The North Atlantic Treaty Organization: The Enduring Alliance

1m ago
972.51 KB
171 Pages
Last View : 11d ago
Last Download : n/a
Upload by : Dani Mulvey

The North Atlantic TreatyOrganizationThe North Atlantic Treaty Organization provides an incisive analysis of theAtlantic Alliance and clearly outlines all of NATO’s key facets to deliver anauthoritative account.Detailing the origins, structure, workings and activities of this institution,the volume examines the past of the Alliance to put NATO’s future in contextas the institutional basis for the security dimension of the transatlantic relationship, and as an institution vital to global security.The book is divided into three sections: Cold War NATOStrategic VacationNew Age NATOCommencing with the impact of 11 September 2001 on the Alliance, the readeris taken through NATO’s story to demonstrate the political robustness of analliance continually in political crisis, from its foundation in 1949, as the threatposed by the Soviet Union waxed and waned, through to the difficulties causedby NATO’s lack of political cohesion. Having established the timeline, the bookprovides a snapshot of NATO today, its members, structure and mission andthe new tasks for which it must prepare. The book concludes by considering thechallenges the Alliance must face as it prepares for the big security dilemmas ofthe twenty-first century, the differences in both strategy and power of Americansand Europeans, and the contrast between yesterday’s NATO and today’s.The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is essential reading for all studentsof politics and international relations and will be of interest to all readers whowish to acquire an excellent understanding of this key force in world affairs.Julian Lindley-French is currently a Senior Scholar at the Center for AppliedPolicy, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich and Senior Associate Fellowof the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom. His recent works include AEuropean Defence Strategy (Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2004), AChronology of European Security and Defence 1945–2005 (Geneva: GenevaCentre for Security Policy, 2005) and Why Europe Needs to Be Strong . . . andthe World Needs a Strong Europe” (Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2005).

Routledge Global InstitutionsEdited by Thomas G. Weiss(The CUNY Graduate Center, New York, USA) andRorden Wilkinson(University of Manchester, UK)The “Global Institutions Series” is designed to provide readers withcomprehensive, accessible, and informative guides to the history,structure, and activities of key international organizations. Everyvolume stands on its own as a thorough and insightful treatment of aparticular topic, but the series as a whole contributes to a coherent andcomplementary portrait of the phenomenon of global institutions atthe dawn of the millennium.Books are written by recognized experts, conform to a similar structure, and cover a range of themes and debates common to the series.These areas of shared concern include the general purpose and rationale for organizations, developments over time, membership, structure,decision-making procedures, and key functions. Moreover, currentdebates are placed in historical perspective alongside informed analysisand critique. Each book also contains an annotated bibliography andguide to electronic information as well as any annexes appropriate tothe subject matter at hand.The volumes currently published or under contract include:The United Nations and HumanRights (2005)A Guide for a New Eraby Julie A. Mertus (AmericanUniversity)The UN Secretary-General andSecretariat (2005)by Leon Gordenker (PrincetonUniversity)United Nations Global Conferences(2005)by Michael G. Schechter (MichiganState University)The UN General Assembly (2005)by M.J. Peterson (University ofMassachusetts, Amherst)

