NORSOK STANDARD U-100 - Trauma Training

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NORSOK STANDARDU-100Edition 5, December 2015Corrected version 2016-05-09Manned underwater operationsThis NORSOK standard is developed with broad petroleum industry participation by interested parties in theNorwegian petroleum industry and is owned by the Norwegian petroleum industry represented by the Norwegian Oiland Gas Association and The Federation of Norwegian Industries. Please note that whilst every effort has been madeto ensure the accuracy of this NORSOK standard, neither the Norwegian Oil and Gas Association nor The Federationof Norwegian Industries or any of their members will assume liability for any use thereof. Standards Norway isresponsible for the administration and publication of this NORSOK standard.Standards NorwayMustads vei 1, P.O. Box 242NO-1326 LysakerNORWAYTelephone: 47 67 83 86 00Email: petroleum@standard.noWebsite: reserved NORSOK. Any enquiries regarding reproduction should be addressed to Standard Online AS.

NORSOK standard U-100Edition 5, December 2015Revision e references53Terms, definitions and abbreviations3.1Terms and definitions3.2Abbreviations55104Administrative Compliance and deviations4.5Management of change4.6Certification/verification4.7Document availability4.8Reporting1111111112121213135Health and environment requirements5.1Health5.2Working environment1515176Personnel qualification requirements6.1General6.2Special requirements for marine personnel on board diving support vessel6.3Requirements for diving personnel232323237Technical requirements7.1Principles7.2Dimensions and lay-outs7.3Handling systems (diving bell, wet bell and basket)7.4Self-propelled hyperbaric lifeboat (SPHL)7.5Emergency life support package7.6Gas supply systems7.7Systems for thermal balance7.8Breathing apparatus7.9Diver umbilical7.10 Tools7.11 Diving support vessel7.12 Monitoring and control panels7.13 Communication system7.14 Fire protection7.15 Remotely operated vehicle system used in conjunction with manned underwater operations7.16 Water supply7.17 Maintenance7.18 Testing and 8Operational requirements8.1Planning and execution8.2Diving procedures8.3Monitoring8.4Provisions regarding time8.5Operational measures3939414445479Emergency preparedness requirements9.1Emergency preparedness plan9.2Emergency preparedness training9.3Emergency preparedness equipment9.4Contractor’s contingency centre9.5Hyperbaric evacuation4848494949491

NORSOK standard U-100Edition 5, December 2015Annex A (Informative) Accident/illness/near-accident alert/notification and reporting in diving activityunder Norwegian petroleum law51A.1General requirements under the Norwegian petroleum law51A.2Additional requirements for manned underwater operations, alert/notification51A.3Reporting51Annex B (Informative) Training requirements for personnel engaged in MUOB.1GeneralB.2Surface oriented diverB.3Bell / saturation diverB.4Trainee surface oriented diving supervisorB.5Trainee bell diving supervisorB.6Assistant life support technicianB.7Leadership training5555555963656668Bibliography70Table 1 – Documentation required . 13Table 2 – Recommendations for lighting relevant in areas for safety and well being . 18Table 3 – pO2 in heliox limitations given in minutes . 22Table 4 – Hyperbaric exposure limits for CO . 22Table 5 – Hyperbaric exposure limits for Ar and N2 . 22Table 6 – Emergency connectors for diving bells and habitats . 29Table 7 – Emergency connectors for SPHL and LSP . 30Table 8 – Minimum LSP gas volumes . 32Table 9 – Colour coding of cylinder necks/shoulder for breathing/medical gas . 33Table 10 – Intelligibility criteria for voice communication systems (from MIL-1472 [49]) . 38Table 11 – Maximum bottom times limitations for in-water decompression and TUP decompression (fromNDTT [52]) . 42Table 12 – Saturation decompression . 43Table 13 – Excursions . 43Table B1 – Surface oriented diving theory . 56Table B2 – Practical training . 58Table B3 – Bell / saturation diver theory. 60Table B4 – Practical training . 62Table B5 – Trainee surface oriented diving supervisor theory . 63Table B6 – Trainee bell diving supervisor theory . 65Table B7 – Assistant life support technician theory. 67Table B8 – Practical training . 68Table B9 – Leadership training theory. 692

