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RESEARCH REPORTPUBLIC INTEREST REPORT1WINTER 2011How to Make TwitterAvailable in North KoreaBY DEVABHAKTUNI SRIKRISHNA and RAJEEV KRISHNAMOORTHYINTRODUCTIONSince Hiroshima’s destruction in 1945, themarch of nuclear proliferation throughout theworld has shown no signs of halting. Nuclearproliferation is fueled, in part, by a fundamentaldisagreement between governments aboutwhether their citizens have freedom of speech,expression, and thought – North Korea beingone example. There are some nation-states thatdiffer on the role of fundamental human rightsversus NATO countries and their allies. As former Secretary of State William Perry explainedrecently,"A world without nuclear weaponswill not simply be today's worldminus nuclear weapons. Theworld we are looking to has to havesome international way of dealingwith conflict, that focuses on preventing the conflict in the firstplace, dealing with the causes ofconflict. We are very far from thatworld today."1Freedom of expression would bring additional economic and social benefits with the freeflow of ideas and commerce across the globe.North Korea imposes almost total Internet censorship on its citizens. Similarly, Iran controlsinternal access to external websites and mediathrough packet-filtering technology. Egypt shutdown all Internet access in a crisis. Technicallythe only way to overcome these filters is to physically bypass the infrastructure points that contribute to censorship.Citizens with securely designed wirelessmesh-enabled smartphones (SocialMesh) canFEDERATION OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTSovercome the Internet censorship imposed bynational governments. These devices enable basicuncensored social applications such as Twitter,Facebook, and Google. Wireless data networks,which are formed virally from handheld radiorouters and adapted to changing RF propagationand interference — without relying on managedcellular infrastructure — can be designed to bypass packet filters and other countermeasuresoften relied on by nation-states that impose censorship.Using low-cost hardware, self-organizingrouting software, and code division multiple access (CDMA), wireless data networks can retainenough system capacity even under heavy loadfrom users or interference from jammers to overcome Internet censorship anywhere in the world.A peer-to-peer viral distribution strategy couldinclude bootstrapping incentives for end-users tohelp build the network, such as the more newusers that sign up, the more bandwidth you receive.The investment for developing, manufacturing, and deploying SocialMesh through viraldistribution is estimated to be in the range of 10million, which is less than one percent of theannual expenditure for maintaining U.S. troopsalong the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). Ifsuccessful in reducing the tensions betweenNorth and South Korea, a SocialMesh can diminish the need for deployment of troops and ofnuclear weapons in the Korean peninsula.Eliminating state censorship through freedom of speech for Internet users anywhere in theworld can neutralize and dissolve the differencesthat create conflict. Needless to say, a world freeof nuclear proliferation would lead to a muchmore secure and peaceful world.WWW.FAS.ORG

PUBLIC INTEREST REPORTNational governments cannot escape the mathematics ofgame theory and the prisoners’ dilemma – often locking themin a balance of power with their adversaries. The Koreanborder is a case in point. North Korea has tested nuclearweapons and is believed to have several, while South Korea isprotected by U.S. nuclear security assurances – placingpopulations of both Koreas and the United States at aconstant state of risk for nuclear war. In addition to nuclearweapons, the security balance on the Korean border ismaintained by a massive conventional military presence byboth sides.The widespread availability of mobile and social mediahas catalyzed social revolutions3 including texting in thePhilippines4 and most recently the uprisings5 knowncollectively as the Arab Spring.6 Where Internet censorship isin place, the Obama administration has recently expressedinterest in virally expanding wireless networks to enablecitizens to bypass censors,7 and is actively considering them foruse all over the world. Such