Internal Displacement:Conceptualization and ItsConsequences (2006)by Thomas G. Weiss (The CUNYGraduate Center) and David A. KornGlobal Environmental Institutions(2006)by Elizabeth R. DeSombre (WellesleyCollege)UN Security Council (2006)by Edward C. Luck (ColumbiaUniversity)The World Intellectual PropertyOrganization (2007)Resurgence and the DevelopmentAgendaby Chris May (University of the Westof England)The North Atlantic TreatyOrganization (2007)The Enduring Allianceby Julian Lindley-French (Center forApplied Policy, Ludwig MaximiliansUniversity, Munich)UN Conference on Trade andDevelopmentby Ian Taylor (University of St.Andrews)A Crisis of Global Institutions?Multilateralism and InternationalSecurityby Edward Newman (United NationsUniversity)The World BankFrom Reconstruction toDevelopment to Equityby Katherine Marshall (GeorgetownUniversity)The African UnionPast and Future GovernanceChallengesby Samuel M. Makinda (MurdochUniversity) and Wafula Okumu(McMaster University)Organisation for EconomicCo-operation and Developmentby Richard Woodward (University ofHull)The International Monetary FundPolitics of Conditional Lendingby James Raymond Vreeland (YaleUniversity)Non-Governmental Organizations inGlobal Politicsby Peter Willetts (City University,London)Group of 7/8by Hugo Dobson (University ofSheffield)Multilateralism in the SouthAn Analysisby Jacqueline Anne Braveboy-Wagner(City College of New York)The World Economic Forumby Geoffrey Allen Pigman(Bennington College)The International Committee of theRed CrossA Unique Humanitarian Actorby David P. Forsythe (University ofNebraska) and Barbara Ann RiefferFlanagan (Central WashingtonUniversity)The European Unionby Clive Archer (ManchesterMetropolitan University)The International LabourOrganizationby Steve Hughes (University ofNewcastle)

The Commonwealth(s) and GlobalGovernanceby Timothy Shaw (Royal RoadsUniversity)The World Trade Organizationby Bernard Hoekman (World Bank)and Petros Mavroidis (ColumbiaUniversity)The Organization for Security andCo-operation in Europeby David J. Galbreath (University ofAberdeen)The International Organization forStandardization and the GlobalEconomySetting Standardsby Craig Murphy (Wellesley College)and JoAnne Yates (MassachusettsInstitute of Technology)UNHCRThe Politics and Practice of RefugeeProtection Into the Twenty FirstCenturyby Gil Loescher (University ofOxford), James Milner (University ofOxford), and Alexander Betts(University of Oxford)The International Olympic Committeeby Jean-Loup Chappelet (IDHEAPSwiss Graduate School of PublicAdministration) and Brenda KüblerMabbottThe World Health Organizationby Kelley Lee (London School ofHygiene and Tropical Medicine)For further information regarding the series, please contact:Craig Fowlie, Publisher, Politics & International StudiesTaylor & Francis2 Park Square, Milton Park, AbingdonOxford OX14 4RN, UK 44 (0)207 842 2057 Tel 44 (0)207 842 2302

The North Atlantic TreatyOrganizationThe Enduring AllianceJulian Lindley-French

First published 2007 by Routledge2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RNSimultaneously published in the USA and Canadaby Routledge270 Madison Ave, New York NY 10016Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business 2007 Julian Lindley-FrenchThis edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2006.“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’scollection of thousands of eBooks please go to”All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted orreproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic,mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented,including photocopying and recording, or in any informationstorage or retrieval system, without permission in writing fromthe publishers.British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British LibraryLibrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataA catalog record for this title has been requestedISBN 0-203-00658-5 Master e-book ISBNISBN10: 0-415-35880-9 ISBN13: 978-0-415-35880-4 (pbk)ISBN10: 0-415-35879-5 ISBN13: 978-0-415-35879-8 (hbk)

For Corine

ContentsForewordList of AcronymsxxiiiIntroduction11A World Gone Mad: 9/11 and Iraq72Facing the Enemy203Coping with the Allies394Strategic Vacation575The Search for a New Strategic Consensus746NATO Today877The Past, Present and Future of NATO106AppendixNotesBibliography and Further ReadingIndex119127137143