NORSOK standard U-100Edition 5, December 2015Revision informationMajor changes from revision 3 to 4 are listed below.Removed:- Standards for use of ADS (atmospheric diving system) is removed, information may be found inedition 3.Edited:- 2.1 Normative references list has been evaluated and revised.- 2.2 Informative reference list has been replaced with Bibliography (after last Annex).- Edition 3 subclause has been modified. This is covered in edition 4 subclause,,Annex A and in Styringsforskriften/management regulations.- has been changed from “access to telecommunication” to “Telemedicine”.- 5.2.3 Chemical working environment and subclauses have been modified.- 6.3 Requirements for diving personnel – some subclause content has been modified.- 7.2.3 Chambers for surface oriented diving have been modified.- Emergency connectors for diving bells, habitats and SPHLs – table and figure have beenmodified.- 7.4 and clause 9 are upgraded to match new IMCA documents D051, 052 and 053, and OGP-478.- 7.7.2 Normal operation have been modified.- The support vessel has been modified (edition 3 subclause 7.17 Maintenance have been modified reference to NORSOK Z-008.- Content of logbooks amended to included requirements for signed medical and stamped photo.- 8.2.1 General – text edited.- 8.2.2 Surface oriented diving – text modified.- 8.2.4 Deeper saturation diving – text modified. All references to additional depth requirements arechanged to 180 msw ref. aktivitetsforskriften para 94.- 8.5.1 Manning of control room – text modified.8.5.2 Depth limits for diving from small diving craft - edited- 8.5.5 Stand-by diver and contingency diver – text modified.- 9.2 Emergency preparedness training – text modified- Annex B – new build up and content.Edited and moved:- Risk management is moved from subclause 5.3 to new 4.2.New and added text:- 1 Scope – added text deeper than 180 msw.- 4.5 Management of Change – new.- 5.1.4 Short and long term health monitoring – added text.- 5.2.3 Chemical environment – added new subclauses.- 6.3 Diving personnel: Use of simulator as part of training.- 6.3.2 Requirements for offshore manager included- 6.3.7 Divers, requirements for health and approved certificate included, as well as advanced first aidtraining for surface oriented diving teams.- 6.3.8 Diving technician/maintenance engineer – new text added.- 6.3.12 Hyperbaric trained Nurse – new text added.- 7.1.2 Implementing new technology – new.- 7.3 Handling Systems (diving bell, wet bell and basket) – added text with reference toNORSOK R-002.- 7.6 Gas supply systems, color coding for gas.- 7.8.1 General – text added regarding disinfection and microbiological sampling/control of BA.- 7.11 Diving support vessel (DSV) – several new subclauses.- 8.3.1 General – text added regarding PLC controlled dive systems.}Important changes from revision 4 to 5 are listed below:- 3.1.4 Definition of bell run updated to match Norwegian regulations;- Annex B, B3.2 and B3.3.2 to harmonise with International requirements. 3

NORSOK standard U-100Edition 5, December 2015ForewordThe NORSOK standards are developed by the Norwegian petroleum industry to ensure adequate safety,value adding and cost effectiveness for petroleum industry developments and operations. Furthermore,NORSOK standards are, as far as possible, intended to replace oil company specifications and serve asreferences in the authorities’ regulations.The NORSOK standards are normally based on recognised international standards, adding the provisionsdeemed necessary to fill the broad needs of the Norwegian petroleum industry. Where relevant, NORSOKstandards will be used to provide the Norwegian industry input to the international standardisation process.Subject to development and publication of international standards, the relevant NORSOK standard will bewithdrawn.The NORSOK standards are developed according to the consensus principle generally applicable for moststandardisation work and according to established procedures defined in NORSOK A-001.The NORSOK standards are prepared and published with support by the Norwegian Oil and GasAssociation, The Federation of Norwegian Industries, Norwegian Shipowners’ Association and ThePetroleum Safety Authority Norway.NORSOK standards are administered and published by Standards Norway.Annex A and B are informative.Corrections are marked with } .IntroductionThis NORSOK standard is the result of an industry-wide effort to establish a standard for mannedunderwater operations (MUOs).4

