Comparison of Standards andTechnical Requirements of GridConnected Wind Power Plantsin China and the United StatesDavid Wenzhong GaoAlternative Power Innovations, LLCEduard Muljadi, Tian Tian, and Mackay MillerNational Renewable Energy LaboratoryWeisheng WangChina Electric Power Research InstituteNREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Energy Efficiency & Renewable EnergyOperated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLCThis report is available at no cost from the National Renewable EnergyLaboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.Technical ReportNREL/TP-5D00-64225September 2016Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308
Comparison of Standards andTechnical Requirements of GridConnected Wind Power Plantsin China and the United StatesDavid Wenzhong GaoAlternative Power Innovations, LLCEduard Muljadi, Tian Tian, and Mackay MillerNational Renewable Energy LaboratoryWeisheng WangChina Electric Power Research InstitutePrepared under Task Nos. IGIN.1840 and IGIN.1850NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Energy Efficiency & Renewable EnergyOperated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLCThis report is available at no cost from the National Renewable EnergyLaboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.National Renewable Energy Laboratory15013 Denver West ParkwayGolden, CO 80401303-275-3000 www.nrel.govTechnical ReportNREL/TP-5D00-64225September 2016Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308
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AcknowledgmentsThis report was funded under the international team of the U.S.- China Renewable EnergyPartnership through the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency andRenewable Energy’s international team. The authors would like to thank the U.S. ChinaRenewable Energy Partnership team for the opportunity to collaborate on the scoping anddevelopment of this study. For their review and comments, the authors would like to thankSandip Sharma from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas; Yong Cheol Kang from ChonbukNational University, Korea; Nirmal-Kumar C. Nair from the University of Auckland, NewZealand; and Arlene Fetizanan from the U.S. Department of Energy. The authors also thankKatie Wensuc of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for editorial review and support.Any errors or omissions are solely the responsibility of the authors.iiiThis report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.
List of msMVAMWNERCPCCPOISCADAVARWPPWTGElectric Reliability Council of TexasFederal Energy Regulatory Commissiongigawatthigh-voltage ride-throughhertzInstitute of Electrical and Electronics EngineersIndependent System Operator–New EnglandIntegration of Variable Generation Task ForcekilovoltLarge Generator Interconnection Agreementlow-voltage h American Electric Reliability Corporationpoint of common couplingpoint of interconnectionsupervisory control and data acquisitionvolt-ampere reactivewind power plantwind turbine generatorivThis report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.
Executive SummaryThe rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focalpoints in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for windpower plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric powergrid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the UnitedStates to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the developmentof wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-throughcapability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind powerforecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the world’s two largestmarkets of wind power.This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China tothose in the United States. The major goals of this report are to: Understand the current status of WPP interconnection standards in China and the UnitedStates to provide a good reference for the development and enhancement of theframework of related wind power standards in both countries Analyze and compare typical utility connection requirements for WPPs to provide a goodreference for the development and enhancement of WPP interconnection requirements inboth countries Understand the specific and unique technical requirements for WPPs in China to be ableto make relevant recommendations to related standards development organizations at theinternational level.vThis report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.
Table of Contents12Introduction . 11.11.2Standards Studied . 21.1.1 United States . 21.1.2 China . 3Comparison Items . 4Comparison of Technical Requirements . 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.82.9Scope of the Standards . 6Power Quality. 72.2.1 Harmonics . 72.2.2 Flicker . 92.2.3 Voltage Deviation . 102.2.4 Voltage Imbalance. 112.2.5 Voltage Variation . 12Active Power/Reactive Power . 132.3.1 Active Power . 132.3.2 Reactive Power. 17Voltage Control . 20Active Power Feed-In at Overfrequency/Underfrequency . 23Frequency Range . 24Voltage Ride-Through Capability . 262.7.1 China’s Standards. 262.7.2 U.S. Standards . 28Wind Power Forecasting . 342.8.1 China’s Standards. 342.8.2 U.S. Standards . 35Communications Requirements . 362.9.1 China’s Standards. 362.9.2 U.S. Standards . 373 Summary . 39References . 40viThis report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.