ForewordThe current volume is the ninth in a new and dynamic series on“global institutions.” The series strives (and, based on the initialvolumes we believe, it succeeds) to provide readers with definitiveguides to the most visible aspects of what we know as “global governance.” Remarkable as it may seem, there exist relatively few booksthat offer in-depth treatments of prominent global bodies andprocesses, much less an entire series of concise and complementaryvolumes. Those that do exist are either out of date, inaccessible to thenon-specialist reader, or seek to develop a specialized understanding ofparticular aspects of an institution or process rather than offer anoverall account of its functioning. Similarly, existing books have oftenbeen written in highly technical language or have been crafted “inhouse” and are notoriously self-serving and narrow.The advent of electronic media has helped by making information,documents, and the resolutions of international organizations morewidely available, but it has also complicated matters. The growingreliance on the Internet and other electronic methods of finding information about key international organizations and processes hasserved, ironically, to limit the educational materials to which mostreaders have ready access – namely, books. Public relations documents, raw data, and loosely refereed websites do not make forintelligent analysis. Official publications compete with a vast amountof electronically available information, much of which is suspectbecause of its ideological or self-promoting slant. Paradoxically, thegrowing range of purportedly independent websites offering analysesof the activities of particular organizations have emerged, but oneinadvertent consequence has been to frustrate access to basic, authoritative, critical, and well-researched texts. The market for such hasactually been reduced by the ready availability of varying quality electronic materials.

Foreword xiFor those of us that teach, research, and practice in the area, thisaccess to information has been at best frustrating. We were delighted,then, when Routledge saw the value of a series that bucks this trendand provides key reference points to the most significant global institutions. They are betting that serious students and professionals willwant serious analyses. We have assembled a first-rate line-up ofauthors to address that market. Our intention, then, is to provide onestop shopping for all readers – students (both undergraduate andpostgraduate), interested negotiators, diplomats, practitioners fromnongovernmental and intergovernmental organizations, and interestedparties alike – seeking information about the most prominent institutional aspects of global governance.The North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationWhen we first sat down to think about the line-up for our series on“global” institutions, we nonetheless placed very high on our list ofpriorities a book about an institution that was not global in membership or reach – NATO, the most powerful alliance composed only ofWestern countries. Founded in 1949 primarily to counter the perceivedmilitary threat from the Soviet Union and its allies, NATO membersagreed in its oft-cited Article 5 that an attack on one of them would beconsidered as an attack against them all. Originally consisting oftwelve members, it was increased by three more in the 1950s, includingWest Germany. The Soviet Union responded by establishing theWarsaw Pact in 1955. The Alliance was so successful as a deterrentthat it never resorted to Article 5 or deployed the substantial militaryforces under its umbrella during the Cold War.The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the implosion of the SovietUnion and the Warsaw Pact in 1991 led to a reassessment of theAlliance’s role in the world. One clear need was to keep the nonEuropean members, and especially the United States, engaged inEurope. Another was to reassess NATO’s role in relationship to theerstwhile Soviet bloc. A third was to find a new diplomatic and militaryrole for the Alliance.Fifty-five years after its foundation, the Alliance invited formerlycommunist states (but not Russia) to join the partnership for peace,and in February 1994 launched its first-ever aggressive military operation in Bosnia-Herzegovina when it shot down Serbian fighter planesviolating a UN “no-fly zone” and also bombed Serbian ground targets.In 1997 Russia gained a formal voice in NATO’s affairs in return forthe acceptance of an expansion into Eastern Europe. At present,

xiiForewordNATO has twenty-six members including several former Soviet allies.And in 1999, NATO engaged in a humanitarian war in Kosovo, andhas subsequently been involved in training and other military activitiesin Afghanistan.NATO has twenty countries associated with its Partnership forPeace (including twelve former Soviet Republics), and is engaged in theMediterranean Dialogue with another seven countries from thesouthern side of the Mediterranean. American dominance of the institution has always been a reality – leading to the departure of Francefrom the institution in 1966 and the subsequent departure of theSupreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) from Paris toBrussels in 1967.The adaptation and transformation of institutions is a commonthread in this series, and nowhere is this more obvious than with NATO.What a ride it has been! When we thought about possible authors, JulianLindley-French’s name jumped immediately to mind. Currently a seniorscholar at the Center for Applied Policy at the University of Munich,and Senior Associate Fellow at the Defence Academy of the UnitedKingdom, Julian is a well-published commentator on transatlantic relations and European security and defense. As the historical nuts-and-boltsof the Western Alliance are essential to understanding its past andthinking about its future, we recommend to readers his authoritative 2005work A Chronology of European Security and Defence 1945–2005.1 Julianhas acted as a consultant to NATO and lectured widely on transatlanticrelations and European defense including at the Department of WarStudies, King’s College London, at the European Union Institute forSecurity Studies in Paris, and at the Geneva Center for Security Policy.We have come to trust our authors; Julian is no different. We weredelighted when he accepted our offer to contribute this book to theseries; and we are proud of the result. He has produced an insightfulvolume that charts a path through the congested terrain of the ColdWar and post-Cold War periods, including current concerns such asfighting terrorism and halting the proliferation of weapons of massdestruction. It is a first-rate book: informative, knowledgeable, andconsidered – with a dose of amusing anecdotes as well. We know thosewho have come to expect the highest standards from our books willnot be disappointed. We are pleased to recommend it to all. As always,comments and suggestions from readers are welcome.Thomas G. Weiss, The CUNY Graduate Center, New York, USARorden Wilkinson, University of Manchester, UKMay 2006