networks of devices in the handsof citizens promise to create universal access to mainstreamapplications of the web such as search (Google, Bing, etc),social networks (Facebook/Twitter), and personalcommunications (Skype, Google Chat, and Apple’s Facetime)that enable people to communicate. How do they work inpractice?2FEDERATION OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTSWINTER 2011CIVILIAN AND MILITARY WIRELESSARCHITECTUREMesh networks were first described by Paul Baran in the 1960sas a way to eliminate central points of failure and reduce thevulnerability of communication networks to a first nuclearstrike by the Russians during the Cold War — when the telephone network architecture was based entirely on centralizedswitching.8The idea of a survivable, mesh network consisting ofwireless links inspired what became known as the Internet.Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn first envisioned this solution for“ad-hoc” battlefield communications for soldiers. DARPAfunded an experimental “packet radio” network based onspread-spectrum techniques first built across the SanFrancisco Bay Area in the 1970s. Subsequently, wirelessmesh networks have found application in several differentdomains.The first city-scale wireless mesh network was operatedby Metricom Corporation in the 1990s using unlicensedspectrum (900MHz and 2.4GHz) radio-routers hung onlamp posts across multiple major metropolitan areas in theUnited States. These were based on proprietary, expensivefrequency-hopping spread-spectrum radio technology andwhile technically successful, it ended up being a commercialfailure.WWW.FAS.ORG

PUBLIC INTEREST REPORTAt the same time in the 1990s, one of the authors tookpart in a standardization effort for low-power spreadspectrum radios used in local area networks called IEEE802.11 (later known popularly as Wi-Fi or wirelessEthernet). After a decade, Wi-Fi was ubiquitously availableand affordable throughout the world. At the time it wasbelieved that public-access wireless networks had to beoperated by regional telephone companies and cellularoperators. Next-generation wireless routing technology builtby Tropos Networks applied to Wi-Fi radios enabled cityscale wireless mesh networks that were similar in concept tothe Metricom architecture, but more cost-effective and easyto operate.Individual municipalities and smallservice providers were able to offerWi-Fi based broadband service.Hundreds of municipal Wi-Fi meshnetworks that used Tropos routers10 (aswell as those from vendors such asBelair Networks) are in operation todayspanning thousands of square miles ofcontiguous broadband coverageincluding Oklahoma City, OK andMountain View, CA.11The freedom to experiment, learn,and innovate in unlicensed spectrumresulted in architectural andperformance innovations for Wi-Fimesh networks that are not seen intraditional cellular networks —enablingtheir rapid and resilient construction.These innovations demonstrate that it ispossible to overcome multipleinterference, propagation, and transmitpower handicaps imposed by unlicensedspectrum regulations compared withlicensed spectrum.Aside from their use in local areanetworks indoors, the limitations of the spectrum allocationhave thus far kept unlicensed radios from being usedoutdoors by a majority of the end-user population in favorof 3G and 4G networks operated by cellular carriers inlicensed spectrum. In licensed cellular systems, highamounts of power can be transmitted to end-users by basestations leading to considerably strong performance on thedownlink. However the amount of power transmitted bythe handset is still limited by battery life and portabilityconsiderations to approximately 100 milliwatts (mW),resulting in performance limits on the uplink very similar tounlicensed spectrum.In principle the idea of a network owned andoperated entirely by citizens is promising, as adoption cangrow virally until everyone can participate in the network.The software and hardware required can piggyback onadvances in the large-scale production, development, andcost-reduction made possible by the open-source Androidecosystem based on Linux using Wi-Fi. The form factor for3FEDERATION OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTSWINTER 2011such a device can be similar to any modern Android-basedsmartphone commonly available