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Immigration Consequences of CriminalActivityUpdated May 28, 2021Congressional Research Servicehttps://crsreports.congress.govR45151

SUMMARYImmigration Consequences of Criminal ActivityR45151May 28, 2021Congress’s power to create rules governing the admission of non-U.S. nationals (aliens)has long been viewed as plenary. In the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), asHillel R. SmithLegislative Attorneyamended, Congress has specified grounds for the exclusion or removal of aliens,including because of criminal activity. Some criminal offenses, when committed by analien present in the United States, may render that alien subject to removal from thecountry. And certain criminal offenses may preclude an alien outside the United Statesfrom being either admitted into the country or permitted to reenter following an initial departure. Criminalconduct also may disqualify an alien from certain forms of relief from removal (e.g., asylum) or prevent the alienfrom becoming a U.S. citizen. In some cases, the INA directly identifies particular offenses that carry immigrationconsequences; in other cases, federal immigration law provides that a general category of crimes, such as “crimesinvolving moral turpitude” or an offense defined by the INA as an “aggravated felony,” may render an alienineligible for certain benefits and privileges under immigration law.The INA distinguishes between the treatment of lawfully admitted aliens and those who are either seeking initialadmission into the country or who are present in the United States without having been lawfully admitted byimmigration authorities. Lawfully admitted aliens may be removed if they engage in conduct that renders themdeportable, whereas aliens who have not been admitted into the United States may be barred from admission orremoved from the country if they have engaged in conduct rendering them inadmissible. Although the INAdesignates certain criminal activities and categories of criminal activities as grounds for inadmissibility ordeportability, the respective grounds are not identical. Moreover, a conviction for a designated crime is not alwaysrequired for an alien to be disqualified on criminal grounds from admission into the United States. But for nearlyall criminal grounds for deportation, a “conviction” (as defined by the INA) for the underlying offense isnecessary. Additionally, although certain criminal conduct may disqualify an alien from various immigrationrelated benefits or forms of relief, the scope of disqualifying conduct varies depending on the particular benefit orform of relief at issue.Congressional Research Service

Immigration Consequences of Criminal ActivityContentsAdministration of Immigration Laws . 2Criminal Grounds for Inadmissibility and Deportation . 4Criminal Grounds of Inadmissibility Under INA § 212(a)(2) . 5Criminal Grounds of Deportability Under INA § 237(a)(2) . 7Crime Involving Moral Turpitude . 8Aggravated Felony . 10Crimes Affecting “Good Moral Character”. 12Relief from Removal and Obtaining Certain Immigration Benefits . 13Waiver for Criminal Inadmissibility Grounds . 13Aliens Seeking Admission as LPRs . 14Aliens Seeking Admission as Nonimmigrants . 15Cancellation of Removal. 15Voluntary Departure. 18Withholding of Removal. 18Convention Against Torture. 20Asylum . 20Refugee Status . 21Adjustment of Status . 22Temporary Protected Status. 23Naturalization: Impact of Criminal Activity. 23The Intersection of Criminal Law and Immigration: Select Legal Issues . 24The Duty to Inform about Immigration Consequences from a Criminal Conviction . 24What Constitutes a Conviction? . 25Approaches to Determine Whether a Criminal Conviction Triggers ImmigrationConsequences. 27Interpreting the INA Predicate Offense . 30Issues for Congress . 32TablesTable 1. Criminal Grounds of Inadmissibility Under INA § 212(a)(2). 5Table 2. Criminal Grounds of Deportation Under INA § 237(a)(2) . 7Table 3. Aggravated Felony Offenses Under INA § 101(a)(43)(F). 10Table 4. Criminal Bars to Good Moral Character. 12ContactsAuthor Information . 33Congressional Research Service

Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activityongress’s power to establish rules for the admission of non-U.S. nationals (aliens 1 ) haslong been viewed as plenary. 2 In the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended, 3Congress has specified various grounds for the exclusion or removal of aliens, includinggrounds related to the commission of criminal conduct. 4 Some criminal offenses committed by analien who is present in the United States may render that alien subject to removal from thecountry. 5 And certain offenses may preclude an alien outside the United States from either beingadmitted into the country or being permitted to reenter following an initial departure. 6 Further,committing certain crimes may disqualify an alien from many forms of relief from removal, 7prevent an alien from adjusting to lawful permanent resident (LPR) status, 8 or bar an LPR fromnaturalizing as a U.S. citizen. 9CThis report provides an overview of the major immigration consequences of criminal activity. Thereport begins by briefly discussing the laws governing the immigration consequences of criminalconduct and the government entities charged with administering U.S. immigration laws. Next, thereport enumerates specific crimes and categories of crimes that may render an alien inadmissibleor deportable. Then, the report discusses the potential impact criminal activity may have for analien’s eligibility to obtain various forms of relief from removal or exclusion, including reliefthrough a waiver of application of certain grounds for removal, cancellation of removal,voluntary departure, asylum, or withholding of removal. Next, the report discusses criminalactivity affecting an alien’s ability to adjust to LPR status or naturalize as a U.S. citizen. Finally,the report examines select legal issues related to the intersection of criminal law and immigration,including the responsibilities of criminal defense attorneys representing alien defendants, as wellT he INA uses the term “alien” to describe “any person not a citizen or national of the United States.” 8 U.S.C. §1101(a)(3). Some have criticized the statutory term as offensive, but avoiding its use in legal analysis is difficultbecause the term is woven deeply into the statutory framework. See T rump v. Hawaii, 138 S. Ct. 2392, 2443 n.7 (2018)(Sotomayor, J., dissenting) (“It is important to note . . . that many consider ‘using the term “alien” to refer to otherhuman beings’ to be ‘offensive and demeaning.’ I use the term here only where necessary ‘to be consistent with thestatutory language’ that Congress has chosen and ‘to avoid any confusion in replacing a legal term of art with a moreappropriate term.’”) (quoting Flores v. United States Citizenship & Immigration Servs., 718 F.3d 548, 551 ̶ 52 n. 1 (6thCir. 2013)).1See, e.g., Kleindienst v. Mandel, 408 U.S. 753, 769 ̶ 70 (1972) (“[P]lenary congressional power to make policies andrules for exclusion of aliens has long been firmly established.”); Boutilier v. INS, 387 U.S. 118, 123 (1967) (“It haslong been held that the Congress has plenary power to make rules for the admission of aliens and to exclude those whopossess those characteristics which Congress has forbidden.”). But see Zadvydas v. Davis, 533 U.S. 678, 695 (2001)(noting that Congress’s plenary power in enacting immigration laws “is subject to important constitutionallimitations”). See generally CRS Report R46142, The Power of Congress and the Executive to Exclude Aliens:Constitutional Principles, by Ben Harrington.23See 8 U.S.C. § 1101, et seq.4See id. §§ 1182(a)(2), 1227(a)(2).See, e.g., id. § 1227(a)(2).56See, e.g., id. § 1182(a)(2), (a)(9) (criminal grounds for inadmissibility, including for aliens previously removed onaccount of committing an aggravated felony); see also id. § 1101(a)(13)(C) (providing that an alien with lawfulpermanent resident status who departs from the United States and thereaf ter seeks to return shall not be considered anapplicant for admission except in certain cases, including when the alien has committed conduct falling under thecriminal grounds for inadmissibility or engaged in illegal activity after departing the United States).7 See, e.g., id. §§ 1158(b)(2), 1182(h)(2), 1229b(a), 1229c(b)(1).8See, e.g., id. § 1255. An LPR is authorized to live permanently in the United States and may obtain many benefitsunavailable to other categories of aliens. See Dep’t of Homeland Sec., Lawful Permanent Residents awful-permanent-residents (last visited May 1, 2021).9See, e.g., 8 U.S.C. §§ 1101(f), 1427(a).Congressional Research Service1

Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activityas judicial interpretation of particular INA provisions that may render aliens who have beenconvicted of certain crimes removable.Administration of Immigration LawsOriginally enacted in 1952, the INA unified the country’s immigration laws under one umbrellaframework. 10 A number of federal agencies possess distinct responsibilities relating to theadministration of the country’s immigration laws, including the Department of Justice, the StateDepartment, and, following the enactment of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, the Departmentof Homeland Security (DHS).Before Congress enacted the Homeland Security Act most U.S. immigration laws —particularlyas they related to enforcement activities and providing relief or services to aliens within theUnited States—were primarily administered by the Attorney General, who largely delegated hispower to two agencies within the Department of Justice (DOJ): the Immigration andNaturalization Service (INS), which carried out enforcement and service activities, and theExecutive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR), which carried out adjudication activities. 11The Homeland Security Act, as relevant here, dismantled the INS, created DHS, and transferredmany of the Attorney General’s immigration administration responsibilities to the DHSSecretary. 12 Thus, the DHS Secretary is now “charged with the administration and enforcement of[the INA] and all other laws relating to the immigration and naturalization of aliens, exceptinsofar as this chapter or such laws relate to the powers, functions, and duties conferred upon thePresident, Attorney General” and other executive officers. 13Three components of DHS—Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Immigration and CustomsEnforcement (ICE), and U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)—carry out themajor functions of the former INS. 14 In particular, ICE is the primary investigative arm ofimmigration enforcement within the United States. 15 When ICE determines that an alien locatedwithin the U.S. interior has violated the immigration laws—for example, by committing certaincrimes—DHS typically apprehends the alien and initiates removal proceedings against the alienbefore an immigration judge within DOJ’s EOIR. 16 CBP, on the other hand, is authorized toenforce immigration laws at the border, which involves responsibilities including the inspection10See generally USCIS History Office & Library (2012), Overview of INS History, at 9, available for download ion-service; USCIS,Immigration & Nationality Act, lity-act (last visited May 1, 2021).11Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952, Pub. L. No. 82 -414, 66 Stat. 163, § 103 (June 27, 1952) (charging theAttorney General with administering and enforcing t he INA and “all other laws relating to the immigration andnaturalization of aliens, except insofar as this Act or such laws relate to the powers, functions, and duties conferredupon the President, the Secretary of State, the officers of the Department of State, or diplomatic or consular officers”).12USCIS History Office & Library, supra note 10, at 11. Other agencies in addition to the DHS, the DOJ, and the StateDepartment play a role in immigration administration. For example, the Department of Health and Human Services isresponsible for housing and caring for unaccompanied alien children, 8 U.S.C. § 1232(b)(1), and the Department ofLabor provides labor certification to employers seeking to sponsor foreign nationals to work in the United States, id. §1182(a)(5)(A); 20 C.F.R. § 656.13148 U.S.C. § 1103(a)(1); see also 8 C.F.R. § 2.1.GORDON & MAILMAN, ET AL ., IMMIGRATION LAW & PROCEDURE, § 1.02, Scope, Agencies, and Sources.158 C.F.R. § 100.1. See generally CRS Legal Sidebar LSB10362, Immigration Arrests in the Interior of the UnitedStates: A Brief Primer, by Hillel R. Smith.168 U.S.C. §§ 1229(a), 1229a(b)(4)(A). See generally CRS In Focus IF11536, Formal Removal Proceedings: AnIntroduction, by Hillel R. Smith.Congressional Research Service2

Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activityand admission of aliens seeking entry into the United States and the expedited removal of certaininadmissible aliens apprehended at or near the border while seeking entry to the United States. 17DHS, through USCIS, also plays a role in determining eligibility and approving applications forcertain forms of relief and immigration benefits (e.g., granting asylum, adjusting status, ornaturalizing). 18Despite the transfer of most enforcement functions to DHS, removal proceedings are primarilyconducted by EOIR within DOJ. 19 During those proceedings, an immigration judge typicallyassesses an alien’s removability and eligibility for relief from removal. 20 At the removalhearing—a civil proceeding21 —aliens generally have a right to legal counsel at their ownexpense. 22 An immigration judge makes an initial removability determination, which may beappealed to the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA), the highest administrative body chargedwith interpreting and applying federal immigration laws. 23 (The Attorney General is vested withdiscretion to review those appeals as well.) 24 Additionally, as was the case before enactment ofthe Homeland Security Act, Attorney General rulings “with respect to all questions of law shall becontrolling.”25Federal circuit courts of appeals have exclusive jurisdiction to adjudicate petitions for review offinal removal orders issued in proceedings before EOIR. 26 However, the INA limits what issuesthe appellate courts may review. For instance, the INA limits federal courts’ jurisdiction overcases involving an alien ordered removed based on certain criminal activity, unless the alienraises a constitutional claim or question of law (e.g., whether particular conduct an alien allegedlycommitted is of the type of conduct covered by a particular removal ground in the INA). 2717See id. § 1225(b)(1)(A) (authorizing expedited removal of certain aliens at or near the border); 8 C.F.R. § 235.3(b)(regulations implementing expedited removal procedures); 6 U.S.C. § 211(setting forth CBP’s functions). See generallyCRS Legal Sidebar LSB10559, U.S. Customs and Border Protection’s Powers and Limitations: A Brief Primer, byHillel R. Smith.18 See 6 U.S.C. § 271(b) (describing USCIS’s adjudicatory functions); 8 C.F.R. § 100.1 (delegating authority toUSCIS).19P.L. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135, § 1102; 8 C.F.R. § 1003.See 8 C.F.R. § 1003.9-1003.10. See generally CRS In Focus IF11536, Formal Removal Proceedings: AnIntroduction, by Hillel R. Smith.2021See, e.g., Arizona v. United States, 567 U.S. 387, 396 (2012) (“Removal is a civil, not criminal matter.”).22See 8 U.S.C. § 1229(a)(1)(E).238 C.F.R. §§ 1003.1-1003.8.Id. § 1003.1(h).24258 U.S.C. § 1103(a)(1).26Id. § 1252(a)(5). In addition, federal district courts have jurisdiction to review habeas corpus petitions by alienschallenging the legality of their detention pending their removal. See 28 U.S.C. § 2241 (authorizing federal courts togrant writs of habeas corpus to prisoners in federal custody); INS v. St. Cyr, 533 U.S. 289, 305 (2001) (“The writ ofhabeas corpus has always been available to review the legality of Executive detention.”); Leonardo v. Crawford, 646F.3d 1157, 1160 (9th Cir. 2011) (providing that aliens held in custody may file habeas corpus petitions in federaldistrict court).8 U.S.C. §§ 1252(a)(2)(C), (D); see Estrada-Ramos v. Holder, 611 F.3d 318, 321 (7th Cir. 2010) (“We lackjurisdiction to review removal orders of aliens removable under [INA] § 242(a)(2)(C) unless there is a validconstitutional claim or question of law.”) (citing Zamora–Mallari v. Mukasey, 514 F.3d 679, 693–94 (7th Cir. 2008));James v. Mukasey, 522 F.3d 250, 253 (2d Cir. 2008) (“[W]e lack jurisdiction to review a ny final order of removalagainst an alien who is deportable because he or she was convicted of an aggravated felony, save for constitutionalclaims and questions of law.”) (citing 8 U.S.C. § 1252(a)(2)(C)).27Congressional Research Service3

