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International Robotics & Automation JournalReview ArticleOpen AccessModeling and robust fault diagnosis of hybrid systembased on hybrid bond graph approachAbstractVolume 4 Issue 4 - 2018In this article, a method for robust Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) is presented. Thescientific interest of this work is use of one tool (Bond Graph) not only for modelling ofhybrid system, parametric and measurement uncertainties but also for generation of robustfault indicators and thresholds. For this task, first, the hybrid bond graph (HBG) modelis established to model the hybrid system using the controlled junctions. Secondly, allparametric and measurement uncertainties are modeled on the HBG model in derivativecausality, from this model and using the causal and structural properties of the bond graphtool, the generation of the fault indicators (residues) and thresholds is done directly, thosefault indicators called Generalized Analytical Redundancy Relations (GARRs) are valid atall modes and derived systematically from an HBG model. An application to an hydraulicis used to illustrate this method.Keywords: hybrid bond graph, fault diagnosis, fault indicators, robust, parameterMohamed Ilyas Rahal,1,2 Belkacem OuldBouamama2LAT laboratory , Tlemcen university, Algeria1CRIStAL UMR CNRS 9189 Laboratory, University of Lille 1,France2Correspondence: Mohamed Ilyas Rahal, LAT laboratory,Tlemcen university, Algeria, Tel 213 7 90 54 79 03,Email rahalmoh2006@hotmail.comReceived: January 18, 2018 Published: August 07, 2018uncertainties, measurement uncertaintiesIntroductionCurrent systems engineering, industrial and technical processes areincreasingly complex; they include sub-systems of various fields ofenergy. The Bond Graph (BG) is a multi-physics modeling tool basedon analogy and exchange of energy power able to model with a singlelanguage, systems, regardless of their physical nature. This modelingaspect has been the subject of several publications.1 3 The BG has beenused not only for modeling but also for fault detection and isolation(FDI) of complex systems.4 6 The majority of complexes engineeringprocesses are equipped with sensors, actuators, integrated digitalcircuits and software. In order to protect the complex engineeringsystems, safety, reliability, availability and maintenance becomeimportant to detect rapidly anomalous behavior of the system afterthe occurrence of a fault, isolate causes of malfunctions, failures andgenerate alarms: most complex industrial systems are hybrids. Faultdiagnosis for hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive researchand several approaches have been developed in the literature for thediagnosis of hybrid systems. In 1994, Mosterman and Biswas5 havedeveloped an approach which extends the BG theory,4 called HybridBond Graph (HBG) to model the discrete mode changes of hybridsystems, in addition to the junctions of BGs, the HBG methodologyuses controlled junctions. In literature, several studies have beenproposed8 11 based on HBG approach for the diagnosis of hybridsystems. The majority of these works does not address robustness.Ghoshal et al.,10 have presented a method for robust diagnosis takinginto account parameter uncertainties using pseudo-bond graphto model and diagnosis a hybrid thermo-fluid system, the LinearFractional Transformation (LFT) form is used to model parameteruncertainties directly on pseudo-bond graph model. The method wastested and the simulations results are given. In the work of Borutzky,11a method of robust FDI is presented based on incremental bond graphfor hybrid systems, the principle of the method is the generation ofthresholds taking into account parameter uncertainties and changesin the discrete mode. An application to a converter circuit to illustratethe method is given. And In,23 the author, showed that the incrementalbond graphs can be used to determine adaptive mode-dependent ARRthresholds in order to obtain robust diagnosis, the bond graph modelfor hybrid system and mode identification are presented. The methodSubmit Manuscript http://medcraveonline.comInt Rob Auto J. 2018;4(4):266‒272.was