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andThe 65th Infantry in Korea, 1950–1953Honor and Fidelity: The 65th Infantry in Korea, 1950 –1953HonorFidelityGilberto N. VillahermosaUnited States ArmyCenter of Military HistoryGilberto N. Villahermosa

Honor and FidelityThe 65th Infantry in Korea, 1950–1953byGilberto N. VillahermosaCenter of Military HistoryUnited States ArmyWashington, D.C., 2009

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataVillahermosa, Gilberto N., 1958–Honor and fidelity : the 65th Infantry in Korea, 1950–1953 / byGilberto N. Villahermosa.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.1. United States. Army. Infantry Regiment, 65th. 2. Korean War,1950–1953—Regimental histories—United States. 3. Korean War,1950–1953—Participation, Puerto Rican. I. Title.DS919.V55 2009951.904’242—dc222009006453First Printing—CMH Pub 70–116–1

ContentsPageForeword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ixThe Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiPreface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiiiChapter1. Prologue: Before Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1The 65th in the Period of the Two World Wars . . . . . . . . .Postwar Doldrums and then Renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5102. From San Juan to Pusan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15The 65th Infantry Organizes for Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . .The 65th Departs for Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Borinqueneers Arrive in Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Regiment Enters Combat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182429323. With X Corps in North Korea: November–December 1950 . . .41Advance into Northeastern Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .X Corps in Crisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Evacuation from Hungnam to Pusan . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4659684. From Pusan to the Imjin: January–March 1951 . . . . . . . . .77Operations Wolfhound and Thunderbolt . . . . . . . . . . .Preparing to Liberate Seoul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .On to Seoul and the Imjin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8091985. From the Imjin Back to Seoul: April 1951 . . . . . . . . . . . .111The Chinese Spring Offensive of 1951 . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Plight of the Glosters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Eighth Army Regroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122127134iii

ChapterPage6. From Seoul to the Ch’orwon Valley: May–July 1951 . . . . . .139Battle Below the Soyang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Toward the Iron Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fighting for the Sobang Mountains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1401451537. Operations in the Iron Triangle: August–December 1951 . . . .163Operation Cleanup I and II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Into the Iron Triangle Once Again . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Defending Line Jamestown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1661731798. In Reserve: January–June 1952 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187Major Changes Within the 65th Infantry . . . . . . . . . . . .Korea 1952: The Outpost War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Personnel Problems in Eighth Army . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1911992059. Defeat at Outpost Kelly: July–September 1952 . . . . . . . . .209The Struggle for Outpost Kelly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Counterattack and Defeat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Analyzing the Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21522223110. Collapse at Jackson Heights: October 1952 . . . . . . . . . . .237Defense and Loss of Jackson Heights . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Breakdown on Jackson Heights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Assessing the Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24525226111. Courts-Martial, Reconstitution, and Redemption:November 1952–July 1953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265A Time of Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rebuilding the Regiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vindication and Homecoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275281286Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295Bibliographical Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307Map Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311iv

PageIndex of Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323Table3d Infantry Division Regimental Turnover, January–June 1952 . .205MapsNo.1. The Pusan Perimeter: 15–27 September 1950 . . . . . . . . . .2. X Corps Reenters Battle: 20 October–5 November 1950 . . . .3. The X Corps Zone: 26 November 1950 . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. Withdrawal from the Reservoir: 6–11 December 1950 . . . . .5. Withdrawal from Seoul, I and IX Corps: 4–7 January 1951 . . .6. Operation Ripper, Western Front: 6–31 March 1951 . . . . . .7. The Rugged and Dauntless Operations, Western Front:1–22 April 1951 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. The British 29th Brigade Sector: 25 April 1951 . . . . . . . . .9. Battle Below the Soyang, 16–20 May 1951 . . . . . . . . . . .10. The Iron Triangle: 1–4 July 1951 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. Outpost Kelly: 18–21 September 1952 . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. Jackson Heights: 25–28 October 1952 . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. Eighth Army Front, The West Sector: 31 March 1953 . . . . lumn of American artillery in Puerto Rico . . . . . . . . . . . .Maj. Gen. John R. Brooke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Maj. Lorenzo P. Davison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Soldiers of the 65th Infantry during maneuvers . . . . . . . . . . .The 65th Infantry marching onto the parade ground . . . . . . . .Lt. Col. Herman W. Dammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lt. Gen. Walton H. Walker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Boarding the USNS Marine Lynx in San Juan . . . . . . . . . . . .Shipboard class en route to Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Trucks carrying the 65th Infantry to the front . . . . . . . . . . . .Staff of the 2d Battalion near Kumch’on . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Col. William W. Harris, regimental commander . . . . . . . . . . .Checking the identification of Korean civilians . . . . . . . . . . .Colonel Harris with Maj. Gen. William F. Kean . . . . . . . . . .v23379121725263435373739