Immigration Consequences of Criminal ActivityAnother executive branch agency, the State Department, takes the lead role in processing thevisas that aliens must generally obtain (with notable exceptions) 28 to travel to, and be admittedinto, the United States. 29 Immigrant visas are granted to aliens seeking lawful permanentresidency in the United States, whereas nonimmigrant visas are issued to aliens seekingtemporary admission into the United States. 30 In both cases, the alien seeking a visa must submitsupporting documentation to, and interview with, a consular official31 typically located in thecountry where the alien resides. 32 Eligibility for a particular visa depends on specified criteria setforth in the INA. 33 And, as will be discussed in further detail below, certain criminal activity mayrender an alien ineligible to obtain a visa to enter the United States.Criminal Grounds for Inadmissibility andDeportationAliens who commit certain crimes may be ineligible to enter or remain in the United States. Theterm “inadmissible” is used to describe aliens who are generally ineligible to receive visas orotherwise be lawfully admitted into the United States. 34 “Deportable” refers to aliens who havebeen lawfully admitted to the United States, but have engaged in proscribed activities that renderthem removable from the country. 35See 8 U.S.C. §§ 1181, 1184; What is a U.S. Visa, U.S. DEP ’ T OF STATE , BUREAU OF CONSULAR /us-visas.html (last visited May 5, 2021). One notable exception to this generalrequirement is for persons travelling to the United States under the Visa Waiver Program. For more information on thatprogram, under which citizens and nationals of 37 countries and T aiwan typically are not obligated to obtain a visa tovisit the United States for business or tourism for 90 days or less, see Visa Waiver Program , U.S. DEP ’ T OF STATE ,BUREAU OF CONSULAR AFFAIRS, s/tourism-visit/visa-waiverprogram.html (last visited May 5, 2021); see generally CRS Report RL32221, Visa Waiver Program , by Jill H. Wilson.Another exception is for Canadian and Bermudan citizens, who do not need a visa for temporary travel to the UnitedStates for most purposes. See U.S. VISAS, Citizens of Canada & Bermuda, /tourism-visit/citizens-of-canada-and-bermuda.html (last visited May 5, 2021).29See 8 U.S.C. § 1104(c) (creating a Visa Office within the State Department).2830See id. § 1202; What is the Difference between an Immigrant Visa vs. Nonimmigrant Visa?, U.S. CUSTOMS &BORDER P ROT., en US (last visited May 5, 2021). See also supranote 28 (describing some exceptions to visa requirements).A consular official is “any consular, diplomatic, or other officer or employee of the United States” who issuesimmigrant or nonimmigrant visas to aliens overseas or determines nationality of aliens. 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(9).32 See id. § 1202; The Immigrant Visa Process, U.S. DEP ’ T OF STATE , BUREAU OF CONSULAR mmigrate/immigrant-process.html (last visited May 5, 2021); Tourism & Visit,U.S. DEP ’ T OF STATE , BUREAU OF CONSULAR AFFAIRS, s/tourismvisit.html (last visited May 5, 2021); Business, U.S. DEP ’ T OF STATE , BUREAU OF CONSULAR /us-visas/business.html (last visited May 5, 2021); Employment, U.S. DEP ’ T OFSTATE , BUREAU OF CONSULAR AFFAIRS, s/employment.html (last visitedMay 5, 2021); Study & Exchange, U.S. DEP ’ T OF STATE , BUREAU OF CONSULAR AFFAIRS, s/study.html (last visited May 5, 2021). In some circumstances, however, an alien may submita visa application in a country where he is not a resident if he is physically present there and the consular office hasagreed to accept the alien’s application. See 22 C.F.R. §§ 41.101(a)(1)(ii), 42.61(a).33 See, e.g., 8 U.S.C. §§ 1101(a)(15), (a)(20), 1182.3134Id. § 1182(a).35Id. § 1227(a). Additionally, an alien may be deportable on the ground that he was inadmissible at the time he enteredthe United States or adjusted status. Id. § 1227(a)(1)(A).Congressional Research Service4

Immigration Consequences of Criminal ActivityCriminal Grounds of Inadmissibility Under INA § 212(a)(2)The criminal grounds for inadmissibility are primarily set forth in INA § 212(a)(2). 36 The criminalgrounds are a mix of specific crimes and categories of crimes with varying levels of proofrequired for the crime to render an alien inadmissible. 37Table 1. Criminal Grounds of Inadmissibility Under INA § 212(a)(2)Ground of InadmissibilityCovered AliensExceptionsCrimes involving moral turpitudeAn alien who has been convicted of,admitted to having committed, oradmitted to committing acts thatconstitute the essential elements ofa “crime involving moral turpitude,”unless the crime was a purelypolitical offense (or an attempt orconspiracy to commit such a crime)Does not apply to an alien whocommitted only one crime if (1) thecrime was committed when thealien was under 18 and the crimewas committed (and the alienreleased from confinement) morethan five years before applying foradmission; or (2) the maximumpenalty for the crime of convictiondoes not exceed imprisonment formore than one year and the alienwas sentenced to no more than sixmonths’ imprisonmentControlled substance offensesAn alien who has been convicted of,admitted to having committed, oradmitted to committing acts thatconstitute the essential elements ofa violation of any federal, state, orforeign controlled substance law (oran attempt or conspiracy to commitsuch a crime)NoneMultiple criminal convictionsAn alien who has been convicted oftwo or more offenses for which theaggregate sentences were five ormore years of confinementNoneDrug traffickingAn alien who immigrationauthorities know, or have reason tobelieve, has been involved in drugtrafficking (includes alien’s spouse,son, or daughter if they have, withinthe previous five years, obtainedany financial or other benefit fromthe drug trafficking activity andknew or reasonably should haveknown that the financial or otherbenefit resulted from such activity)None36Id. § 1182(a)(2). Other provisions of INA § 212 also address criminal conduct, but they are not listed within §212(a)(2). For example, INA § 212(a)(3) covers “Security and Related Grounds” of inadmissibility, such as terroristactivities, genocide, and acts of torture, which would likely involve conduct that is criminal in nature. Id. § 1182(a)(3).In addition, INA § 212(a)(6) includes provisions relating to entering the United States without authorization and aliensmuggling, which may be subject to separate criminal sanction. See id. § 1182(a)(6)(A)(i), (E)(i); id. §§ 1324 (crime ofunlawful entry), 1325(a) (criminal offenses related to alien smuggling and harboring).37 Id. § 1182(a)(2).Congressional Research Service5

