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No. 102 AUGUST 2014Unified and Joint Land Operations:Doctrine for LandpowerJohn A. Bonin

Unified and Joint Land Operations:Doctrine for LandpowerbyJohn A. BoninThe Institute of Land WarfareASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY

AN INSTITUTE OF LAND WARFARE PAPERThe purpose of the Institute of Land Warfare is to extend the educational work of AUSA bysponsoring scholarly publications, to include books, monographs and essays on key defense issues,as well as workshops and symposia. A work selected for publication as a Land Warfare Paperrepresents research by the author which, in the opinion of ILW’s editorial board, will contribute toa better understanding of a particular defense or national security issue. Publication as an Instituteof Land Warfare Paper does not indicate that the Association of the United States Army agrees witheverything in the paper but does suggest that the Association believes the paper will stimulate thethinking of AUSA members and others concerned about important defense issues.LAND WARFARE PAPER NO. 102, August 2014Unified and Joint Land Operations:Doctrine for Landpowerby John A. BoninDr. John A. Bonin is the Professor, Concepts and Doctrine for the U.S. Army War College atCarlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. After graduating from AWC in 1995, he remained as the Directorof Army Planning for seven years before retiring from active service.A 1972 graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, ColonelBonin held a variety of field and academic positions during a career spanning more than 30 years.This included troop duty at Fort Hood, Texas, and Fort Knox, Kentucky, as well as two tours in WestGermany. He also spent three years as an assistant professor of military history at West Point andserved two years as an instructor at the Armed Forces Staff College in Norfolk, Virginia. Dr. Boninalso has a master’s degree in military history from Duke University and a doctorate in Americanmilitary history from Temple University, where he studied under the late Professor Russell Weigley.Dr. Bonin has served as AWC’s civilian doctrine advisor since April 2003. He has twice beenselected as the General of the Army George G. Marshall Chair of Military Studies. In addition toduty as a seminar instructor, he has served as a seminar historian, battlefield guide, instructor for theJoint Land Component Commander’s Course and lead author of Joint Publication 3-31, Commandand Control for Joint Land Operations; he also offers an elective on landpower for both the residentand nonresident courses. In June 2014, Dr. Bonin was one of eight faculty members to receive aninaugural service award.This paper represents the opinions of the author and should not be taken to representthe views of the Department of the Army, the Department of Defense, the United Statesgovernment, the Institute of Land Warfare or the Association of the United States Army orits members. Copyright 2014 byThe Association of the United States ArmyAll rights reserved.Inquiries regarding this and future Land Warfare Papers should be directed to: Director,AUSA’s Institute of Land Warfare, 2425 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington VA 22201, e-mailsdaugherty@ausa.org or telephone (direct dial) 703-907-2627 or (toll free) 1-800-3364570, ext. 2627.ii

ContentsForeword. vIntroduction. 1Landpower. 1Historical Background. 2World War II–North Africa. 2World War II–Northwest Europe. 2World War II–Pacific. 3Korea. 4Vietnam. 4Persian Gulf. 5Absence of Joint Force Land Component Command (JFLCC) Doctrine. 7Kosovo. 7Development of JFLCC Doctrine. 7Recent Operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. 11Current Joint Land Doctrine. 12JFLCC Authority. 12Joint Land Operations. 13JP 3-31 and Multiple JFLCCs. 14JFLCC Composition. 14JFLCC Staff Organization. 15Summary. 15Endnotes. 16iii