illustrated by an application on a power electronic system. In,12we have developed a method based on HBG-LFT to obtain a robustdiagnosis for hybrid systems. The system is modeled using HBG andthe parameter uncertainties are modeled graphically using LFT form,the residues and adaptive thresholds are generated from HBG-LFTmodel. These residues are robust to parameter uncertainties and validat all modes, the method was tested on a hydraulic hybrid system,and in,17 we have studied robustness with respect to measurementuncertainties by modeling these uncertainties directly on the HBGmodel. In the work presented in this manuscript; we will considerboth parameter and measurement uncertainties18,19 for hybrid systemmodeled by HBG approach to detect defaults. The innovative interestof the present research is essentially based on the use of the HBGtool for first; modeling the discrete mode changes, second; modelingof the parameter and measurement uncertainties graphically, andthird; obtain a robust diagnosis by exploiting the causal and structuralproprieties, thereby, the systematic generation of robust faultindicators is systematic. The rest of the article is organized as follows:modeling of parameter and measurement uncertainties by bondgraph approach is presented in Section 2 and the proposed methodfor robust diagnosis taking into account parametric and measurementuncertainties based on hybrid bond graph approach in Section 3.Section 4 presents an application on a hydraulic system to validatethis method and a conclusion is given in section 5.Modeling of parametric and measurementuncertainties by bond graph approachModeling of parametric uncertaintiesIn order to model parametric uncertainties by bond graphapproach, two methods are presented in.16 In this work, the methodused is based on (bond graph- Linear Fractional Transformation BGLFT) representation. The principle of this method is to replace theBG elements by the corresponding BG-LFT elements to obtain twoparts; nominal part and uncertain part. The nominal part is used forcalculation of residue, and the uncertain part for the thresholds. Figure1 shows a BG- R element in the LFT form. An R element in resistancecausality with uncertainties can be presented as following Equation(1):266 2018 Rahal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, whichpermits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.

Modeling and robust fault diagnosis of hybrid system based on hybrid bond graph approachCopyright: 2018 Rahal et al.267 eR Rn (1 δ R ). f R eR Rn f R δ R .z R eR Rn f R wR δ R R Rn(1) With: zR . f , R .δ , R , e and f are respectively, theRn Rn RRRnominal value, the multiplicative uncertainty, the additive uncertainty,the effort and the flow variable of R element. w is a fictive inputRthat represents the effort added by the parameter uncertainty. The LFTform in robust diagnosis has advantages among them:a. The causality and the structural proprieties of the elementson the nominal model remain unchanged by introducing theuncertainties.b. The nominal and uncertain parts are separated, and the parameteruncertainties are easily evaluated and explicitly represented inthe graphical tool.13Figure 2 Measurement uncertainly modelling and their equations.The following references are given for more details on themodelling of parameter uncertainties14,16,18,19 for measurementsuncertainties, based on BG methodology.Hybrid bond graph for robust diagnosisFigure 1 R element in resistance causality using LFT form.Modeling of measurement uncertainties in a BGcontextMostly, the information provided by sensors are noisy or obtainedwith a certain precision, therefore, take account of measurementsuncertainties is necessary in the diagnostic scheme in order toavoid the problems related to false alarms and no detections. Theinterest of using this approach based on BG theory for modeling themeasurement uncertainties is to use the properties of the tool (BG) togenerate residues and thresholds. In BG methodology, the ARRs areconsidered as residuals. Theoretically, the residues are equal to zeroin normal situation, without considering the uncertainties and modelerrors. The presence of uncertainties on the