssociazione Italiana ArbitriAIFFAll India Football FederationANFPAsociación Nacional de Fútbol Profesional (Chile)ASF/SFVAssociation Suisse de Football, Associazione Svizzera diFootball / Schweizerischer FussballverbandCAFConfédération Africaine de FootballCASCourt of Arbitration for SportCBFConfederação Brasileira de FutebolCONCACAF Confederation of North, Central American and CaribbeanAssociation FootballCONIComitato Olimpico Nazionale ItalianoCONMEBOL Confederación Sudamericana de FútbolDFBDeutscher Fußball-BundDFLDeutsche Fußball LigaEPFLEuropean Professional Football LeaguesEUEuropean UnionFASFootball Association of SingaporeFAZFootball Association of ZambiaFCFFederação Caboverdiana de FutebolFECAFOOTFédération Camerounaise de FootballFENAFUTH Federación Nacional Autónoma de Fútbol de HondurasFFAFootball Federation Australia

XVIIIGovernance models across associations and leaguesFFCFederación de Fútbol de ChileFFFFédération Française de FootballFFUFootball Federation of UkraineFIFFédération Ivoirienne de FootballFIFAFédération Internationale de Football AssociationFIGCFederazione Italiana Giuoco CalcioFKFFootball Kenya FederationFMFFederación Mexicana de FútbolFSFFédération Sénégalaise de FootballFTFFédération Tunisienne de FootballFVFFederación Venezolana de FútbolIPLIndonesian Premier LeagueISLIndonesia Super LeagueJFAJapan Football AssociationJFFJamaica Football FederationKPLKenyan Premier LeagueLFALigue de Football Amateur (France)LFPLigue de Football Professionnel (France)LFPCLigue de Football Professionnel du CamerounLNDLega Nazionale Dilettanti (Italy)LNFALiga Nacional de Fútbol Aficionado (Spain)LNFPLiga Nacional de Fútbol Profesional (Spain and Honduras)LNFPLigue Nationale du Football Professionel (Tunisia)MLSMajor League Soccer (USA)N/ANot Applicable/Not Available/No AnswerNAIANational Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (USA)

AcronymsXIXNASLNorth American Soccer League (USA)NCAANational Collegiate Athletic Association (USA)NFFNorges FotballforbundNSLNational Soccer League (South Africa)NWSLNational Women's Soccer League (USA)NZFNew Zealand FootballOFCOceania Football ConfederationPFAJProfessional Football Association of JamaicaPLCAPremier League Clubs Association (Jamaica)PNGFAPapua New Guinea Football AssociationPSSIPersatuan Sepakbola Seluruh IndonesiaPZPNPolski Związek Piłki NożnejQFAQatar Football AssociationQSLQatar Stars LeagueQSLMQatar Stars League ManagementRAZReferees Association of ZambiaRFEFReal Federación Española de FútbolSAFASouth African Football AssociationSEFPSASociedad Española de Fútbol Profesional, S.A.SFLSwiss Football LeagueThe FAThe Football Association (England)UEFAUnion of European Football AssociationsUSASAUnited States Adult Soccer AssociationUSLUnited Soccer Leagues (USA)USSFUnited States Soccer FederationWPSLWomen's Premier Soccer League (USA)

IntroductionThis publication derives from a research mandate carried out by the authorson behalf of FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Inpresent-day football, question of the relationships across national footballassociations and professional leagues is paramount. It raises crucial governance issues such as income distribution, representation and political power.Ultimately, the ways in which these relationships are governed heavily impactfootball development throughout the world. This study aims to describe anumber of situations observed in a sample of associations in all confederations. For national associations or leagues interested in developing their activities and the sport in general, this report may offer valuable insights intothe ways in which many other national associations and leagues manage theirrelationships and governance models. It is divided into four chapters:–– Relationships between associations and leagues–– League representation in association structures–– Labour division between leagues, associations and other stakeholders–– Internal governance of leaguesEach chapter includes a variable number of sections and subsections providing a description of the current situation. Throughout this publication, summary tables and examples are displayed in order to allow the reader to have aclear overview of the various mechanisms and strategies encountered aroundthe world.The research project covered all the regional areas in each confederation.For that purpose, thirty-two FIFA member associations – representing various levels of football development – have been studied (tab. 1).Table n 1: Associations included in the researchUEFA (9)England, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Spain, Switzerland,UkraineCAF (8)Cameroon, Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa, Tunisia, ZambiaAFC (6)Australia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Qatar, SingaporCONCACAF (5) Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, USACONMEBOL (3) Brazil, Chile, VenezuelaOFC (2)New Zealand, Papua New Guinea