NORSOK standard U-1001Edition 5, December 2015ScopeThis NORSOK standard defines basic requirements for personnel, equipment and systems for MUOs withinthe petroleum industry. Main focus for this NORSOK standard is diving down to 180 msw. For diving deeperthan 180 msw, special consideration, evaluations and mitigating actions, some of which are specified in thisstandard, are required.2Normative referencesThe following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this text and are indispensablefor the application of this NORSOK standard. Latest issue of the referenced documents (including anyamendments) applies unless otherwise agreed. Other recognised standards may be used provided it can beshown that they meet the requirements of the referenced standards.CEN/TR 15321EN 482EN 689EN 1089-3EN 13921EN 14042HSE-MA1IMCA D 045IMO 808EISO 9001ISO 19901-7NBH IS-1879NORSOK R-002NORSOK R-003NORSOK U-101NORSOK U-102NORSOK U-103NORSOK Z-008NORSOK Z-0133Guidelines on the selection, use, care and maintenance of protective clothingWorkplace exposure – General requirements for the performance of procedures for themeasurement of chemical agentsWorkplace atmospheres – Guidance for the assessment of exposure by inhalation tochemical agents for comparison with limit values and measurement strategyTransportable gas cylinders – Gas cylinder identification (excluding LPG) – Part 3: ColourcodingPersonal protective equipment – Ergonomic principlesWorkplace atmospheres – Guide for the application and use of procedures for theassessment of exposure to chemical and biological agentsThe medical examination and assessment of divers (MA1)Code of practice for the safe use of electricity underwaterCode of safety for diving systems (resolution A.536(13) as amended by resolutionA.831(19)) and any further amendments. As printed in ISBN 978-92-801-14324 (Salesnumber IMO 808E, London: IMO,1997) or later editionQuality management systems – RequirementsPetroleum and natural gas industries – Specific requirements for offshore structures –Part 7: Stationkeeping systems for floating offshore structures and mobile offshore unitsGuidelines to Regulations regarding health requirements for persons working oninstallations in petroleum activities offshoreLifting equipmentSafe use of lifting equipmentDiving respiratory equipmentRemotely operated vehicle (ROV) servicesPetroleum reated manned underwater operations inshoreRisk based maintenance and consequence classificationRisk and emergency preparedness assessmentTerms, definitions and abbreviationsFor the purposes of this NORSOK standard, the following terms, definitions and abbreviations apply.3.1Terms and definitions3.1.1accidentunwanted event which causes personal injury, environmental/material damage or loss of production3.1.2assistant life support technicianALSTperson with the proper theoretical qualifications who is undergoing a period of planned work experiences forhis training to become a LST3.1.3bail-outemergency breathing gas supply that contains sufficient breathing gas for the diver to be able to reach aplace of safety where more breathing gas is available, such as the surface or a diving bell5

NORSOK standard U-100Edition 5, December 20153.1.4bell runbegins when the clamp between the bell and the chamber is first loosened and ends when the clamp isreconnected, ready for pressure equalization and final transfer of the divers back to the chamber complex3.1.5canverbal form used for statements of possibility and capability, whether material, physical or casual3.1.6competent personperson with authorisation/documented qualifications for performing a specified function3.1.7compression periodcompression commences at the start of pressurisation and is completed upon arrival at the working depth, orfor saturation diving, the planned living depth including stand-off periods and HPNS screening time3.1.8contingency divernominated diver as part of the contingency preparedness, which has diving equipment ready for use onsurface but is not necessarily dressed3.1.9decompression perioda)during saturation diving: from the start of build-up of the pO2 in preparation for the final decompressionphase, until arrival at atmospheric pressureb)during surface oriented diving: from starting final ascent from working depth until arrival at surfacepressure3.1.10diverperson holding a diving certificate and a valid medical certificate issued by an approved authority or byinstitutions/organizations accredited by an approved authority3.1.11diving basketdevise used to lower and recover divers to and from work-sites subsea, which do not protect against contactwith surrounding water3.1.12duty diving doctormedical doctor, approved as duty diving doctor, who is on call during diving operations3.1.13diving bellsubmersible compression chamber designed for transport of personnel between the surface and the worksite at atmospheric pressure or under increased pressure3.1.14diving contractordiving company or firm undertaking petroleum related MUOs3.1.15diving operationactivity where the diver is directly exposed to increased ambient pressure6