Immigration Consequences of Criminal ActivityGround of InadmissibilityCovered AliensExceptionsProstitution and commercializedviceAn alien who is coming to theUnited States to engage inprostitution, has engaged inprostitution within 10 years ofapplying for admission oradjustment of status, has procuredor attempted to procure or importprostitutes or persons for thepurpose of prostitution within that10-year period, has received theproceeds of prostitution during that10-year period, or is coming to theUnited States to engage in anotherunlawful commercialized viceNoneSerious criminal activityAn alien who has been involved inserious criminal activity a in theUnited States, gained immunityfrom prosecution, and, as a result,departed the United StatesNoneHuman traffickingAn alien who has committed orconspired to commit a humantrafficking offense in the UnitedStates or abroad, or who the U.S.government knows or has reasonto believe has been involved insevere forms of human trafficking b(includes alien’s spouse, son, ordaughter if they have, within theprevious five years, obtained anyfinancial or other benefit from thatactivity, and knew or reasonablyshould have known that suchbenefit resulted from the activity)Does not apply to a son ordaughter of human trafficker whowas a child at the time of receivingbenefit from human traffickingactivityMoney launderingAn alien who relevant immigrationauthorities know, or have reason tobelieve, has engaged in, is engagingin, or seeks to enter the UnitedStates to engage in moneylaundering c (including aiding orconspiring in money laundering)NoneSource: 8 U.S.C. §§ 1182(a)(2)(A), (a)(2)(B), (a)(2)(C), (a)(2)(D), (a)(2)(E), (a)(2)(H), (a)(2)(I).Notes:a. The INA defines a “serious criminal offense” as any felony, a “crime of violence,” or any crime of recklessdriving or driving while under the influence of alcohol or a prohibited substance that results in personalinjury to another person. 8 U.S.C. § 1101(h).b. See 22 U.S.C. § 7102(9) (defining “severe forms of trafficking in persons”).c.See 18 U.S.C. §§ 1956-1957 (money laundering offenses).Congressional Research Service6

Immigration Consequences of Criminal ActivityCriminal Grounds of Deportability Under INA § 237(a)(2)Criminal grounds for deportation are primarily listed in INA § 237(a)(2). 38 Like theinadmissibility grounds, criminal deportation grounds also consist of specific crimes andcategories of crimes. One main difference between the criminal grounds for inadmissibility anddeportability is that the deportability grounds largely require the alien to have been convicted ofthe listed offense, whereas the inadmissibility grounds for certain crimes may only require thatthe alien admitted committing the offense or that immigration authorities have “reason to believe”the alien committed the proscribed conduct.39Table 2. Criminal Grounds of Deportation Under INA § 237(a)(2)Ground of DeportabilityCovered AliensExceptionsCrimes involving moral turpitudeAliens convicted of a crimeinvolving moral turpitude(committed within 10 years ofadmission in the case of an LPR, orfive years after admission for othercategories of aliens) for which asentence of imprisonment for oneyear or longer may be imposedDoes not apply if the alien isgranted a full and unconditionalpardon following the criminalconvictionMultiple criminal convictionsAliens convicted of two or morecrimes involving moral turpitudethat did not arise out of a singlescheme of criminal misconductDoes not apply if the alien isgranted a full and unconditionalpardon following the criminalconvictionAggravated feloniesAliens who were convicted of anaggravated felonyDoes not apply if the alien isgranted a fu

committing certain crimes may disqualify an alien from many forms of relief from removal,7 prevent an alien from adjusting to lawful permanent resident (LPR) status,8 or bar an LPR from naturalizing as a U.S. citizen.9 This report provides an overview of the major immigration consequences of criminal activity. The

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