PageMaj. Gen. Edward M. Almond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Harris with Maj. Gen. William H. Turner . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Self-propelled 105-mm. howitzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Patrol bringing in captured enemy troops near Yonghung . . . . . .General Almond and Maj. Gen. Robert H. Soule . . . . . . . . . .Advancing patrol from the 3d Infantry Division . . . . . . . . . .General Almond and Brig. Gen. Armistead D. Mead . . . . . . . .Equipment and vehicles being evacuated from Wonsan . . . . . . .Laying a demolition charge on a bridge near Oro-ri . . . . . . . . .Colonel Harris at his regimental command post . . . . . . . . . . .Generals Soule and Mead during the Wonsan evacuation . . . . . .Lt. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .M4A3E8 medium tanks of the 65th Heavy Tank Company . . . . .Exploring a recaptured village during Operation Exploitation . . .Light machine-gun team engaging Communist troops . . . . . . .The 15th Infantry battling Chinese troops . . . . . . . . . . . . . .General Mead with Colonel Harris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Paratroopers preparing to board C–119 cargo planes . . . . . . . .Lt. Cols. Edward G. Allen and Dionisio S. Ojeda . . . . . . . . . .Infantrymen on a steep hillside trail near Uijongbu . . . . . . . . .Filipino troops moving to relieve elements of the 3d Battalion . . .M4A3E8 tank engaging Communist troops . . . . . . . . . . . . .Engineers constructing a bridge across the Hantan . . . . . . . . .Lt. Gen. James A. Van Fleet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Brig. Thomas Brodie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .British troops before pulling back from unrelenting attacks . . . .Positions of the Gloster Battalion south of the Imjin River . . . . .Lt. Col. Joseph P. Carne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .M24 Chaffee tank knocked out by Chinese mortar fire . . . . . . .Members of the Gloucestershire Regiment taken prisoner . . . . .Elements of the 65th Infantry moving south near Uijongbu . . . . .Soldiers of the 3d Reconnaissance Company . . . . . . . . . . . .American troops moving forward under enemy fire . . . . . . . . .Puerto Rican infantrymen seeking cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Engineers probing for hidden mines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Soldiers using a captured enemy footbridge . . . . . . . . . . . . .Riflemen moving out to attack Hill 717 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The effects of flash floods due to heavy torrential rains . . . . . . .Western half of Hill 487 secured by American troops . . . . . . . .Col. Julian B. Lindsey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Col. Juan C. Cordero-Davila . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5172183190

PageLt. Col. William T. Gleason . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lt. Cols. Charles H. Kederich and Thomas J. Gendron . . . . . . .Maj. Albert C. Davies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Maj. Gen. Robert L. Dulaney . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Soldiers constructing bunkers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Soldiers listening to the regimental orchestra . . . . . . . . . . . .Generals J. Lawton Collins and Mark W. Clark with ColonelCordero-Davila . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chaplain 1st Lt. Harvey F. Kochner blessing a flag . . . . . . . . .Standing guard near the 65th Infantry command post . . . . . . . .Aerial view of the Bubble, Little Nori, and Big Nori . . . . . . . .Carrying a wounded comrade back to friendly lines . . . . . . . .Firing a howitzer during the counterattack to regain Outpost Kelly . .Lt. Col. Lloyd E. Wills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Exhausted men of the 65th at rest during the battle for Kelly . . . .Aerial view of Jackson Heights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Capt. Willis D. Cronkhite Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A 60-mm. mortar firing position near Outpost Harry . . . . . . . .Sleeping bunker used by UN soldiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Western portion of Outpost Harry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Soldier equipped for raiding and patrolling operations, early 1953 . 77285287289Illustrations courtesy of the following: cover, 2, 3, 7, 9, 12, 17, 25, 26, 34,35, 37, 39, 42, 50, 52, 54, 63, 68, 71, 73, 74, 81, 83, 85, 88, 94, 100, 106,107, 109, 114, 116, 123, 126 (top), 136, 140, 144, 147, 149, 151, 159, 165,183, 190, 192, 197, 198, 201, 203, 207, 213, 214, 224, 226, 230, U.S. ArmySignal Corps; 105, U.S. Air Force; 115, 172, 217, 243, 277, 285, 287, 289,U.S. Army; 126 (bottom), 130, 131, 134, Soldiers of the GloucestershireMuseum; 227, Wills Family via Cynthia Holdren; 247, Willis D. CronkhiteIII.vii