NORSOK standard U-100Edition 5, December 20153.1.16diving superintendentperson who is qualified and has been appointed in writing by the diving contractor to be the person in chargeof, and responsible for, a MUO3.1.17diving supervisorperson who has been appointed in writing by the diving contractor to be in charge of a MUO or parts of suchoperation3.1.18diving work-sitesite from which the diving is performedNOTE Also referred to as diving platform3.1.19excursionany descent or ascent from pressure at living depth during saturation diving3.1.20incidentgeneric term covering any undesired event3.1.21life support supervisorLSSperson who has been appointed in writing by the diving contractor to act as ”person in charge” of theoperation of a chamber complex with associated equipment3.1.22life support technicianLSTqualified person operating a chamber complex with associated equipment3.1.23living depthpressure/depth at which the saturation divers stay in the chamber complex following the compression periodand intermediate compressions/decompressions, in between excursions, and prior to final decompressionperiodNOTE Also called "storage depth"3.1.24manned underwater operationMUOactivity when humans stay below surface and/or are exposed to increased ambient pressure3.1.25mayverbal form used to indicate a course of action permissible within the limits of this NORSOK standard3.1.26meter of sea watermswpressure unit equal to 10 kPa (making 10 msw exactly 1 bar or 100 kPa), implies a relative density of1,019727

NORSOK standard U-100Edition 5, December 20153.1.27near-accidentevent that, under slightly different circumstances, could have caused personal injury, fire,environmental/material damage or loss of productionNOTE Also called "near miss"3.1.28offshore managerthe diving contractor’s representative at the worksite3.1.29operatoroil company, responsible as the obligated party3.1.30responsible competent diving doctorRCDDnominated medical doctor, with adequate competence and practice in diving medicine, who is medicallyresponsible for the health service covering diving operations3.1.31safety critical elementa safety critical system is a system whose failure or malfunction can result in death or serious injury topeople, or loss or severe damage to equipment or environmental harm3.1.32SCUBA (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) divingis a form of underwater diving in which a diver uses SCUBA to breathe underwater3.1.33shallverbal form used to indicate requirements strictly to be followed in order to conform to this NORSOKstandard and from which no deviation is permitted, unless accepted by all involved parties3.1.34small / light diving craftLDCsmall boat equipped as a complete dive station and operating from a mother vessel3.1.35shouldverbal form used to indicate that among several possibilities one is recommended as particularly suitable,without mentioning or excluding others, or that a certain course of action is preferred but not necessarilyrequired3.1.36stand-by diverdiver who is prepared, dressed and equipped to give immediate assistance to the diverNOTE: For saturation diving the bell-man is the stand-by diver.3.1.37stay at living depthperiod of time between completed compression, or first compression if work is to take place at several levelsof pressure, and commencement of the final decompression excluding stabilising period and O2 build upwhich is part of the decompression8