sensors uncertainties, andif the measurement errors are an additive and bounded error, then, theresidual can be bounded by two thresholds. The latter can be obtainedusing the BG model. Using the BG theory, measurement errors aremodeled by replacing the junction containing the detector by itsequivalent (Figure 2). The measurement error is replaced by a virtualsource of flow (effort) according to the detector De(Df ).14 Figure 2shows modeling of measurement uncertainties, the obtained equationsare given in Equation (2) and (3). e1 SSe e1 e4 ζ SSe SSe ζ SSe e5 ζ SSe SSe ζ SSe ( b ) e2 e e6 ζ SSe SSe ζ SSe 3 SSe e3 f1 f 4 ζ SSe SSf ζ SSf f1 SSf ( c ) f 2 SSf ( d ) f 2 f5 ζ SSe SSf ζ SSf SSf f 3 f3 f 6 ζ SSe SSf ζ SSf( a ) e2 SSe(2)In this section, the proposed method for robust diagnosis basedon the HBG approach with controlled junctions and modeling ofparametric and measurement uncertainties by BG methodology ispresented. The steps of the method are:a. The hybrid system is modeled by HBG approach using controlledjunctions taking account discrete mode changes; The HBG modelof the system is obtained.b. The Diagnostic hybrid bond graph model (DHBG) is obtainedby applying the sequential causality assignment procedure forhybrid system diagnosis (SCAPHD).20 The SCAPHD representsthe extension of the SCAP by affecting the causality of controlledjunction according to the concept of the preferred causality ofthese controlled junctions.c. The measurement uncertainties are modeled directly on theDHBG modeld. The parametric uncertainties are represented graphically.e. For each detector whose causality is reversed,21 a robust globalcandidate residue is generated at this junction.f. Using the causal and structural proprieties of the HBG tool, theunknown variables are eliminated by covering the causal pathsfrom unknown variables to known (sensors and sources).22ApplicationThe objective of this part is to show the proposed method on ahydraulic system: the hybrid system is modeled by hybrid bondgraph (HBG) approach with controlled junctions, the DHBG modelis obtained by attributing derived causality on the HBG model,then; the parametric and measurement uncertainties are modeledCitation: Rahal MI Bouamama BO. Modeling and robust fault diagnosis of hybrid system based on hybrid bond graph approach. Int Rob Auto J.2018;4(4):266‒272. DOI: 10.15406/iratj.2018.04.00135

Modeling and robust fault diagnosis of hybrid system based on hybrid bond graph approachon the obtained DHBG model, the generation of fault indicatorsis established, residues and thresholds, simulation tests are givento show the residuals with and without defaults. In the following,these steps are detailed. The proposed method is applied to a hybridhydraulic system shown in Figure 3: The generation of Robust GlobalAnalytical Redundancy Relations (GARRs) with respect to parametricand output (measurements) uncertainties is presented.Copyright: 2018 Rahal et al.268a. The output variables of the controlled junctions 1c3,1c2 and 1c4 areassigned as inputs of R3 , R2 and R4 respectively because thesejunctions have no source adjacently connected to them.b. The output of 1c1 is assigned as input variable of 1-port componentR1 since the source Se is connected to1c1.c. The source Se and the storage components C1, C2 are assignedin preferred derivative causality and the sensor is reversed(dualized).Third step: The parameter and measurements uncertainties aregraphically modeled on the DHBG model. The Figure 6 shows thisrepresentation of uncertainties. Two GARRs can be derived from themodel of Figure 6;Figure 3 The hybrid Two-Tank system.First step: Modeling of the hybrid system: the system is composedof two tanks, regulated centrifugal pump modeled as a source ofpressure pin(t) [Pa] and four valves represented by R1, R2, R3 and R4.A1[m2] and A2[m2] are the cross-section areas of the two tanks. Thesystem contains two pressure sensors (p1(t) and p2(t)) to measurethe pressure at the button of tank A1 and tank A2 , respectively; thispressure is proportional to the liquid level, according to:Figure 4 The two-tank acausaled HBG and the finite state automaton ofcontrolled junctions. P (t ) ρ gh ( t ) , i 1, 