today from manufacturerssuch as HTC, Motorola, or Samsung. Each device canparticipate in a self-organizing Wi-Fi or cellular (GSM)mesh network that can span multiple hops to externalbackhaul links and create connectivity in virtually anyterrestrial environment.12The applicability of citizen mesh networks based onunlicensed or licensed commercial radios is also severelylimited both by the Wi-Fi or cellular radio interface as wellas by how effectively they can bypass efforts by a censorshipstate to deploy a filter or block.NORTH KOREA: A CASESTUDYConsider North Korea as anillustrative example. Pyongyang,North Korea’s capital, is locatedonly 20 miles from internationalwaters and 150-200 miles from theSouth Korean border and Seoul. Intheory, a wireless mesh(SocialMesh) spanning suchdistances and feeding off ofexternal network links (backhaul)in South Korea, from a ship ininternational waters or by satellite,is sufficient to end Internetcensorship there through viraladoption by the residentpopulation. The 40km span frominternational waters to Pyongyangis shown in Illustration 1, whereseveral hypothetical wireless meshlinks carry data back and forth.The Internet gateways (backhaul)are shown in red and relay mesh nodes in light blue, withwhite lines illustrating the network connections establishedautomatically by SocialMesh.North Korea is well known to have very active RFjamming and countermeasures for radios, cell phones, andother wireless communication.13 According to South Korea’sdefense minister, North Korea has an active RF jammingprogram for GPS, while South Korea is preparing to offerbroadcast radios to North Korean citizens for deployment incase of a war.14 Limited internal cellular communicationsexist inside North Korea,15 and Internet access to externalsites is blocked by state censorship. Chinese cellular signalspenetrate the border to a small extent,16 although NorthKorea is actively confiscating cell phones that operate onthese frequencies.17SOCIAL MESHIs it possible to enable a virally expanding network with a 100mW mass-market smartphone (e.g., Android-based) if we assumethe RF and radio layer is not constrained by legacy assumptionsWWW.FAS.ORG

PUBLIC INTEREST REPORTWINTER 2011Illustration 1: A peaceful road to Pyongyang.on spectrum allocation?Android-based smart-phones are available in large quantities at low cost with an open-source operating system. Resembling its unlicensed spectrum counterparts, the SocialMesh would be a peer-to-peer, self-organizing mesh network of user-friendly smartphones with access to the uncensored Internet. A SocialMesh would also have to be resistant to countermeasures that could be employed by the censorship nation, including physical disruption, jamming, andprotocol-based attacks.In a companion paper,18 network discovery and operation can be made resilient to physical disruption using wireless mesh routing to RF jamming through uncoordinateddirect sequence spread spectrum (UDSSS) or alternatives,and protocol-based attacks through use of public-key cryptography during link-establishment. The following countermeasures may be overcome through design of the SocialMesh:1. physical disruption of SocialMesh nodes2. impersonation of SocialMesh nodes3. RF jamming of SocialMesh nodes4. Before the mesh reaches ubiquitous penetration withend-users, the censoring nation can hunt down a smallnumber of users deterring further end-user adoption.4FEDERATION OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTSA smartphone radio operating in prime spectrum(250-750MHz) at 100 mW transmit power will be sufficient tocreate a SocialMesh network spanning the land frominternational waters to Pyongyang, providing secured broadbandaccess to the Internet for end-users. For an estimated cost in thetens of millions of dollars, the U.S. can adopt policies tostandardize, manufacture, and distribute SocialMesh nodes thatpermanently end government censorship across the worldthrough viral expansion and adoption by the residents of thesenations.DATA RATE AND RELIABILITY OF LINKSIN THE NETWORKIn Figure 1, the link budget is used to calculate the expectedsingle-link performance and reliability of this system as afunction of transmitter and (equivalent) interferer/jammerdistance under a variety of conditions, which is intended toapproximate the equivalent of many neighboring interferersand jammers. The Mathematica notebook used to generatethem is linked from Appendix A. Actual mileage will varydepending on the circumstances, but these can serve as aWWW.FAS.ORG