ForewordOriginally formed at the turn of the nineteenth century to protectAmerica’s strategic interests in the Caribbean, the 65th Infantry wascomposed of locally recruited Puerto Rican soldiers led primarily bynon-Hispanic “continental” officers. Although in existence for almostfifty years, the 65th had not experienced intense combat until it was committed to the Korean peninsula in the initial months of the war. There,despite its lack of previous wartime service, the regiment did extremelywell from September 1950 to August 1951, establishing a solid reputationas a dependable infantry unit and a mainstay of the heavily embattled 3dInfantry Division. After that period, however, its performance began tosuffer as experienced cadre rotated out of the regiment and were replacedby new leaders and soldiers who lacked the skills and special cohesivebonds displayed by their predecessors. The net result was a highly publicized series of incidents and disciplinary actions that have never beenadequately explained or understood.This study reviews the performance of the 65th Infantry throughoutthe war, providing insights not only into the regiment’s unique problemsbut also into the status of the U.S. Army’s combat forces during one of themost trying periods in its history. Its findings underscore the critical impactof personnel-rotation policies, ethnic and organizational prejudices, andthe work of small-unit leaders on combat readiness and battlefield success.They also illustrate the critical role of senior leaders in analyzing problemsin these areas in a timely fashion and instituting effective reforms. Forthe 65th, a catastrophic shortage of trained NCOs, unaddressed languageproblems, and inept command leadership temporarily undermined its combat effectiveness. Making matters worse, senior commanders reacted in aheavy-handed manner with little analysis of what was really going on. Inthe end, it was the martial traditions of the 65th’s Hispanic soldiers and ahost of new leaders willing to address its special problems that pulled theunit through.The regiment’s colors remained in Korea until November 1954, whenthe unit returned to Puerto Rico. Today, the 1st Battalion of the 65th Infantryremains as part of the Puerto Rican National Guard, a testimony to a uniquecombat unit that served the United States Army well for over one hundredix

years. Yet, what has sometimes been called the Forgotten War is still richin lessons that the Army of today can ill afford to forget if it is to succeedon the battlefields of tomorrow.Washington, D.C.2 June 2009Jeffrey J. ClarkeChief of Military Historyx

The AuthorCol. Gilberto N. Villahermosa is a 1980 graduate of West Point, wherehe received a Bachelor of Science in Engineering. Commissioned an Armorofficer, he has served with troops in Germany and the United States, including several tours with the XVIII Airborne Corps and the 82d AirborneDivision at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. His staff experience includes assignments with the Joint Staff; Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe;International Security Assistance Force, Afghanistan; and Combined JointTask Force, Allied Force North, Netherlands. Colonel Villahermosa hasearned a Master in International Affairs, Master in Philosophy of PoliticalScience, and Certificate in Advanced Soviet Studies from the HarrimanInstitute, all at Columbia University. Born in San Juan, Puerto Rico, he isfluent in Spanish and Russian. He is currently assigned as the chief, Officeof Defense Cooperation, U.S. Embassy, Sana’a, Yemen.xi