2(4)itWhere ρ is the density of liquid, [kg/m3]; g is the acceleration dueto gravity , [m/s2], hi (t) is liquid height in the tank, [m].Each valve has two states ON and OFF. The valves’ dynamics isgiven by:( t ) 0, j 1, 2, 3, 4 when the valve is closedf jfj( t )sign( P( t ) ). P( t ) Cd .sign P( t ) . P( t )jRj()(5)Figure 5 The two-tank DHBG.When the valve is opened. Where f the liquid-flow through thejvalve, [m3/s]; p( t ) is the pressure difference across the valve , [Pa]and Cd is the coefficients of discharge,. kg .m jIn the HBG model of Figure 4; the two tanks are modeled by twoAistorage components with coefficients C ; i 1, 2 The valves areig1modeled by a set of resistor with parameter R ; j 1,2,3,4, andjCd jcontrolled-junction with boolean variable a j 1,2,3,4, representingcjthe state of controlled junctions.Second step: The DHBG (Figure 5) is obtained by affecting allcontrolled junctions by their preferred causalities, to do this:Figure 6 The model of the two tank system in preferred derivative causalitywith measurement and parameter uncertainties.Citation: Rahal MI Bouamama BO. Modeling and robust fault diagnosis of hybrid system based on hybrid bond graph approach. Int Rob Auto J.2018;4(4):266‒272. DOI: 10.15406/iratj.2018.04.00135

Copyright: 2018 Rahal et al.Modeling and robust fault diagnosis of hybrid system based on hybrid bond graph approachThe first candidate GARR is(dGARRa .Cd . sign( pm p1 ) pm p1 C .p a .Cd . sign( p1 p2 ) p1 p2 . p1 ζ p 1c1 1c211 dt 12() ae3 .Cd3 . p1 p1 ζ p1 we1 wc1(with: a {0,1} are discrete variables representing the state ofcjcontrolled junction 1cjj {1,2,3,4} , ξ , ξp1are respectively the measurementp2errors on the first pressure sensor p1 and on the second pressure sensorp2 , These measurement errors are bounded as follows: and the virtualinputs of measurement uncertainties .ξ p1 p1 ,)d p1 p2 . p1 ζ C .p a .Cd . p2 p2 ζ p w wp1 2c42 dt24c2c2 These GARRs can be decomposed in two separate parts; the firstnominal, called residue and the second uncertain used to calculate thethresholds.for)p1And the second candidate GlobalARR:GARRa .Cd . sign( p1 p2 ) c222269ξ p 2 p 2 Where: wc1 , wc 2 and wc1 , wc 2P1P2p2are respectively the fictitious inputs of parameter uncertainties andthe virtual inputs of measurement uncertainties, δc1,δc2are themultiplicative uncertainties on the two storage components C 1,Cand fixed as 5% and ξp1,ξp22are respectively the measurement errorson the first pressure sensor p1 and on the second pressure sensor p2,then errors measures are added to the exact values of the measures ofthe system. The results presented below show the residues in presenceof parameter and output (measurements) uncertainties in normaland faulty operation. The nominal values of parameters used in thesimulations of the model are shown in Table 1. Different scenario ofsimulations was performed to test the effectiveness of the proposedmethod.Table 1 Model parameters of the two-tank systemsSymbolDescriptionValueAiCross-sectional area of Tanki (i 1,2)1.54 10 mgAcceleration due to gravity9.81msCdDischarge co efficient of first valve1.593 10 2kg .mCdDischarge co efficient of second valve1.593 10 2kg .mDischarge co efficient of third valve1.0 10 2kg .mDischarge co efficient of fourth valve1.0 10 2kg .m1CdCd234First scenarioTest1: Normal operation (without default), the valves 1 and 2 are openat t 1s, the valves 3 and 4 are closed. The states of the four valves areshown in Figure 7. The residues r1, r2 in presence of parametric andmeasurement uncertainties without default are presented in Figure8: we note that the residues are equal to zero and do not leave thethresholds. The mode change is observed at t 1s.Test2: Figure 9 shows the residues in normal operation and the valves1 and valve 2 are open, and the valves 3 and the valve 4 are closed.The states of the valves are presented in Figure 10.Second scenarioTest1: Faulty operation (with default), the four valves are open. Thestates of the four valves are shown in Figure 11. A default of 0.2 [Pa]on the first sensor p1 is occurred between t 2s and t 4s, the responsesof residues are shown in Figure 12 & Figure 13 shows the outputs of 22-2 2the system. We note that the