List of FiguresFigure 1. Off-nominal frequency capability curve under NERC generator frequency and voltageprotective relay settings . 25Figure 2. LVRT requirements for WPP interconnection in China (GB/T 19963) . 27Figure 3. LVRT requirements in the United States (FERC Order No. 661) . 29Figure 4. Voltage ride-through time duration curve (NERC PRC-024-1) . 31Figure 5. Default voltage ride-through boundaries for intermittent renewable resources in ERCOT(ERCOT Nodal Operating Guides) . 32Figure 6. Comparison of LVRT requirements in China to those in the United States. 33Figure 7. HVRT requirements under NERC. 33viiThis report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.
List of TablesTable 1. Key U.S. Standards Studied . 3Table 2. Key China Standards Studied . 4Table 3. Comparison Items . 5Table 4. Scope: China’s Standards . 6Table 5. Scope: U.S. Standards . 7Table 6. Summary of the Comparison of the Scope of the Standards . 7Table 7. Harmonics: China’s Standards . 8Table 8. Harmonics: U.S. Standards . 9Table 9. Summary of the Comparison of the Standards for Harmonics . 9Table 10. Flicker: China’s Standards . 10Table 11. Flicker: U.S. Standards . 10Table 12. Voltage Deviation: China’s Standards . 11Table 13. Voltage Deviation: U.S. Standards . 11Table 14. Summary of the Comparison of the Standards for Voltage Deviation . 11Table 15. Voltage Imbalance: China’s Standards . 12Table 16. Summary of the Comparison of the Standards for Voltage Imbalance . 12Table 17. Voltage Variation: China’s Standards . 12Table 18. Voltage Variation Specifications: China’s Standards . 13Table 19. Active Power Control: China’s Standards . 13Table 20. Active Power Control: U.S. Standards . 15Table 21. Summary of the Comparison of the Standards for Active Power Control . 17Table 22. Reactive Power: China’s Standard. 17Table 23. Reactive Power: U.S. Standards . 18Table 24. Voltage Control: China’s Standards . 20Table 25. Voltage Control: U.S. Standards . 21Table 26. Active Power Feed-In: China’s Standards . 23Table 27. Active Power Feed-In: U.S. Standards . 23Table 28. Summary of the Comparison of the Standards for Active Power Feed-In . 24Table 29. Frequency Range: China’s Standards . 24Table 30. Frequency Range: U.S. Standards . 25Table 31. ERCOT’s Operating Guides 2.6.2 Underfrequency and Overfrequency Requirements. 26Table 32. LVRT Capability: China’s Standards . 27Table 33. LVRT Capability: U.S. Standards . 28Table 34. Comparative Summary of Standards for Voltage Ride-through Capability . 33Table 35. Wind Power Forecasting: China’s Standards. 34Table 36. Wind Power Forecasting: U.S. Standards . 35Table 37. Summary of the Comparison of the Wind Power Forecasting Standards . 36Table 38. Communications Requirements: China’s Standards . 36Table 39. Communications Requirements: U.S. Standards . 37Table 40. Summary of the Comparison of the Standards for the Communications Requirements . 38viiiThis report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.
1 IntroductionWind energy has experienced significant growth, accumulating 369,597 GW of global installedcapacity at the end of 2014 . In the United States, wind energy installations totaled more than61 GW at the end of 2014, contributing 4.4% of the country’s total electricity generation .China has become one of the fastest growing markets for wind power. At the end of 2014, Chinahad connected 96.37 GW of wind power to the grid, which accounted for 7% of the totalinstalled capacity . Both China and the United States have developed robust wind generationmarkets coupled with ambitious targets that point to scenarios of high penetrations of windpower in the future.In both countries, the rapid deployment of wind power has posed new challenges in maintaininggrid stability and reliability in large-scale electric power system operations. China, in particular,has suffered severe integration issues because technical standards for wind power plants (WPPs)lagged behind the surge in installations. The lack of appropriate standardization caused manyWPP developers in the industry to maximize the power rating using inexpensive technologywithout concern for power quality . Lacking low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability,many wind turbines disconnected from the grid during voltage dips . Low-quality powergenerated from wind was exacerbated by weak grids in high-wind regions in the western andnorthern parts of China as well as the massive interconnection of WPPs from the major windbases . These factors, along with a number of other technical and policy challenges,contributed to low utilization rates of wind power in China—wind curtailment rates reached17.1% in 2012, recording only 1,890 hours of utilization . In 2011, the Chinese governmentissued a mandate for WPPs and turbines to meet a set of interconnection standards, enforcingnational compliance for the first time . To increase the amount of wind energy generation andenhance grid performance, China has plans to continuously update and optimize its grid code inaccordance with the penetration level and strength of the regional power networks.The United States experienced similar challenges as wind power reached commercial viability.As wind turbine installations moved beyond the relatively strong portion of the network inNorthern California, many plants experienced voltage problems due to inadequate reactive powersupply in a relatively weak transmission network . The majority of the commercial winddevelopments in high-wind resource areas were interconnected to relatively weak portions of thebulk power systems in Texas and the upper Great Plains, away from load centers. Since the early2000s, grid codes have evolved under different jurisdictions in the United States, helping todefine WPP interconnection specifications within the bulk power system and driveimprovements in wind turbine system design, particularly for control and electric power systems.This report compares standards and technical requirements for grid-connected WPPs in China tothose in the United States. The main objectives are to: Understand the current status of WPP interconnection standards in China and the UnitedStates to provide reference for the development and enhancement of the wind powerstandardization framework in both countries Analyze and compare utility connection requirements for power quality, LVRTcapability, active and reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting1This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.