List of PCHODCIMICCISCJPSAnti-Ballistic Missile (treaty)Allied Command OperationsAllied Command TransformationAction OrderAllied Forces NorthAllied Forces SouthAllied Joint PublicationsAllied Missile DefenseAtlantic Nuclear ForceAllied PublicationsAllied Command Europe, Rapid Reaction CorpsAssociation of South-East Asian NationsAtlantic Treaty AssociationAfrican UnionAirborne Warning and ControlBritish Army of the RhineBattle GroupsAmerican Long-Range BomberCrisis Action TeamChemical, Biological, Radiological and NuclearCommon European Defense PolicyCommon European Security and Defense PolicyCommand, Control, Communications andComputersConventional Armed Forces in Europe (talks/treaty)Common Foreign and Security PolicyChiefs of Defense StaffCivil Military Co-operationCommonwealth of Independent StatesCombined Joint Planning Staffs

xivList of AcronymsCJTFCombined Joint Task ForceCOMUSEUCOMCommander of the US European CommandCPSUCommunist Party of the Soviet UnionCROCrisis Response OperationCSCEConference on Security and Co-operation in EuropeDCIDefense Capabilities InitiativeDPCDefense Planning CommitteeDPKODepartment of Peacekeeping Operations (UN)DPPDefense Planning ProcessDSACEURDeputy Supreme Allied Commander, EuropeDSACTDeputy Supreme Allied Commander, TransformationEAPCEuro-Atlantic Partnership CouncilECEuropean CommunityECAPEuropean Capabilities Action PlanECSCEuropean Coal and Steel CommunityEDCEuropean Defense CommunityEDUEuropean Defense UnionEECEuropean Economic CommunityEPCEuropean Political Co-operationERRCEuropean Rapid Reaction CorpsERRFEuropean Rapid Reaction ForceERRMEuropean Rapid Reaction MechanismESDIEuropean Security and Defense IdentityESDPEuropean Security and Defense PolicyESSEuropean Security StrategyEUEuropean UnionEUFOREU ForceEUMCEU Military CommitteeEUROFOREuropean ForceEUROMARFOREuropean Maritime ForceFAWEUForces Answerable to the Western European UnionFBEAGFranco-British European Air GroupFBSForward Base SystemFLRForces of Lower ReadinessFOCFull Operating CapabilityFOFAFollow-on Force AttackFRGFederal Republic of GermanyFYROMFormer Yugoslav Republic of MacedoniaGACGeneral Affairs CouncilGDPGross Domestic ProductGDRGerman Democratic RepublicGLCMGround-Launched Cruise Missile