2Governance models across associations and leaguesWithin a country, football is usually governed according to a pyramid-shapedmodel. The top tier league(s) take(s) place at national level, while teams oflower level generally play against each other within championships governed byregional associations. The lower the level, the more numerous the teams tend tobe. In this research, the analysis includes all leagues managed at national levelfor each association surveyed. For example, in Spain, both top tier championships (Primera and Segunda División) take place at a national level and are managed by the same entity (LNFP – Liga Nacional de Fútbol Profesional, Spanishtop tier league). The two lower level championships – Segunda División B andTercera División – are divided into regional groups. However, they are stillmanaged at a national level by the LNFA (Liga Nacional de Fútbol Aficionado)and are thus also covered by the study (fig. 1). In summary, the terms ‘division’or ‘championship’ refer here to the competition itself, while ‘league’ refers to theorganisation running one or more divisions or championships.Figure n 1: Spanish football pyramid-shaped modelLiga Nacional de Fútbol Profesional*[2 championships, 42 teams]Liga Nacional de Fútbol Aficionado*[2 championships, 440 teams]Regional associations[19 associations, dozens of championships, thousands of teams]* The two highest level leagues are studied in the present researchThe methodology for this project consisted of collecting information available from reports (FIFA Member Associations Marketing Surveys, UEFA Survey on Professional League Organisations 2009/10, EPFL Report on EuropeanProfessional Football Leagues Organization, Structure and Governance Season2009/10, academic literature, etc.), official documents (FIFA, associationsand leagues statutes and regulations) and online sources (associations’ andleagues’ official websites, etc.). This information has then been complemented on a case by case basis through emails and phone interviews.We would like to extend our sincere thanks to all people who accepted toparticipate in this research and who provided very valuable insights. We wish

Introduction3also to thank James Johnson who managed the research on behalf of FIFA.His vast knowledge and contacts were also of key importance in the completion of the study.

I. Structural models, legal forms and agreementsbetween national associations and leaguesThis chapter examines the relationships between the association and theleague(s) organised at national level and taking place within its jurisdiction.It is divided into two sections. The first one deals with the structural model ofleagues. It consists of an analysis of the leagues’ legal form, the degree of association implication in leagues organisation and the financial relationships between leagues and associations. This information is useful in understandingthe degree of autonomy of each league, particularly regarding managementand administration issues. These areas of interest will be analysed throughoutthe report.The second section concerns the nature of the documents governing therelationships between a league and the association. Additional informationabout existing agreements between associations and leagues is also provided.The table below (tab. 2) presents the leagues surveyed according to theirname, status (amateur/professional), number of division(s) and name of thechampionship(s). The reader may note that some leagues are in fact semiprofessional in that players and officials often receive some form of remuneration. For the purposes of this study, however, we define ‘professional’ as thestatus of the club as an institution and not the fact that some players may besemi-professional or even earn their entire living as a footballer.