to define and lower the technical barriers for wind turbine equipment suppliers to bothcountries Understand the specific and unique characteristics of China’s technical requirements forWPPs to make recommendations to relevant standards development organizations at theinternational level.This study focuses on requirements for large-scale wind power generation and interconnection inthe bulk power system. Note that wind power systems that are considered “distributedgeneration” (less than 20 MW) merit additional research and are not covered here. Further, thereport heavily relies on the original standards, rules, and regulations that are listed in thereferences section. In many cases, information is directly taken from relevant original sources ofthese standards for the purpose of comparative analysis.1.1 Standards StudiedTo ensure that wind turbine generators (WTGs) behave more like conventional power plantswith synchronous generators, transmission system operators in various countries have designedtechnical standards for WPPs. These interconnection standards require WPPs to contribute topower system (voltage and frequency) control and define turbine behavior during griddisturbances . In addition to maintaining transmission stability, wind grid codes also increasethe transparency of technical negotiations between the power plant and transmission systemoperators and outline the technical parameters for wind power equipment providers .1.1.1 United StatesThe surge in variable generation from wind prompted the development of formal technicalinterconnection procedures and standards for wind power systems in the United States . TheU.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s 1 (FERC)’s 2003 order (FERC Order No. 2003)proposed a “Large Generator Interconnection Procedure” and a “Large GeneratorInterconnection Agreement” (LGIA) for all generators with a generation capacity greater than 20MW, but it made no distinction between synchronous and variable-speed generators . Inresponse, the wind industry, including the American Wind Energy Association and the WesternElectricity Coordinating Council, developed proposals for interconnection standards andguidelines specific to wind generation . In June 2005, FERC issued Order No. 661, requiringpublic utilities to include technical requirements and standard procedures for the interconnectionof large wind-generating plants in their large generator interconnection procedures and LGIAs. The requirements address LVRT capability, supervisory control and data acquisition(SCADA) capability, and power factor design criteria. After the American Wind EnergyAssociation and the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 jointly proposedchanges to the LVRT standard, FERC issued Order No. 661-A in December 2005, updating theLVRT provision in Order No. 661 .FERC, a U.S. federal agency, has jurisdiction over interstate electricity sales, wholesale electric rates, and otherenergy matters.2NERC, a nonprofit regulatory authority, ensures electric reliability in North America under the oversight of FERCand government authorities in Canada. NERC develops and enforces reliability standards and has jurisdiction overusers, owners, and operators of the bulk electric power system.12This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.