List of AcronymsGPALSGlobal Protection Against Limited StrikesGSFGGroup of Soviet Forces GermanyGWOTGlobal War on TerrorHG2010Headline Goal 2010HHGHelsinki Headline GoalHLGHigh-Level GroupHQ COMSPMARFOR HQ Commander Spanish Maritime ForcesHQ COMUKMARFORHQ Commander UK Maritime ForcesHRFHigh-Readiness ForcesIAEAInternational Atomic Energy AgencyICBMIntercontinental Ballistic MissileICIIstanbul Co-operation InitiativeIEPGIndependent European Program GroupIFORImplementation ForceIGCIntergovernmental ConferenceIISSInternational Institute for Strategic StudiesIMSIntegrated Military StructureINFIntermediate Nuclear ForcesIOInternational OrganizationIPPIndividual Partnership ProgramIPSCInterim Political and Security CommitteeIPTFInternational Police Task ForceISInternational StaffISAInternational Security Assistance ForceISTARIntelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition &ReconnaissanceJNAYugoslav National ArmyKFORKosovo ForceLRTNFLong-Range Theater Nuclear ForcesLTDPLong-Term Defense ProgramMADMutually Assured DestructionMAPMembership Action PlanMAPEXMap ExerciseMBFRMutually Balanced Force ReductionMCMilitary CommitteeMIRVMultiple Independent Re-entry VehicleMITMilitary Implications TeamMLFMultilateral ForceMRCAMulti-role Combat AircraftNACNorth Atlantic CouncilNACCNorth Atlantic Co-operation CouncilNATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organizationxv

xviList of AcronymsNATO COEFOPECORBATOSCENATO Parliamentary AssemblyNuclear, Biological and ChemicalNATO Command StructureNetwork-centric WarfareNATO Force StructureNon-Governmental OrganizationNuclear Planning GroupNATO Response ForceNational Security CouncilNew Strategic ConceptNational Security Decision DirectiveNational Security Decision MemorandumNATO Security ForceNuclear and Space TalksNATO Consultation, Command and Control AgencyNATO Undersea Research CenterOperation Enduring FreedomOrganization of Petroleum-Exporting CountriesOrder of BattleOrganization for Security and Co-operation inEuropePARPPartnership Planning and Review ProcessPCPolitical CommitteePCCPrague Capabilities CommitmentPCGPolicy Co-ordination GroupPDPresidential DirectivePfPPartnership for PeacePGMPrecision-Guided MunitionsPITPolitical Implications TeamPJCNATO–Russia Permanent Joint CouncilPJHQPermanent Joint HeadquartersPRTProvincial Reconstruction TeamPSCPolitical and Security CommitteePSOPeace Support OperationQDRQuadrennial Defense ReviewR&TResearch and TechnologyRHQ AFNORTHRegional Headquarters, Allied Forces NorthRMARevolution in Military AffairsRSFSRRussian Soviet Federal Socialist RepublicRTAResearch and Technology AgencySACEURSupreme Allied Commander, EuropeSACTSupreme Allied Commander, Transformation

List of AcronymsxviiSALTStrategic Arms Limitation TalksSCEPCSenior Civil Emergency Planning CommitteeSDIStrategic Defense InitiativeSEADSuppression of Enemy Air DefensesSEATOSouth East Asia Treaty OrganizationSEDEast German Communist PartySFORStabilization ForceSHAPESupreme Headquarters Allied Powers EuropeSITCENSituation CenterSOFSpecial Operations ForcesSPCSenior Political CommitteeSRFStrategic Rocket ForceSSSurface to Surface Missile (Soviet)SSBNSubmersible Ballistic NuclearSSMSurface to Surface Missile (Western)STANAVLANT Standing Naval Force, AtlanticSTANAVFORMEDStanding Naval Force, MediterraneanSTARTStrategic Arms Reduction TalksTEUTreaty on European UnionTNFTheater Nuclear ForcesUKUnited KingdomUKNAFUK–Netherlands Amphibious ForceUNUnited NationsUNMIBHUnited Nations Mission in Bosnia and HerzegovinaUNPAUnited Nations Protected AreasUNPROFOR United Nations Protection ForceUNSCUnited Nations Security CouncilUNSCOMUnited Nations Special CommissionUSUnited StatesUSSRUnion of Soviet Socialist RepublicsVHFVery High Readiness ForcesWEAGWestern European Armaments GroupWEUWestern European UnionWMDWeapons of Mass DestructionWTOWarsaw Treaty Organization