PUBLIC INTEREST REPORTrough guide. In the plot below, the x-y axes are the distanceof the transmitter and interferer to the receiver. The z-axisis the data rate achievable at transmit power of 200milliwatts.In Figure 1, unobstructed propagation is modeled byusing a path loss exponent of 2.5 where the interferer andtransmitter distance range from 0-10 km. The far end ofthe graph where distance to the interferer is 10km shows anear-ideal situation where interference is minimized andcommunication rate is noise-limited. Multi-megabitcommunication is possible for several kilometers and thecommunication rate rises into the tens and hundreds ofmegabits as the distance to the transmitter gets below onekm. The plot shown is cutoff at 100 Mbps, which is whythe plot appears flat as the distance to the transmitterapproaches zero. The effect of increasing interference ismodeled as the distance to the interferer is reduced from10km to below 4km where we start to see significanteffects.5FEDERATION OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTSWINTER 2011MODEL SPECS FOR SOCIALMESH NODEWe propose a SocialMesh network consisting of access nodes,routers, and communication links that would shift power ofchoice into the hands of end-users who want access toinformation, and away from repressive state censors.New developments need to be made to the communicationradio for operation in 250-750MHz (or other wideband) andsoftware for medium-access control, network routing (meshing),and secure design. The functional requirements for a SocialMeshinclude:1. Broadband: The network will supply broadband tosupport essential apps such as email, video, voice to anyonewho wants it, as much as allowed by physical constraints evenwith arbitrary countermeasures by state censors.2. Environmental Propagation: The nodes would need towork well in a variety of environments, including woodedareas, plains, and a variety of temperature ranges.WWW.FAS.ORG

PUBLIC INTEREST REPORT3. Power Consumption: Battery, solar, rechargingstations.4. Plug-and-Play: The need to involve end-users innetwork configuration or setup ought to be minimal orzero.5. Geographically Restricted Operation: Since theSocialMesh's radio will not be compliant with localregulations in “censorship-free” countries like SouthKorea, the nodes will have to include a GPS receiver tobe non-operational except in areas of interest such asNorth Korea. Using location, the node can beprogrammed by software to operate only within theborders of the area of interest and not transmit iflocated outside this area.Viral Deployment Strategy andBootstrapping IncentivesThe bootstrapping of a SocialMesh may begin with a smallnumber of network nodes bridging across key areas, drivenby individuals who are brave enough to take a risk. Islands ofconnectivity may form and eventually coalesce into a singleunified network. These are the three stages of networkdeployment based on the framework of Malcom Gladwell'sThe Tipping Point:201.Connectors: The SocialMesh nodes are firstoffered to curious, early adopters who areconnecters at heart and wish to circumvent thecommunications censors. This is known as the“seed” of the network that establishes its footprintearly on.2.Mavens: Next, the nodes are supplied to a broaderpopulation who want to grow the network and useit in a limited fashion, experiment with itscapabilities, and learn how to use it effectively.They will start to make information available viaTwitter and other sources. This will compriseabout 15 percent of the population.3.Salesmen: These individuals will convince others toadopt the SocialMesh in a viral manner, creatinglarge-scale growth in the network. SinceSocialMesh network capacity is limited, networkaccess may be scarce at times. This fact can be usedto motivate the salesmen through referralincentives. Through controls built into SocialMeshsoftware, salesmen can be granted preferentialaccess to the network over other users based on thenumber of additional SocialMesh users (nodes)they enable. Essentially the more users you sign up,the more bandwidth you have access to.6FEDERATION OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTSWINTER 2011Finally, a larger group of people (lurkers) will be compelled tojoin the communications network to “tune in” and watch thecontent being created by the previous two groups. They mayoperate their radios in “listen-only” mode to pay close attentionto what is transpiring in order to make better decisions. They willcomprise more than 50 percent of the population.Handset cost estimatesFor a representative bill of materials of a typical high-endsmartphone see “iPhone 3Gs Carries 178.96 BOM andManufacturing Cost, iSuppli Teardown Reveals”21 which lists thecost of an iPhone less than 200. The additional cost for addingthe new LTE standard to an existing phone is in the range of 50according to “Teardown of HTC ThunderBolt Provides Insightson Rumored LTE iPhone.”22Multiple antennas to enable the obfuscation of transmitterlocation would be embedded in the smart phone case. An extraantenna adds only pennies to the overall increase in cost. Themarginal cost increment is small — power amplifiers for handsetscost less than 1 currently.The eventual cost of the handsets is going to be dominatedby the supply chain, the volumes, and the maturity of theproducts (how long they are in production.) As an example,looking at the iPhone BOM, the multimode baseband IC is 13and the RF transceiver for all the 3G standards is 2.80. TheWAN communications electronics therefore account for less than10 percent of the total BOM of the handset.TOTAL COSTOutdoor mesh networks have been built for areas of severalhundred square miles covering entire metropolitan areas(Oklahoma City and Philadelphia are examples). To setup aSocialMesh the size of 100 x 100 square kilometers at a density of10 per square km would require on order of 100,000 SocialMeshnodes. In mass production, the hardware cost of each node maybe on the order of 100 each, bringing the total cost to 10million. Considerably reduced functionality phones can bedesigned in the range of 20.The initial investment needed to develop SocialMeshtechnology is likely to be on the order of tens of millions or less,as comparable technology has been developed and marketed bycompanies in the United States (e.g. Tropos Networks,Qualcomm, TZero).CONCLUSIONSThe U.S. Departments of State and Defense should take action toend state censorship worldwide. An official policy needs to beapproved for eliminating censorship worldwide based ondeployment of SocialMesh. Almost anyone can use and deploySocialMesh nodes once the design is developed, tested, andstandardized. The deployment of a SocialMesh in censorshipstates would permanently end censorship by enabling viraladoption among the resident population.WWW.FAS.ORG

PUBLIC INTEREST REPORTSocialMesh nodes can be designed to be resilient tojamming and disruption by censors based on user-friendlysmartphone technology and operating in a wireless mesharchitecture. By shedding legacy assumptions aboutspectrum allocation in censor-free nations, a smartphoneradio operating in prime spectrum (250-750MHz) at 100mW transmit power will be sufficient to create a SocialMeshover multiple mesh hops from international waters toprovide secure broadband communications to citizens ofthese countries.To maintain the balance of security with North Korea,South Korea maintains 12 brigades and the U.S. stations18,00023 troops between Seoul and the DMZ – costingtaxpayers in both countries several billion dollars annually.The total investment in SocialMesh technologydevelopment, mass manufacturing, and networkdeployment is estimated in the tens of millions of dollars, ora fraction of one percent of the annual cost of maintainingthe troop presence. The U.S. government should adoptpolicies and standardize the technology for SocialMesh tobe deployed in censorship states through viral distributionby citizens – to eliminate the differences that fuel nuclearproliferation.7FEDERATION OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTSWINTER 2011Appendix A: RF Calculations and 3-D plotsSee both the linked spreadsheet23 for the RF link budget and theMathematica Notebook used to generate the 3-D plot. Referencematerials are available online at Srikrishna is founder and formerly ChiefTechnical Officer of Tropos Networks. Tropos manufactureswireless mesh network routers based on the 802.11 (Wi-Fi)standard and are operated by 850 cities