In 2012, NERC’s Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) 3 released a specialassessment of its “Interconnection Requirements for Variable Generation” to address voltage andfrequency ride-through, reactive and real power control, and frequency/inertial response criteriaspecific to the technical characteristics of variable generation . Recommendations fromIVGTF to update standards and procedures are currently being implemented.In compliance with NERC and FERC standards, regional reliability organizations haveestablished regional versions of the grid codes. The two regional grid codes studied here are fromthe Independent System Operator–New England (ISO-NE) and the Electric Reliability Councilof Texas (ERCOT). These two regional grid codes were studied because both have relativelyhigh wind installation targets, designed their grid codes after extensive studies, and arerepresentative of subnational grid codes. In November 2009, ISO-NE released the “TechnicalRequirements for Wind Generation Interconnection and Integration” as part of its windintegration study, commissioned “in anticipation of significant wind generation development”. Prepared by GE, EnerNex, and AWS Trupower, the study makes specific recommendationsfor ISO-NE’s wind interconnection policies and practices. ERCOT has incorporated manytechnical requirements for WPPs into its “Nodal Operating Guides,” which specifies practicesfor the ERCOT system in congruence with NERC standards and ERCOT “Nodal Protocols.” InJuly 2010, ERCOT released a summary of the significant WPP requirements in its region thatspecified the three requirements placed on WTGs in ERCOT “above and beyond their generalresponsibilities as interconnected generators”: voltage ride-through, reactive support, andfrequency response .Table 1. Key U.S. Standards StudiedNo.StandardTitleVersion1FERC Order No. 661/661AInterconnection for Wind Energy20052NERC2012 Special Assessment: Interconnection Requirements forVariable Generation20123ERCOT“Summary of Significant Wind Power Plant Requirements inERCOT”; ERCOT Nodal Operating Guides; GenerationInterconnection or Change Request Procedure20104ISO-NETechnical Requirements for Wind Generation Interconnectionand Integration; ISO-NE Large Generator InterconnectionProcedures; ISO New England Operating Procedure20091.1.2 ChinaWind integration challenges in China’s bulk power system called for integration standards. In2005, the China Electric Power Research Institute led the development of the “Technical Rulesfor Connecting Wind Farm to Power Systems,” GB/Z 19963-2005 . The rules werepublished at the beginning of China’s wind power industry in the early to mid-2000s and wereconsidered recommendations rather than compulsory standards. These were later replaced byGB/T 19963-2011 as the industry matured .For more information on IVGTF, see his report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.
In December 2009, China’s State Grid Corporation issued the enterprise standard “TechnicalRule for Connecting Wind Farm Into Power Grid,” Q/GDW 392-2009 , which establishedthat WPPs should have power control, wind power forecasting, LVRT, and communicationscapabilities to be compatible with China’s electric power grid system. Nevertheless, withoutofficial guidance from the government, these standards were not enforceable nationally.In August 2011, the National Energy Administration issued the industry standard on the “WindPower Interconnection Technical Regulations,” NB/T 31003-2011, which specified the design oftechnical requirements for large-scale WPP connection .Finally, in December 2011, the General Administration of Quality Supervision Inspection andQuarantine and the Standard Administration of China issued the “Technical Rule for ConnectingWind Farm to Power System,” GB/T 19963-2011, establishing national compulsoryinterconnection requirements; these were implemented in June 2012 . Much of the content ofthe State Grid enterprise standard, Q/GDW 392-2009, has been updated and incorporated intothe new national standard, GB/T 19963-2011 4; thus, the enterprise standard is referenced in thisstudy, but it is not analyzed in the comparative sections.Table 2. Key China Standards StudiedNo.StandardTitleVersion1Standard Administration of China:GB/T 19963-2005 andGB/Z 19963-2011Technical Rule for Connecting Wind Farm toPower System20112National Energy Administration: NB/T31003-2011Wind Power Interconnection TechnicalRegulations20113State Grid Corporation:Q/GDW 392-2009Technical Rule for Connecting Wind Farm IntoPower Grid20091.2 Comparison ItemsThe comparison of the WPP interconnection standards in this paper focuses on the scope andapplication range of these standards along with nine technical aspects, as listed in Table 3.4The passage of the mandatory GB/T 19963-2011 in China replaced the voluntary GB/Z 19963-2005.4This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.
Table 3. Comparison ItemsNo.Comparison Items1Scope of the standards2Power qualityA. HarmonicsB. FlickerC. Voltage deviationD. Voltage imbalanceE. Voltage variation3Power controlA. Active powerB.
development of this study. For their review and comments, the authors would like to thank Sandip Sharma from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas; Yong Cheol Kang from Chonbuk National University, Korea; Nirmal-Kumar C. Nair from the University of Auckland, New Zealand; and Arlene Fetizanan from the U.S. Department of Energy.
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