PrefaceIn 1999, at the urging of Puerto Rican veterans who felt that officialrecognition was overdue, Secretary of the Army Louis E. Caldera asked theU.S. Army Center of Military History to conduct a full and impartial examination of the 65th Infantry’s performance in the Korean War. The first studyI prepared looked at the regiment’s controversial actions at Outpost Kellyand Jackson Heights in 1952. Later, the chief of military history, Brig.Gen. John S. Brown, taking advantage of rich source material, decided toexpand the account into a full-length treatment of the Puerto Rican unit’scombat experiences across the entire three-year span of a deadly war. Thisbook is the result.The 65th left San Juan, Puerto Rico, in much better shape than mostU.S. infantry regiments headed for Korea. Its ranks were filled with experienced regulars and enthusiastic prior-service volunteers. During the firstyear of the war, the 65th experienced many triumphs and few setbacks. Thissituation began to change as personnel-rotation policies led to the departure of combat-proven veterans who were replaced by mobilized PuertoRican National Guard soldiers beginning in the summer of 1951. When thebulk of the National Guardsmen left a year later, they were replaced withdraftees who lacked English-language skills. The story of the regiment,which labored under mounting difficulties, makes for a compelling studyof stresses placed upon infantry units in combat.During the course of my research and writing, I have received supportand encouragement from many individuals. First and foremost, I remaindeeply indebted to successive chiefs of military history, Brig. Gen. JohnS. Brown and Dr. Jeffrey J. Clarke, for recognizing the value of this workand helping to see it through to completion. The leadership of HistoriesDivision, notably Drs. Richard W. Stewart and Joel D. Meyerson, alsocontributed importantly to this volume, as did several of my colleaguesin the division: Dr. William M. Donnelly, Dr. William M. Hammond, JonT. Hoffman, and Dr. Erik B. Villard. Special thanks go to my friend, Lt.Col. (Ret.) Mark J. Reardon, also of Histories Division, who juggled manypriorities to remain involved with every aspect of the book’s developmentafter my departure from the Center for another assignment. The narrativeis a better one for his generosity.xiii

Others at the Center of Military History also deserve mention. InPublishing Division, Diane M. Donovan edited the text with painstaking dedication and attention to detail; Sherry L. Dowdy updated existing maps and created new ones to accompany the text and photographs;Beth F. Mackenzie, chief of Production Branch, helped in the development of the map plan and in the selection and procurement of photographs.Frank R. Shirer and James B. Knight of Field Programs and HistoricalServices Division located key documents and books relating to the MilitaryDepartment of Puerto Rico and the 65th Infantry.Useful comments came from the review panel chaired by Dr. RichardW. Stewart, now the Center’s chief historian. For the panel’s diligence andobservations, I wish to acknowledge the efforts of its members: Dr. AllanR. Millett, Cols. (Ret.) Kenneth E. Hamburger and William T. Bowers, andDr. William M. Donnelly.A number of people outside the Center provided valuable advice andassistance, including Dr. Richard J. Sommers and David A. Keogh, whoprovided access to the James Van Fleet Papers, the Clay Blair Collection,and the Korean Veterans Questionnaires maintained by the U.S. ArmyMilitary History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania; the staff of theGeneral Archives of Puerto Rico in San Juan, Puerto Rico; and GeorgeStreatfeild, curator of the Soldiers of Gloucestershire Military Museum,Gloucester, England, and Graham Gordon, a museum staff member, whoprovided photographs and accounts of the “Glosters” in Korea. Willis D.Cronkhite Jr. provided an interview conducted with his father, Capt. WillisD. Cronkhite, commander of Company F at Jackson Heights. I also owe adebt of gratitude to Cynthia Holdren, daughter of Lt. Col. Lloyd E. Wills,who donated photographs of her father as a battalion commander with the65th Infantry in 1952.Many 65th Infantry combat veterans assisted me with their knowledgeof events and personalities. Col. (Ret.) George D. Jackson explained indetail the fighting on Jackson Heights during October 1952. Col. (Ret.)William F. Friedman recounted the 65th Infantry’s deployment to Koreaand its combat performance from September 1950 through April 1951. Ibenefited from Lt. Col. Carlos Betances-Ramirez’s willingness to share hisexperiences as the 2d Battalion’s commanding officer during the autumnof 1952. Colonel Betances-Ramirez opened his home to me for a lengthysession on Outpost Kelly and Jackson Heights. Other veterans who contributed include Charles E. Boyle, Walter B. Clark, Winfred G. Skelton Jr.,and Duquesne A. Wolf.Finally, I would like to thank my wife Natalie and my sons Alexander,Nicholas, and Michael for their support, understanding, and assistance during the time spent creating this volume. My father, Jesus Villahermosa,xiv

whose service as a young infantryman in the 65th Infantry during theKorean War inspired me to begin this project, also assisted in ways toonumerous to mention.It remains only to note that the conclusions and interpretationsexpressed in this book are mine alone and that I am solely responsible forany errors. The views expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Departments of the Army and Defense or theU.S. government.Sana’a, Yemen2 June 2009Gilberto N. VillahermosaColonel, U.S. Armyxv