NORSOK standard U-100Edition 5, December 20153.1.38submerged habitatsubmerged chamber or device positioned below surface and designed so as to allow personnel to work thereunder dry conditions3.1.39supervisory personnelpersonnel on the diving team acting in a supervisory roleNOTE Diving supervisors, LSSs, superintendents, etc.3.1.40surface oriented divingdiving where the diver enters and leaves the water at normal ambient pressureNOTE The term “surface supplied diving” is also used in the industry.3.1.41time in water, bell divingperiod of time from when a diver leaves the bell on a lock-out until he returns to the bell after completedlock-out, including any rest periods required during the lock-out, but not including mandatory rest period3.1.42trainee diving supervisordiver undergoing a period of planned work experiences for his training to become a diving supervisor3.1.43transfer under pressure divingTUPis an alternative diving method transferring divers in a closed bell from their working depth to a surfacedecompression chamber whilst maintaining bottom pressure, and their subsequent decompression tosurface ambient.NOTE By removing in-water decompression-stops, surface intervals and re-compression, TUP is generally considered as a healthier,safer and more efficient alternative to other traditional surface oriented air/nitrox diving techniques (in-water decompression-stops andtraditional surface decompression). The term TUP has different meaning in different contexts. Sometimes it is used for any processwhere divers are kept at a pressure above the surrounding, while they move or are moved. In other cases the term is used to designatethe facility that is used for the transfer, e.g. the bell or a special surface chamber used by the underwater workers passing from thediving bell to another chamber.3.1.44verificationconfirmation, through provision of objective evidence, that specified requirements have been fulfilledNOTE 1NOTE 2The term “verified” is used to designate the corresponding status.Confirmation may comprise activities such as- performing alternative calculations,- comparing a new design specification with a similar proven design specification,- undertaking tests and demonstrations,- reviewing documents prior to issue.3.1.45wet bellopen unit with an upper section containing a pocket of breathable gas, used to lower and recover divers toand from work-sites subsea, and equipped with an umbilical for normal supply of breathing gas as well as anon board contingency breathing gas supply, and a breathing gas panel for diver’s umbilicals.3.1.46working depthactual water depth at the diver’s worksite9

NORSOK standard 2ppmPLCPSAQARCDDROVSCUBASHESJASPHLSTELTUPUVEdition 5, December 2015Abbreviationsassistant life support technicianargonbreathing apparatusbuilt in breathing systemcarbon monoxidecarbon dioxideDiving Medical Advisory CommitteeDet norske Veritasdynamic positioningdiving support vesselEuropean Diving Technology Committeefailure mode and effects analysisfailure mode, effects and criticality analysisfast rescue crafthazard identificationhazard and operability studyhyperbaric exposure limithigh pressure nervous syndromehyperbaric reception facilityHealth and Safety Authority (UK)The International Marine Contractors AssociationInternational Maritime OrganisationThe International Assosiation of Oil and Gas Producerskilopascallaunch and recovery systemlight diving craftlife support packagelife support supervisorlife support technicianmeters of sea watermanned underwater operationnitrogenmono-nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2)Norwegian board of healththe Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administrationthe Norwegian Oil and Gas AssosiationNorwegian Petroleum Directorateoxygenozoneoccupational exposure limitpartial pressure of Arpartial pressure of N2partial pressure of CO2partial pressure of O2parts per millionprogrammable logic controllerPetroleum Safety Authority (Petroleumstilsynet)quality assuranceresponsible competent diving doctorremotely operated vehicleSelf-contained underwater breathing apparatussafety, health and environmentsafe job analysisself-propelled hyperbaric life boatshort term exposure limittransfer under pressureultraviolet10