default is detected by the two residues.These residues exceed the thresholds during the presence of default.Test2: Now the default is considered with the following operation;the mode change is at t 1s. The operation of the system in differentstates of the valves (opening of the valve 1 and 2 at t 1s, the valve 3open and the valve 4 is closed). The sensors are in Figure 14, the statesof the valves are in Figure 15. The reaction of residues is shown inFigure 16. In this test, at t 1s the mode change at t 1s and detectionof default at t 2s and 4s.Test3: Figure 17, 18, 19 show the results of this test. In this case, thedefault is occurredat t 1s and t 6s (Figure 17) and the mode changeat 2s (Figure 18). The residues r1, r2 are equal to zero and differentwhen the fault is occurred. We note that the two residues are sensitiveto the sensor default exceeding the thresholds, thus, generating afalse alarm. We can say that the fault has been detected by these tworesidues r1, r2 (Figure 19).Citation: Rahal MI Bouamama BO. Modeling and robust fault diagnosis of hybrid system based on hybrid bond graph approach. Int Rob Auto J.2018;4(4):266‒272. DOI: 10.15406/iratj.2018.04.00135

Modeling and robust fault diagnosis of hybrid system based on hybrid bond graph approachCopyright: 2018 Rahal et al.Figure 7 The states of the four valves.Figure 11 The states of the four valves.Figure 8 The residues without default.Figure 12 The responses of residues.Figure 9 The residues without default.Figure 10 The states of the four valves.Figure 13 The outputs of the system.Citation: Rahal MI Bouamama BO. Modeling and robust fault diagnosis of hybrid system based on hybrid bond graph approach. Int Rob Auto J.2018;4(4):266‒272. DOI: 10.15406/iratj.2018.04.00135270

Modeling and robust fault diagnosis of hybrid system based on hybrid bond graph approachCopyright: 2018 Rahal et al.Figure 17 The sensors.Figure 14 The outputs of the system.Figure 15 The states of the four valves.Figure 16 The responses of residues r1, r2.Figure 18 The stats of the valves.Figure 19 The responses of residues r1, r2.Citation: Rahal MI Bouamama BO. Modeling and robust fault diagnosis of hybrid system based on hybrid bond graph approach. Int Rob Auto J.2018;4(4):266‒272. DOI: 10.15406/iratj.2018.04.00135271

Modeling and robust fault diagnosis of hybrid system based on hybrid bond graph approachConclusionIn this article, a method for robust diagnosis is presented. Theinterest of this method is the use only one tool (hybrid bond graph)not only for modeling of the discrete mode changes of the hybridsystem, and modeling of parametric and measurement uncertaintiesbut also for robust diagnosis. The diagnostic system allows detectionof fault on the sensors in the presence of parametric and measurementuncertainties, where uncertainties are modeled directly on the hybridbond graph model. The causal and structural proprieties are used forgeneration of residues and thresholds. The residues are called GARRs;are generated directly from a diagnostic hybrid bond graph model,robust to parametric and measurement uncertainties, and describe thesystem at different modes by using different corresponding value ofacj. The results presented in this article show the effectiveness of thediagnostic method in terms of detecting defaults on the sensors usingbond graph methodology.AcknowledgementsNone.Conflict of interestThe author declares there is no conflict of interest.References1. Ould Bouamama B, Samantaray AK, Staroswiecki M. Derivation ofconstraint relations from bond graph models for fault detection andisolation. Simulation Series. 2003;35:104–109.2. Ould Bouamama B, Samantaray AK, Medjaher K, et al. Modelbuilder using functional and bond graph tools for FDI design. ControlEngineering Practice. 2005;13(7):875 –891.3. Samantaray A K, Medjaher K, Ould Bouamama B, et al. Componentbased modelling of thermo-fluid systems for sensor placement and faultdetection. Simulation. 2004;80:381–398.4. Karnopp D, Margolis DL, Rosenberg RC. Systems dynamics: modelingand simulation of mechatronic systems. 2nd ed. New York: A WileyInterscience Publication; 2006.5. Mosterman PJ, Biswas G. Behavior generation using model switching: Ahybrid bond graph modeling technique. Trans Soc Simul. 