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ForewordSince the U.S. Army’s initial organization for combat in World War II in North Africa in1943, numerous land operations have been conducted involving joint and multinational forces.In addition, U.S. Army officers have frequently attempted to serve both as theater commanders and land component commanders (LCCs). While U.S. defeats early on in Tunisia or Koreacould not be solely attributed to the lack of a separate ground component, the failure to effectively conduct land control operations contributed. Likewise, the difficulties in the last days ofthe Persian Gulf War and in Kosovo were perhaps beyond the expectations of a single groundcommander to resolve. But during land operations in Normandy and Okinawa, separate LCCssuccessfully ensured proper coordination with other components and reduced the joint forcecommander’s span of control, allowing him to focus at the strategic level. Most recently, operations in both Iraq and Afghanistan have been enhanced by utilizing a single joint/multinationalforces land-focused commander, separate from the coalition/joint force commander and supported by a theater army headquarters serving as a theater-wide joint force land componentcommander.Looking to the future, the U.S. Army has reevaluated its doctrine for the employment oflandpower. The Army has completed a series of 15 Army Doctrinal Publications (ADPs). ADP3-0, Unified Land Operations, reflects an intellectual growth from the previous Field Manual(FM) 3-0, Operations, and the Army’s recent combat experience. It describes how Army forcesoperate as part of a larger national effort characterized as unified action. Army forces conductdecisive and sustainable land operations through the simultaneous combination of offensive,defensive and stability operations (or defense support of civil authorities) appropriate to themission and environment. Army forces do not operate independently but as part of a largerjoint, interagency and frequently multinational effort. Today the United States faces contemporary challenges in providing centralized command of land forces as part of joint/multinationalforces. The Army’s new Unified Land Operations doctrine, found in ADP 3-0 and FM 3-94,Theater Army, Corps and Division Operations, is fully compatible with the joint land operations doctrine found in the February 2014 version of Joint Publication 3-31, Command andControl for Joint Land Operations. The simultaneous development of Army and joint doctrinehas ensured that the requisite guidance needed for successful land control operations in the landdomain benefits from both historic and recent operational experience employing both joint andmultinational land forces.Gordon R. SullivanGeneral, U.S. Army RetiredPresident, Association of the United States Army11 August 2014v

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Unified and Joint Land Operations:Doctrine for LandpowerWe are convinced that significant operational flexibility is provided the combatantcommander when Army corps and division headquarters are prepared to function asthe core element of a joint task force or as a joint land component command.General Raymond T. Odierno,Chief of Staff, Army1IntroductionAs the United States Army looks to the future, it has revaluated its doctrine for the employment of landpower and completed its new series of 15 Army Doctrinal Publications (ADPs).Unified Land Operations, ADP 3-0, reflects an intellectual growth from the Army’s previousField Manual (FM) 3-0, Operations, and its recent combat experience. It describes how Armyforces operate as part of a larger national effort characterized as “unified action.” Army forcesconduct decisive and sustainable land operations through the simultaneous combination of offensive, defensive and stability operations (or defense support of civil authorities) appropriateto the mission and environment. Army forces do not operate independently but as part of alarger joint, interagency and frequently multinational effort.2 Based on Department of Defensestrategic guidance, the Army has a distinct role in 10 of 11 specified missions across the rangeof military operations.3 In addition, as indicated above, the Army is prepared to provide itscorps and division headquarters for duty as joint task force (JTF) or joint force land componentcommands (JFLCC).LandpowerAccording to ADP 1, The Army, “The Army gives the United States landpower. Landpoweris the ability—by threat, force or occupation—to gain, sustain and exploit control over land,resources and people.”4 ADP 1 continues by stating that landpower includes the ability to: impose the nation’s will on an enemy, by force if necessary; engage to influence, shape, prevent and deter in any operational environment; establish and maintain a stable environment that sets the conditions for political and economic growth;1