Honor and FidelityThe 65th Infantry in Korea, 1950–1953

Chapter 1Prologue: Before KoreaOn 18 October 1898, following the end of the Spanish-American War,the U.S. War Department established the Department of Puerto Rico, withheadquarters in San Juan, to administer the island. The department wasresponsible for all insular military affairs on Puerto Rico as well as theislands and keys adjacent and belonging to it.1 Maj. Gen. John R. Brooke wasappointed the first commander of the department and the military governorof the island. The withdrawal of Spanish troops and police after the signingof the peace protocol was followed by what General Brooke described as“a Saturnalia of crime,” including “forced contributions, out-and-out robbery, burning, assassinations,” and “violence to women.”2 The U.S. Armyencountered great difficulty in stopping this crime wave. Furthermore, ithad to do so with a diminishing number of troops as President WilliamMcKinley had ordered one hundred thousand U.S. Volunteers mustered outof service and returned to the United States as quickly as possible. The burden of administering the island thus quickly passed to the Regular Army.Maj. Gen. Guy V. Henry, U.S. Volunteers, replaced Brooke as thedepartment commander on 9 December 1898. When Henry took command, the Department of Puerto Rico had only 176 officers and about 3,000enlisted men.3 This was about one-third of the troops previously employedby the Spanish to administer the island.4 To offset troop shortages, GeneralHenry initially retained many of the police and firefighting organizationsthe Spanish had established. A new insular police force of 313 members,charged with the “prosecution of evil-doers, the capture of fugitives, and1Annual Reports of the War Department for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1899, 1899,vol. 1, pt. 3, pp. 319, 376 (hereafter cited as WD Annual Reports, 1899).2Annual Reports of the War Department for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1900, 1902,vol. 1, pt. 6, p. 97 (hereafter cited as WD Annual Reports, 1900).3“General Return of Exhibit Showing the Actual Strength of the Army of the UnitedStates According to the Latest Returns Received at the Adjutant General’s Office,” in WDAnnual Reports, 1899, vol. 1, pt. 3, p. 382.4WD Annual Reports, 1900, vol. 1, pt. 13, p. 17.

Honor and FidelityColumn of American artillery entering Ponce, Puerto Rico, in August 1898the preservation of public order,” was formed between 25 and 27 January1899.5While the insular police force was well suited to deter minor criminalactivity, it was poorly prepared and equipped to confront organized gangs,armed insurrection, or external aggression. American officials determinedthat a standing military force would be needed to accomplish those tasks.Rather than permanently stationing large numbers of American troops inPuerto Rico, the War Department cabled General Henry in February 1899to ask for his views as to the advisability of recruiting a battalion of infantryfrom the island’s population.6 Henry responded that military employment ofthe island’s native population “may prove to have an excellent effect uponthe people of Porto Rico” and advised that the island possessed “an abundance of fine material” from which soldiers could be selected.7 In response,the War Department ordered Henry to form four companies of one hundredmen each “from among the natives of the islands for such military serviceas he may deem it desirable.”8 On 2 March 1899, Congress formally authorized the formation of the Puerto Rican Battalion of Volunteer Infantry.Maj. Lorenzo P. Davison became the first commander of the PuertoRico Battalion. An experienced officer, Davison was an 1885 graduate ofWest Point. He had previously served on frontier duty as a lieutenant withthe U.S. 7th Cavalry and 11th Infantry. During the Spanish-American War,he had fought with the 5th Infantry. Shortly after Congress authorized theIbid., p. 50.Army and Navy Journal (18 March 1899): 670.7Ibid.8Ibid.562