NORSOK standard U-1004Administrative requirements4.1GeneralEdition 5, December 2015If there are safety aspects not covered in this NORSOK standard, an independent responsibility to maintainthe safety level indicated by this standard is imposed on anyone engaged in MUO.The contractor shall set internal requirements that put these NORSOK requirements into concrete terms, andthat contribute to achieving the objectives for SHE. If the internal requirements are expressed as functionalrequirements, achievement criteria shall be set.The contractor’s organisation shall include administrative functions responsible for areas that ensure a safeand efficient operation. As a minimum, these functions area)b)c)d)e)f)g)4.2diving discipline,SHE,emergency preparedness,QA,personnel,management of diving equipment and systems,competent controls engineering group responsible for safekeeping of software.SafetyThe contractor shall during all activities and on all levels in the organisation strive to enhance safety.Responsibility for safety is in the line organisation, and each individual shares this responsibility. However,top management holds a particular responsibility for creating an atmosphere and a psychosocial workingenvironment within the organisation that enhances safety, places safety issues on the daily agenda andrewards the safe conduct of work.All critical equipment, and operational and emergency procedures, shall be subject to thorough risk analysesto disclose consequences of single failures and series of failures, and to evaluate the possibilities for suchfailures. Operational and technical expertise and experience shall be brought into these assessments. Theresults shall be compared to the acceptance criteria, and on this basis, risk-reducing measures shall betaken. These analyses and resulting measures shall be documented.Risks analyses shall be performed using recognised methods, e.g. FMEA, fault tree analysis, event treeanalysis, HAZOP, HAZID and SJA, in accordance with NORSOK Z-013.Technical risk analyses (FMECA, FMEA, HAZID, HAZOP, SJA) should provide a single, consistent top-downapproach for all diving related risks, ensuring there are no gaps in the suite of risk documentation and thathuman interaction and operator error risks are accounted for. Risk analyses, including FMECA s should beroutinely updated based on changing conditions, equipment, assumptions, knowledge etc. Feedback fromupdated risk analysis (FMECA s) should be used to improve the emergency preparedness. Likewise, ifoperational experience uncover gaps in the emergency preparedness this should be fed back to the FMECAprocess to ensure that the next FMECA revision consider these findings and evaluate risks and mitigations.4.3DocumentationThe contractor shall document the diving methods, diving equipment operation and dive system maintenancerelevant for the scope of work to be conducted under a contract. This documentation shall be based on thecontractor’s general diving procedures and, if relevant, include a description of DP-operations in accordancewith ISO 19901-7.Management systems and QA shall be implemented in accordance with ISO 9001. Technical andoperational documentation shall be in accordance with national legislation and this NORSOK standard.The contractor shall have a documented system for systematic, preventive and criticality basedmaintenance, including updating of certificates, covering all diving related equipment, systems andmachinery, in accordance with NORSOK Z-008.11

NORSOK standard U-100Edition 5, December 2015As a minimum, the contractor shall define, document and make available procedures coveringa)b)c)d)e)normal and emergency operation of the equipment,function and verification testing, including acceptance parameters,limits for monitoring parameters, including early warning,check lists for routine operation, for technical equipment and operational aspects,manning requirements for competence in accordance with normal and emergency operationchecklists and procedures,f) detailed job descriptions for all personnel categories involved in the MUO,g) SHE activities related to the work-site (if relevant)/diving activities,h) individual equipment criticality rating system including overall system accept criteria for use, ref.7.18.These procedures shall include minimum requirements in order to commence an operation, criteria forsuspension and emergency procedures.Findings/reports from relevant risk analyses, including resulting risk reducing measures shall be available tooperational personnel, see 4.2 and clause 9.Personnel certification status and qualifications shall be presented in the form of a personnel qualificationmatrix.Check lists are part of the operational documentation, and shall be an aid to ensure that the preconditions forinitiation, implementation and termination of a safe operation are met. Check lists should have a simple andstraightforward lay-out and should cover both normal operations and emergency situations.Emergency procedures shall be specific to the equipment and work-site. Detailed emergency procedurescovering all emergency scenarios shall be available e.g. FMECA. The scenarios shall include provision ofmedical care for a critically injured/sick diver under pressure.4.4Compliance and deviationsThe contractor shall prepare in-date compliance measurement matrices with regards to this NORSOKstandard and relevant regulatory requirements. The matrices shall be available to the operator. Complianceshall be documented and the contractor shall evaluate all items of non-compliance. Qualified alternativesolutions may be suggested, and shall be documented. The compliance matrix shall state the administrativefunction responsible for handling a non-compliance.Excemptions from this NORSOK standard shall be evaluated and accepted by the parties involved, includingrepresentatives from the diving personnel, their safety delegates and the opera

This NORSOK standard defines basic requirements for personnel, equipment and systems for MUOs within the petroleum industry. Main focus for this NORSOK standard is diving down to 180 msw. For diving deeper than 180 msw, special consideration, evaluations and mitigating actions, some of which are specified in this standard, are required.

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