across the worldincluding Oklahoma City, OK, and Mountain View, CA. Heholds a Bachelor of Science in mathematics from theCalifornia Institute of Technology and a Master of Science inelectrical engineering and computer science from theMassachusetts Institute of Technology.Dr. Rajeev Krishnamoorthy was most-recently thefounder of TZero Technologies, a pioneer in Ultrawideband RF radios. While at Bell Labs, he was instrumental in the design and development of the early 802.11and 802.11b systems and in the formation of the802.11 (Wi-Fi standard). He holds a Bachelor ofScience from the California Institute of Technology anda Master of Science and PhD from Cornell University.WWW.FAS.ORG

PUBLIC INTEREST REPORTWINTER 2011REFERENCES AND NOTES1 Christian Pease, “William J. Perry: A Cold Warrior,” Palo Alto Online, November 10, 2011: story.php?id 23193“The Conventional Military Balance on the Korean Peninsula,” International Institute for Strategic Studies, -on-the-kore/23Michael Bociurkiw, “Revolution By Cell Phone,” Forbes, September 10, 2001: Shirky, “The Political Power of Social Media- Technology, the Public Sphere, and Political Change,” Foreign Affairs, January/February 2011: shirky/the-political-power-of-social-media?cid emc-dec11promoc-content-1130115Bill Wasik, “#Riot: Self-Organized, Hyper-Networked Revolts—Coming to a City Near You,” Wired, January 2012: riots/Racha Mourtada and Fadi Salem, “Civil Movements: The Impact of Facebook and Twitter,” Arab Social Media Report, Vol. 1. No 2, Dubai School ofGovernment, Governance and Innovation Program, May 2011: Glanz and John Markoff, “U.S. Underwrites Internet Detour Around Censors,” The New York Times, June, 12, 2011: .html8Scott Griffin, “Internet Pioneers - Paul Baran,” Staff Report, “Municipal Provision of Wireless Internet,” U.S. Federal Trade Commission, September 2006: wirelessinternet.pfd10Devabhaktuni Srikrishna, Emerging Technologies in Wireless LANs: Theory, Design, and Deployment, “Chapter 14: Usage and Performance Comparison ofMobile Metro Mesh Networks,” Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp 307 - 316.11 Mikhail Afanasyev, Tsuwei Chen, Geoffrey M. Voelker, and Alex C. Snoeren; “Usage Patterns in an Urban WiFi Network,” IEEE/ACM Transactions onNetworking, Vol. 18 No. 5, October 2010, pp 1359 - 1372: snoeren/papers/google-ton.pfd12Michelle Effros, Andrea Goldsmith and Muriel Médard, “ The Rise of Instant Wireless Networks,” Scientific American, March 22, 2010: the-rise-of-instant-wireless-networks13Wikipedia, “Radio Jamming in Korea”: jamming in Korea14“N. Korea's Jamming of GPS Signals Poses New Threat: Defense Minister,” Yonhap News Agency, October 5, 2010: ae Kim, “North Korea Allows Limited Internet Cellphone Service,” Associated Press, May 22, 2009: cellphone N.htm16Choe Sang-Hun, “North Koreans Use Cellphones to Bare Secrets,” The New York Times, March 29, 2010: s.html . See also Marguerite Reardon, “Report: North Korea Restricting Cell Phone Use,” CNET News, October 24, 2008: 3-10075083-94.html17 Amy Gahanna, “Cell Phone Crackdown As North Korea Prepares for Leadership Shift,” CNN, May 9, 2011: rea.crackdown.gahran/index.html18Devabhaktuni Srikrishna and Rajeev Krishnamoorthy, “Can Networks of Meshed Smartphones Scale Up to Ensure Public Access to Twitter During an Attack?”2011: MarkMalcom Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make A Big Difference, Back Bay Books (January 7, 2002): Andrew Rassweiler, “Press Release: iPhone 3G S Carries 178.96 BOM and Manufacturing Cost, iSuppli Teardown Reveals,” IHS, June 24, 2009: uppli-Teardown-Reveals.aspx21 Wayne Lam, “Press Release: Teardown of HTC ThunderBolt Provides Insights on Rumored LTE iPhone,” IHS, July 8, 2011: -LTE-iPhone.aspx22“The Conventional Military Balance on the Korean Peninsula,” International Institute for Strategic Studies, -on-the-kore/23The RF Link Budget: OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTSWWW.FAS.ORG

NORTH KOREA: A CASE STUDY Consider North Korea as an illustrative example. Pyongyang, North Korea's capital, is located only 20 miles from international waters and 150-200 miles from the South Korean border and Seoul. In theory, a wireless mesh (SocialMesh) spanning such distances and feeding off of external network links (backhaul) in South .

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