Introduction Five Core MessagesThe North Atlantic Treaty Organization: The Enduring AllianceThere is an irreverent joke that it is illuminating to consider. NATOSecretary-General, Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, and EU High Representative,Javier Solana, are having breakfast with God. Conversation tilts thisway and that in a spirit of camaraderie and good humor. Towards theend of breakfast de Hoop Scheffer puts a direct question to the allpowerful, all-seeing one. “Tell me, God, will NATO ever be a trulyglobal security and defense organization?” God thinks hard about thisquestion and after some reflection replies, “Yes, Jaap, but not in yourlifetime.” Javier Solana, not to be outdone and having much experienceof both NATO and the EU, poses a similar question. “God, will theEU ever be a functioning security and defense organization?” At firstGod looks baffled, and then worried, and after a seeming eternityreplies: “Yes, Javier, but not in my lifetime.” That mythical exchangecaptures at least part of NATO’s reality (as it does the EU’s) as theorganization takes on new roles in a new world. The central questionposed by this book is: can NATO close the gap between the politicomilitary challenges the Allies face and the politico-military power itcan generate? The central message of this book is that is precisely thechallenge NATO has always faced, and indeed will face.Today NATO has twenty-six members: Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada,the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece,Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. And, it is atestament to the political value of the Alliance that ten of thosecountries were members of the Warsaw Treaty Organization, NATO’sadversary.

2IntroductionEver since its creation in 1949 the North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) has been an organization that has been asked to do too much,with too little, with members from very different strategic backgroundsand cultures. Such different traditions have led to very differentstrategic visions with which the Alliance has had to cope. Throughoutthe Cold War, Americans sought to maintain continental Americaninvulnerability, whereas Europeans saw vulnerability as simply a factof life. Americans saw security and defense as intrinsically linked totheir own idea, Europeans saw security and defense as intrinsicallylinked to where they lived. Americans saw the Cold War as a globalstruggle, Europeans as simply the latest chapter in the European powerstruggle down the ages. Americans were containing Soviet communism, Europeans were confronting Russians. Europeans were in retreatfrom global leadership, Americans were preparing for it. It was, and is,ever thus.Today, as NATO embarks on new missions it faces a world in whichthe very nature and utility of power is being questioned. For all that,NATO’s story is one of success. That the Alliance made the majorcontribution in winning the Cold War cannot be questioned. The political solidarity of democracies is an awesome weapon when credibleand cohesive, a fact that should not be lost on those seeking to challenge the West.Equally, NATO is a “big security” organization that is at its bestdealing with “big picture” security. Consequently, as an extension ofthe transatlantic security relationship that it serves, NATO has neverbeen particularly comfortable, or successful, when dealing with “smallpicture” security. The sub-strategic conflict of the type that tragicallyground its way across the Balkans in the 1990s challenged not justEurope, but the very utility of political tools such as NATO. Indeed,like its political masters, NATO struggled to find a solution to a warthat was of a state, rather than between states. The Wars of theYugoslav Succession demonstrated the difficulties the Alliance hasconfronted as it moved away from classical confrontation à la ColdWar, through the strategic vacation of the 1990s, en route to thestrategic stabilization missions of NATO’s future.Consequently, this book is about NATO’s past, present and futurebecause an understanding of all three is essential to answer the questionat the heart of this study: why NATO endures. It is thus about NATO’splace in a new world in which big picture security is slowly, but inexorably, beginning to re-assert itself. The mantras of the 1990s and thefirst decade of this century that can be found in NATO’s StrategicConcept – terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, state failure, regional