Prologue: Before KoreaGeneral BrookeMajor Davisonformation of the Puerto Rico Battalion, Davison received orders from theWar Department to take command of the newly raised unit. Along with theassignment came a promotion to major in the U.S. Volunteers.9By the end of the first year of existence, the Puerto Rico Battalion hadproven so effective that the Army decided to expand the unit. The Armyalso decided to mount the unit on horseback to give it the capability tomove quickly to any threatened point on the island. On 12 February 1900,Secretary of War Elihu Root issued instructions to organize a mounted battalion of Puerto Ricans. Department of Puerto Rico General Order no. 34directed that this battalion would consist of four companies (E, F, G, and H)and be designated the Mounted Battalion of the Puerto Rico Regiment. Itwas to be equipped with Springfield carbines; Colt pistols; and U.S. Armysaddles, bridles, and saddle blankets.10On 20 February, Headquarters, Department of Puerto Rico, issuedGeneral Order no. 38, formally designating both battalions as the Puerto9The U.S. 5th Infantry would provide three commanding officers to the Puerto RicoBattalion and later the Puerto Rico Regiment. Official Army Register for 1901 (Washington,D.C.: Adjutant General’s Office, 1900), p. 142; Register of Graduates and Former Cadets,1802–1980 (West Point, N.Y.: U.S. Military Academy, Association of Graduates, 1980), p.272.10WD Annual Reports, 1900, vol. 1, pt. 13, p. 106.3

Honor and FidelityRico Regiment, U.S. Volunteers. This made it the last of the U.S. Volunteerregiments to be formed in the wake of the Spanish-American War. Theorder directed that the second battalion be stationed at Camp Henry in themountainous Cayey region of southeastern Puerto Rico.On 1 May 1900, the military governor of Puerto Rico transferred controlof all civil affairs to a new civilian governor. Two weeks later, the Departmentof Puerto Rico was absorbed by the Department of the East.11 At that time,the island’s garrison numbered 1,635 officers and men, including the 900officers and men of the Puerto Rico Regiment and 475 police. Natives thusmade up the overwhelming percentage of military forces stationed there.12By early the following year, most of the American military personnel still inPuerto Rico were redeployed back to the mainland United States.On 20 May 1901, the War Department directed that the existing regiment be replaced by a new formation, designated as the Puerto RicoProvisional Regiment of Infantry. The new organization would consist oftwo battalions of four companies each and a band. With these modifications, the Puerto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry came closer tomirroring the organization of Regular U.S. Army formations. Althougheach infantry company was authorized 104 officers and enlisted men, theunit’s ranks would not be at full strength because of a presidential orderimposing on the regiment a ceiling of 554 active-duty personnel.13 Thiswas not an uncommon situation in U.S. Army units of the period. In orderto meet peacetime fiscal constraints, most regiments consisted of cadreunits that could be augmented with volunteers in the event of hostilities.On 30 June 1908, the Puerto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantrybecame part of the Regular Army as directed by an act of Congress andGeneral Order no. 100 of the War De

United States Army Center of Military History. Honor and Fidelity The 65th Infantry in Korea, 1950-1953 . This study reviews the performance of the 65th Infantry throughout . The regiment's colors remained in Korea until November 1954, when the unit returned to Puerto Rico. Today, the 1st Battalion of the 65th Infantry

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Simulation Fidelity to the Digital Twin Applying Levels of Process Model Fidelity Applying the correct level of process model fidelity can be difficult with an incorrect approach resulting in wasted time and money. On one hand, specifications often dictate a high fidelity model while neglecting the requirements of dynamics and real-time response.

§ High-Fidelity Prototypes (Mockup & Software Prototype) § Analysed the number of style properties of a button across different fidelity levels (Sketch: 7 à Mockup: 37 à Product: 71) Fidelity Speed Cost Navigation Interactivity Responsivene Style Information Low-Fidelity Protot

applies to the Active Army, the Army National Guard/United States Army Reserve, and the Marine Corps/Marine Corps Reserve of the United States unless otherwise stated. The proponent of ATP 3-06/ MCTP 12-10B. is the United States Army Combined Arms Center. The preparing agency is the Combined Arms Doctrine Directorate, United States Army .