1994;27:177–182.6. Low CB, Wang D, Arogeti S, et al. Causality assignment and modelapproximation for hybrid bond graph: Fault diagnosis perspectives. IEEETransactions on Automation Science and Engineering. 2010;7(3):570–580.7. Low CB, Wang D, Arogeti SA, et al. Fault parameter estimation forhybrid systems using hybrid bond graph. Proceedings of the ControlApplications, (CCA) Intelligent Control, (ISIC), IEEE; 2009 July 8–10,2009:1338–1343.8. Daigle MJ, Koutsoukos XD, Biswas G. An event-based approach tointegrated parametric and discrete fault diagnosis in hybrid systems.Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control. 2010;32:487–510.Copyright: 2018 Rahal et al.2729. Arogeti SA, Wang D, Low CB, et al. Fault detection isolation andestimation in a vehicle steering system. IEEE Transactions on IndustrialElectronics. 2012;59(12):4810–4820.10. Ghoshal SK, Samanta S, Samantaray AK. Robust Fault Detction andIsolation of Hybrid Systems with Uncertain Parameters. Journal ofSystems and Control Engineering. 2012;226(8):1013–1028.11. Borutzky W. Fault indicators adaptative thresholds from hybrid systemmodels. Proceedings of the 7th Vienna International Conference onMathematical Modelling; Austria. Vienna University of Technology;2012. p. 392–397.12. Rahal MI, Ould Bouamama B, Meghebbar A. Hybrid Bond Graph forRobust Diagnosis–Application to Hydraulic System, Proceedings of the3rd IEEE International Conference on Systems and Control, (ICSC’13),Algiers; 2013 Oct 29–31; Algeria. p. 1080–1085.13. Djeziri MA, Ould-Bouamama B, Merzouki R.Modelling and robust FDIof steam generator using uncertain bond graph model. J Process Control.2009;19(1):149–162 .14. Touati Y, Merzouki R, Ould Bouamama B. Fault detection and isolationin presence of input and output uncertainties using bond graph approach.Proceedings of the IMAACA; 2011. p. 221–227.15. Dauphin-Tanguy G, Rahmani A, Sueur C. Bond graph aided design ofcontrolled systems. Simulation Practice and theory. 1999;7(5-6):493–513.16. Kam CS, Dauphin-Tanguy G. Bond graph models of structured parameteruncertainties. Journal of the Franklin Institute. 2005;342(4):379–399.17. Rahal MI, Ould Bouamama B, Meghebbar A. Hybrid Bond Graph forrobust diagnosis to measurement uncertainties. Proceedings of the 5thIEEE International Conference on Systems and Control, (ICSC’16);2016 25-27 May. Marrakech, Morocco. 2016. p. 439–444.18. Djeziri MA. Diagnostic des Systèmes Incertains par l’Approche BondGraph, [dissertation]. Lille university, France; 2007.19. Touati Y, Merzouki R, Ould Bouamama B. Robust diagnosis tomeasurement uncertainties using bond graph approach: Application tointelligent autonomous vehicle. Mechatronics. 2012;22(8):1148–1160.20. Wang D, Yu M, Low C. B, et al. Model-based health monitoring ofhybrid systems. New York: Springer; 2013.21. Ould Boumama B. Diagnostic en ligne à base de modèle Bond graph.REE Revue de l’Electricité et de l’Electronique. 2010;(2):111–117.22. Merzouki R, Kumar Samantaray A, Mani Pathak P, et al. Intelligentmechatronic systems: modeling, control and diagnosis. London:Springer; 2013.23. Borutzky W. Bond Graph model-based system mode identification andmode dependent fault thresholds for hybrid systems. Mathematical andcomputer modeling of Dynamical systems. 2014;20(6):584–615.24. Ould bouamama B, Dauphin-Tanguy G. Modélisation par bond graph:Éléments de base pour l’énergétique. Techniques de l’ingénieur. Génieénergétique. 2006(BE8280).25. Marquid-Favre W, Jardin A. Bond Graph pour la concetption dessystemes mecatroniques. Techniques de l’ingénieur. 2012.Citation: Rahal MI Bouamama BO. Modeling and robust fault diagnosis of hybrid system based on hybrid bond graph approach. Int Rob Auto J.2018;4(4):266‒272. DOI: 10.15406/iratj.2018.04.00135

Modeling of parametric and measurement uncertainties by bond graph approach Modeling of parametric uncertainties In order to model parametric uncertainties by bond graph approach, two methods are presented in.16 In this work, the method used is based on (bond graph- Linear Fractional Transformation BG-LFT) representation.

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