Introduction3conflict, instability et al. – remain dangerous and compelling securitychallenges. However, they are today being replaced by something thatthe Founding Fathers of NATO, Dean Acheson, Ernest Bevin andRobert Schuman, would have well understood back in the 1940s.The age of post 9/11–Iraq big picture politics that the world isentering with the emergence of an Asia fueled by rapid but unstablegrowth, allied to the missed opportunity for Western leadership of the1990s, will lead inexorably to the return of a big NATO. NATO startedits life as a European organization, it is about to embark on a new lifeas the world’s first truly global military security organization.Five Core MessagesThere are five core messages: Strategic counter-terror is mutating: The strategic manhunt of theimmediate post-9/11 period, reminiscent of the Old Wild West, is over.It would be good to capture Osama bin Laden and his cohorts butthey are but bit-part actors. Behind their mask of intolerance andhatred the West has discovered a new Thirty Years War that will takesustained engagement across the political, economic, diplomatic andmilitary spectrum in the total security age of the twenty-first century. New power and new threats are emerging: The threats are developingdriven by the intense change that is taking place in Asia. In many ways,the twenty-first century will be Asia’s age. Like that of Europe before it,Asia’s emergence is unlikely to proceed smoothly. There will be scarumsand alarums until Asian power is properly embedded in the great institutions the West built. Until then a balanced transatlantic relationship willremain the world’s most important insurance mechanism against thepolitical consequences of uncontrolled and extra-institutional change. Security globalization requires visionary security governance: Theconnectivity that is globalization is throwing up a host of global challenges that were once only regional, of “haves” and “have nots,” of theconnected and unconnected. The West must cope with it. NATO must plan for a total security age: Article 5 still matters.Indeed, the political stability and ongoing political development of newAlliance members rests upon the stability that both NATO and the EUafford them. It matters also for Moscow. The Euro-Atlantic area represents the only stable border that Russia has in this dangerous world.Indeed, in a world so electronically independent, as borders becomevirtual disruption could be akin to destruction for societies so dependent on critical infrastructures. NATO needs new partners and newtools.

4Introduction Democratic military power has its limits, but is still vital: So many ofthe threats faced are non-traditional, such as global warming, pandemicsetc. The West must shape old and new institutions to engage such challenges. At the same time, the world is not so different from that of thepast. Credible, legitimate military power and effective organization stillprovides the bedrock of effective security governance.The North Atlantic Treaty Organization: The Enduring AllianceThe North Atlantic Treaty Organization: The Enduring Alliance looksbeyond the splits in the Alliance and goes back to the roots of NATO’spast to paint a big security picture and of NATO’s role therein. Thebook deals with all the fundamentals: history, structure, policy, capability and change, but its natural center of gravity is the strategic visionthat underpins the political cohesion that makes NATO what it is. Thebook therefore places NATO in the context of the change that hastaken place over the years. In other words, this book is about the what,the why, the how, the when and the what-next of NATO.The book is divided into three main sections: Cold War NATO,Strategic Vacation, and New Age NATO.Chapter 1, “A Wo

The North Atlantic Treaty Organizationprovides an incisive analysis of the Atlantic Alliance and clearly outlines all of NATO's key facets to deliver an authoritative account. Detailing the origins, structure, workings and activities of this institution, the volume examines the past of the Alliance to put NATO's future in context

Related Documents:

May 02, 2018 · D. Program Evaluation ͟The organization has provided a description of the framework for how each program will be evaluated. The framework should include all the elements below: ͟The evaluation methods are cost-effective for the organization ͟Quantitative and qualitative data is being collected (at Basics tier, data collection must have begun)

On an exceptional basis, Member States may request UNESCO to provide thé candidates with access to thé platform so they can complète thé form by themselves. Thèse requests must be addressed to esd rize unesco. or by 15 A ril 2021 UNESCO will provide thé nomineewith accessto thé platform via their émail address.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an intergovernmental military alliance consisting of 28 European and North American countries. It was established with the signing of the Treaty of Washington on April 4th 1949. The Washington Treaty was signed by its twelve founding members as tensions grew between East and West.

For example, North Atlantic Treaty Organization's North Atlantic Treaty is triggered in response to an attack on Europe or North America. In the case of the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty, the treaty zone is "the territory under the administration of the Nation of Japan." However, the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty has areas called "zones of .

"(3) the term 'NATO' means the North Atlantic Treaty Organization; "(4) the term 'NATO/CFE country' means a member country of NATO that is a party to the CFE Treaty and is listed in paragraph 1(A) of article II of the CFE Treaty within the group of States Parties that signed or acceded to the Treaty of Brus sels of 1948 or the Treaty of .