Readers should refer to Army Doctrine Reference Publication (ADRP) 6-22, Army Leadership, for detailed explanations of the Army leadership principles. The proponent of ADP 6-22 is the United States Army Combined Arms Center. The preparing agency is the Center for Army Leadership, U.S. Army

PACIFIC COAST HIGHWAY P.8 United States THE ETERNAL WEST P.14 United States ROUTE 66 P.22 United States THE BLUES HIGHWAY P.24 United States THE KEYS: FLORIDA FROM ISLAND TO ISLAND P.26 United States ROUTE 550: THE MILLION DOLLAR HIGHWAY P.34 United States HAWAII: THE ROAD TO HANA P.42 United States OTHER

mortar section to company. This publication applies to the Active Army, the Army National Guard (ARNG)/Army National Guard of the United States (ARNGUS), and the United States Army Reserve (USAR) unless otherwise stated. The proponent of this publication is the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). The

FM 3-13 applies to the Active Army, Army National Guard (ARNG)/Army National Guard of the United States (ARNGUS), and the United States Army Reserve (USAR) unless otherwise stated. The p

4. Applicability. The ABMP Handbook version 2 is applicable to all Army installations and training sites including those of United States Army Reserve and United States Army National Guard. 5. The point of contact for this memorandum is Ms. Earlene Lavender, 703-695-6937, or earlene.y.lavender.civ@mail.mil. u ef1?,--Sergeant Major, U.S. Army

ing the Department of the Army seal, em-blem, and Branch of Service plaques. Applicability. the policy proponent. Refer to AR 25. This regulation applies to the Regular Army, the Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States, and the U.S. Army Reserve, unless

Information Management The Army Records Information Management System (ARIMS) *Army Regulation 25–400–2 Effective 2 November 2007 History. This publication is a rapid action r e v i s i o n . T h e p o r t i o n s a f f e c t e d b y t h i s r a p i d a c t i o n r e v i s i o n a r e l i s t e d i n t h e summary of change. Summary.File Size: 377KBPage Count: 39Explore furtherMaintaining Unit Supply Files ARIMS Training.pdfdocs.google.comInformation Brochure Army Records Information Management .www.benning.army.milCULINARY OUTPOST FILES - United States Armyquartermaster.army.milHow to find Record Number on ARIMS.pptx - Insert the .www.coursehero.comArmy Publishing Directoratearmypubs.army.milRecommended to you based on what's popular Feedback

Readers should refer to Army Doctrine Reference Publication (ADRP) 6-22, Army Leadership, for detailed explanations of the Army leadership principles. The proponent of ADP 6-22 is the United States Army Combined Arms Center. The preparing agency is the Center for Army Leadership, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center - Leader Development and Education.

3 4th Army V-Iota 85 5th Army V-Omicron 85 6th Army V-Kappa 86 7th Army V-Iota 86 8th Army V-Pi 86 9th Army V-Lambda 87 10th Army V-Nu 87 11th Army V-Eta 87

Doing Business with Fidelity Terms and conditions included. This document is designed to give you all the important information you need to help you decide whether our ISAs, the Fidelity SIPP and the Fidelity Investment Account are right for you. It’s quite detailed and covers

Brochure of Fidelity Retirement Master Trust for further information on the Hang Seng Index including the disclaimer of the index provider. Fidelity SaveEasy Funds are not savings deposits and involve investment risks. This product may not be suitable for everyone. . Fidelity PowerPoint Presentation

In the section below, “Fidelity,” “us,” and “we” refer to Fidelity Brokerage Services LLC, Fidelity Management Trust Company, and National Financial Services LLC and their affiliates, and their employees, agents, representatives, shareholders, successors, and assigns as the context

The purposes of measuring fidelity in this study were to ensure that the intervention was delivered as designed, and to determine whether the level of fidelity impacted treat-ment outcomes. The case study follows the development and utilization of the fidelity monitoring system through all five steps of the Field Guide.

Index to Indiana Statistics in the Decennial Censuses Contents 3rd Census of the United States (1810) 2 4th Census of the United States (1820) 3 5th Census of the United States (1830) 4 6th Census of the United States (1840) 5 7th Census of the United States (1850) 7 8th Census of the United States (1860) 10 9th Census of the United States (1870) 17

CCSS English/Language Arts Standards Reading: Informational Text Second Grade Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure Integration of Knowledge and Ideas. Indicator Date Taught Date Retaught Date Reviewed Date Assessed Date Re-Assessed CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.2.1 Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support .