6Governance models across associations and leaguesTable n 2: General information about leagues and competitionsAssociationStructureEnglandPremier ndPro. Div. Name of championshipsYes1Premier LeagueThe Football LeagueYes3Championship; League 1; League 2Football ConferenceSemi2Conference National; Conf. South/NorthLigue de Football Prof.Yes2Ligue 1; Ligue 2Ligue du Football Am.No3National; CFA; CFA2LigaverbandYes2Bundesliga; 2. Bundesliga3. LigaYes13. LigaLega Nazionale Prof. Serie AYes1Serie ALega Nazionale Prof. Serie BYes1Serie BLega ProYes21a divisione; 2a divisioneLega Nazionale DilettantiNoNorsk ToppfotballYes2Elite League; 1st Division;DivisjonforeningenAll the restSemi12. DivisjonEkstraklasaYes1EkstraklasaPolish Football AssociationYes2I Liga; II LigaLiga Nacional de Fútbol Prof.Yes2Primera División; Segunda DivisiónLiga Nacional de Fútbol AficionadoNoAll the restSwiss Football LeagueYes2Super League, Challenge LeagueErste LigaNo21. Liga Promotion; 1. Liga ClassicAmateur LigaNo12.Liga InterregionalUkrainian Premier LeagueYes1Ukrainian Premier LeagueProf. Football League of UkraineYes2Ukrainian 1st League; Ukrainian 2nd LeagueCameroonLigue de Football Prof. du CamerounYes2Elite One; Elite TwoCape VerdeCampeonato NacionalYes1Campeonato NacionalIvory CoastLigue Prof.Yes2Ligue I; Ligue IILigue Am.No2Division 3; Championnat RégionalKenyan Premier LeagueYes1Kenyan Premier LeagueFKF Division OneNo1Division 1Ligue Sénégalaise de Football Prof.Yes2Ligue 1; Ligue 2Ligue du Football Am.No2Nationale 1; Nationale 2National Soccer LeagueYes2Premier Division; 1rst DivisionSAFA Second DivisionNo1SAFA 2nd DivisionSAFA Regional LeagueNo2SAFA Regional LeagueUkraineKenyaSenegalSouth Africa

Structural models, legal forms and agreements7AssociationStructureTunisiaLigue National du Football Prof.Yes2Ligue I; Ligue IILigue National du Football Am.No3Ligue IIIPremier LeagueYes1Premier LeagueZambiaPro. Div. Name of championshipsDivision OneNo1Division One gueYes2I-League; 2nd DivisionIndonesiaIndonesia Super LeagueYes2Super League; Premier DivisionLiga IndonesiaNoJapanQatarSingaporeHondurasAll the restJ. LeagueYes2J. League Division 1; J. League Division 2Japan Football LeagueNo1Japan Football LeagueQatar Stars LeagueYes1Qatar Stars LeagueSecond Division LeagueYes12nd Division LeagueS. LeagueYes1S. LeagueNational Football LeagueNoLiga Nacional de Fútbol Prof.Yes11ra divisionLiga Nacional de AscensoYes1Liga Nacional de AscensoAll the restJamaicaProf. Football Association of JamaicaSemi1National Premier LeagueMexicoLiga MXYes1Liga MXAscenso MXYes1Ascenso MXSegunda DivisiónYes2Liga Premier; Liga de Nuevos TalentosTercera DivisiónYes13ra DivisiónMajor League SoccerYes1Major League SoccerNorth American Soccer LeagueYes1North American Soccer LeagueUnited Soccer LeaguesYes1USL ProUS Adult Soccer AssociationNoBrazilCampeonato BrasileiroYes4Série A; Série B; Série C; Série DChileAsociación Nacional de Fútbol Prof.Yes3Campeonato Nacional; 1ra B; 2da DivisiónUSAAsociación Nacional de Fútbol Am.VenezuelaFederación Venezolana de FútbolNew ZealandNational LeaguePapua NewGuineaNational Soccer LeagueClub ChampionshipMore than 100NoAll the restBoth41ra División; 2da Div. A; 2da Div. B; 3ra Div.No1PremiershipSemi1National Soccer LeagueNo1Club Championship

8Governance models across associations and leagues1. League structural modelsIn this study, the concept of structural model refers to the legal form of theleague, the level of association involvement from a management perspectiveand the nature of the financial relationships between the league and the association. From this perspective, two models with different variants may bedistinguished as illustrated in the diagram below (fig. 2).Figure n 2: League structural modelsLegal tFinanciallydependentSeparateentity erestMinoritystake1.1. Legal formThe legal form of a league consists of its legal designation. Each state havingits own legal system, various leg

Kengo Arima, Japan Football Association Łukasz Wachowski, Polish Football Association Mark Aspden, New Zealand Football Markus Stenger, Deutscher Fussball-Bund Niccolò Donna, Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio Nils Fisketjønn, Norwegian Football Association Primo Corvaro, Fédération Internationale de Football Association

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