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Vancouver Model United Nations The 17th Annual Session January 19 - 21, 2018 Dear Delegates, My name is Allan Lee and I am honoured to serve as your director of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). As a grade 11 student at St. George' s, I am very excited to participate in

North Atlantic Treaty Organization committee at AUN XVIII. I am currently a senior in the Academy for the Advancement in Science and Technology at the Bergen County Academies, and have participated in Model UN since my freshman year. My first conference was at AMUN XV in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization committee, and I have since

74 BAB III GAMBARAN UMUM NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Dalam bab ini penulis akan menjelaskan beberapa pembahasan, Pertama penulis akan menjelaskan profil North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). dalam bab ini akan dijelaskan sejarah terbentuknya NATO, alasan negara-negara Eropa untuk membentuk aliansi, struktur NATO dan cara kerja struktur dalam NATO.

NATO04 North Atlantic Treaty Organization; Brussels Belgium; Operations - Situational Awareness Integration Team (SITCEN) 01.03.2023 - 31.08.2023 x NATO05; North Atlantic Treaty Organization Brussels; Belgium Arms Control, Disarmament and Weapons of Mass Destruction 01.03.2023 - 31.08.2023 x; NATO06 North Atlantic Treaty Organization; Brussels .

sels Treaty Organization. It was also the first step in the process leading to the signature of the North At-lantic Treaty in 1949 and the creation of the North Atlantic Alliance. The Brussels Treaty is the found-ing document of the present day Western European Union (WEU). Negotiations culminated in the signature of the Trea-

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is a military and political alliance made up of 28 member states throughout Europe and the Americas. First established on April 4th, 1949 with the North Atlantic Treaty, NATO's creation at the beginning of the Cold War was an attempt at balancing power between the East and West. More specifically,

Chính Văn.- Còn đức Thế tôn thì tuệ giác cực kỳ trong sạch 8: hiện hành bất nhị 9, đạt đến vô tướng 10, đứng vào chỗ đứng của các đức Thế tôn 11, thể hiện tính bình đẳng của các Ngài, đến chỗ không còn chướng ngại 12, giáo pháp không thể khuynh đảo, tâm thức không bị cản trở, cái được

North Atlantic Treaty Organization The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is a group of countries in Europe and North America that have signed a treaty agreeing to protect each other in case of attack. NATO was founded in April 1949 by twelve countries. Today, NATO has 28 member countries. NATO countries protect themselves by working together to help stabilize parts of the world that .

On April 4, 2019, foreign ministers from the 29 member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) . D.C., to mark the 70th anniversary of the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty). NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg is to address a joint session of Congress on April 3, 2019, the first ever to do so.

the north atlantic treaty organization (nato) remains the most powerful military al-liance in the world—and arguably in history. however, the greatest danger to it comes from within. Questionable allied political will and cohesion threatens the survival of nato as a credible political and defense organization.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was founded in 1949 by the United States of America, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Portugal, with the common goal of preventing the spread of communism throughout Europe1. The Organization has since then increased its membership to 29 nations

historical North Atlantic Treaty Organization of TEDUTRAIN'21. Our agenda item is the North Macedonia ethnic rivalry which took place between 2001 and 2003. During the sessions, our delegates will try to solve a historical problem as if it were in an up-to-date way, as well as create solutions with sustainable updates.

the North Atlantic Treaty Organization seeks the maintenance of peace, justice, democracy and security through nonmilitary - however, when necessary, military - means. NATO represents the transatlantic link between the security of North America and Europe. It provides forums where any member may raise issues, as well as require further

Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.

For rights of reproduction or translation, application should be made to ILO & Don Bosco in Timor-Leste. Organisations and institutions may make copies in accordance with the license issued to them for this purpose Manual, Pavement for Labour-based Road Construction Timor-Leste, ILO & Don Bosco 2015 ISBN: 978-92-2-130857-7 Visit our website: LBT Pavement Manual Introduction .