address the consequences of catastrophic events—both natural and man-made—to restoreinfrastructure and reestablish basic civil services; and secure and support bases from which joint forces can influence and dominate the air, landand maritime domains of an operational environment.5ADP 1 and the Army Posture Statement also describe several characteristics of landpower.The Army has been, and will continue to be, a critical part of the joint force because landpowerremains decisive and is essential to America’s National Security Strategy. No major conflicthas ever been won without “boots on the ground.” Joint campaigns require continuous concentric pressure exerted by all U.S. military forces, and those of partner nations, while workingclosely with civilian agencies. Soldiers not only seize, occupy and defend land area; they canalso remain in the region until they secure the nation’s long-term objectives. Inserting groundtroops is the most tangible measure of America’s commitment to defend its interests, protect itsfriends and defeat its enemies.6But is the Army’s new unified land operations doctrine compatible with the historic jointand multinational application of land forces since World War II and with current joint doctrine for land operations? While the conduct of land operations has changed significantly sinceWorld War II, Army doctrine for the employment of Army forces in multinational and jointland operations has lagged.Historical BackgroundWorld War II–North Africa. For the Allied invasion of North Africa, General Dwight D.Eisenhower served as both supreme allied commander and commanding general, North AfricanTheater of Operations U.S. Army during Operation Torch in November 1942. In the latter capacity, he followed Army doctrine contained in FM 100-15, Field Service Regulations LargerUnits, 29 June 1942.7 Operationally, he employed three geographic task forces to control theinitial widely separated landings. Later, Eisenhower utilized air and sea component commandersbut organized his ground forces along national lines with British, French and U.S. land commanders reporting directly to him. As the drive toward Tunis bogged down, Eisenhower couldnot adequately coordinate the ground efforts from his headquarters (HQ) in Algiers. He facednumerous political–military problems dealing with the French and the challenge of keepingboth Washington and London informed. After the Allied repulses at Kasserine Pass, due bothto poor command relationships of all components and to inexperience, Eisenhower restructuredhis command. Not only were all air elements brought under centralized control, but he consolidated all land forces under British General Harold Alexander’s 18th Army Group. This formedthe first structure comprising modern joint and combined organization with coequal land, maritime and air component commanders under a theater commander and significantly contributedto the rapid defeat of the Axis in North Africa by May 1943.8 (See figure 1.)World War II–Northwest Europe. For the invasion of France a year later, General Eisenhowerexercised command similarly through three British functional component commanders: 21stArmy Group (General Bernard Montgomery), air (Air Marshall Trafford Leigh-Mallory) andmaritime (Admiral Bertram Ramsay). However, on 1 August, as General Omar Bradley’s 12thU.S. Army Group took control of U.S. forces breaking out at St. Lo, General Montgomery becamea coequal land commander. General Eisenhower retained overall ground command as well assupreme command, but he delegated control through General Montgomery until September1944. As the campaign progressed, Eisenhower controlled, from Supreme Headquarters Allied2

Allied Force HeadquartersGEN Dwight D. EisenhowerMediterranean Air CommandAir Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder18 Army GroupGEN Sir Harold R.L.G. AlexanderBritish First ArmyLTG Kenneth AndersonCommander in Chief, MediterraneanADM Sir Andrew Browne Cunningham, RNU.S. II CorpsLTG G.S. Patton, Jr.British 8th ArmyGEN Sir Bernard MontgomeryFigure 1 – Allied Command Relationships in North Africa and the Mediterranean, March 1943Powers Europe, separate air and sea component commanders as well as eventually three landcentric army groups. As a “ground forces officer” Eisenhower believed, as did his staff, that theycould perform both theater and ground force headquarters duties. However, several times duringthe campaign Eisenhower’s ability to perform both roles would be questioned, most notablyduring the Battle of the Bulge when General Montgomery was given control of the northern halfof the entire front. Montgomery repeatedly requested unified control of all Allied ground forces(under himself) for a “single decisive thrust.” Eisenhower argued that his retaining groundcommand eliminated any perceived preferences for either the Americans or the British.9World War II–Pacific. During the war in the Pacific, the most notable instance of Army/Marine Corps integration was the battle for Okinawa. Admiral Chester Nimitz served asthe commander of Pacific Ocean Areas with Admiral Raymond Spruance commanding theCentral Pacific and 5th Fleet. Vice Admiral Kelly Turner commanded the joint expeditionaryforce for the operation as Task Force (TF) 51. Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.,commanded the Joint Expeditionary Troops (TF 56) and Tenth Army. Tenth Army consisted ofXXIV Corps (7th and 96th Divisions); III Amphibious Corps (1st and 6th Marine Divisions),commanded by Major General Roy Geiger; and three divisions (27th, 77th Infantry and 2ndMarine) in reserve. The Tactical Air Forces consisted of the 2nd Marine Air Wing and ArmyAir Force elements under Major General Francis P. Mulcahy, United States Marine Corps(USMC). The Island Command under Major General F. G. Wallace provided Army-level enabling troops—primarily from the U.S. Army—that grew to more than 150,000 personnel byJune 1945.10 (See figure 2.)Expeditionary Troops (Task Force 56)LTG S.B. Buckner, Jr.Island Command(Army Garrison Force)MG F.G. Wallace, USAXXIV Corps(Southern Landing Force)MG J.R. Hodge, USATactical Air ForceRyukyusMG F.P. Mulcahy, USMCIII Amphibious Corps(Marine)(Northern Landing Force)MajGen R.S. Geiger, USMCNaval ForcesRyukyusRADM C.H. Cobb, USNFigure 2 – Organization of Expeditionary Troops for the Ryukyus Campaign, January 1945General Buckner requested a joint staff for TF 56 and received augmentation by 60 Navyand Marine personnel and a Marine chief of staff. During planning for the operation, TenthArmy found it necessary to enlarge the troop list by 70,000 Army troops to include greater3

numbers of supporting combat elements and service units. General Buckner also made knownthat he felt that Major General Geiger was capable of handling a field Army. When GeneralBuckner was killed during the final push, Admiral Turner gave command of Tenth Army immediately to General Geiger until General Joseph Stilwell could arrive.KoreaGeneral of the Army Douglas MacArthur served as the U.S. Commander-in-Chief FarEast, with his headquarters in Tokyo. He initially exercised command in Korea through air,naval and land (Eighth Army) components. However, for the landings at Inchon, GeneralMacArthur created X Corps out of his General Headquarters troops: the 1st Marine Divisionand the 7th Infantry Division. Even after out-loading and moving to the east coast at Wonson,X Corps remained under MacArthur’s direct control, with Major General Ned Almond, hischief of staff, as commander. In addition, MacArthur gave the Eighth Army commander theresponsibility of providing logistical support to X Corps. This created a physical gap betweenthe two commands that the Chinese exploited in their winter 1950 offensive. X Corps onlyjoined Eighth Army on 26 December 1950 after being evacuated under pressure from portsin northern Korea.12 Ultimately, by July 1953, Eighth U.S. Army evolved into a combinationfield and theater army that served as the coalition land forces headquarters commanding almostone million United Nations ground personnel, of which over 590,000 were Republic of Korea(ROK) troops (see figure 3).13VietnamGeneral William Westmoreland served from 1964 to 1968 as both commander of thesub-unified U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam under U.S. Pacific Command andcommander of U.S. Army Vietnam (USARV). Unlike Korea, no combined command overSouth Vietnamese or other Free World Military Forces was established due to nationalistsensitivities.14 As deputy USARV commander, Lieutenant General Bruce Palmer strongly recommended that USARV be converted to a field army with operational control of all Armycombat forces (seven-plus divisions in Vietnam by 1967). But Westmoreland’s desires—toparallel the South Vietnamese structure, which combined their joint and army chiefs and staff,and to retain direct ground command over two U.S. Army Field Forces and the III MarineAmphibious Force—prevailed (see figure 4 on page 6).15 This arrangement seriously overloaded Westmoreland and his staffs with direct control of all U.S. operations, direct command of allU.S. Army elements, management of the advisory and assistance efforts and politico-militaryfunctions of a combined theater-level command.In January 1968, the Chief of Staff, Army (CSA), General Harold K. Johnson, directed acomprehensive review and analysis of Army command and control structures in Vietnam.16The resulting report determined that “the doctrinal trend since World War I has provided increasing authority to the unified commander to directly exercise operational control of landcombat forces.”17 The report found that “eliminating the Army component headquarters fromthe operational control channel . . . may create a difficult and awkward situation. . . . A bettersolution might be to use the Army component headquarters as the senior Army tactical headquarters having responsibility for both tactical and administrative support.”18 While not havinga separate joint and multinational ground commander in Vietnam may not have been one of theUnited State’s worst mistakes in that conflict, it contributed to the lack of unity of effort anddiffused focus that affected the results.4

XXXXXU.S. ForcesFar EastEighth U.S. Army ReserveXXXXRepublicof Korea3XXKorean MilitaryAdvisory GroupEighth U.S.ArmyXXRepublicof Korea5XXXI U.S.XXXXXXI X U.S.II Republicof KoreaXXXXXXXX U.S.I Republicof Korea409thEngineerBrigadeXXIIIXXXXXXXU.S. 1stMarine ( )187th AirborneRegimentalCombat TeamRepublicof Korea11U.S. 40thInfantry DivisionRepublicof Korea2144thAnti-aircraftArtillery BrigadeXXXXXXXXXXIIIRepublicof Korea1Republicof Korea2Republicof Korea8U.S. 45thInfantry DivisionRepublicof Korea1530th MedicalGroupXXXXXXXX1CommonwealthRepublicof Korea9Republicof Korea7Republicof Korea12XXXXXXXXU.S. 7thInfantry DivisionU.S. 2dInfantry DivisionRepublicof Korea6Republicof Korea20XXXXU.S. 25thInfantry DivisionU.S. 3dInfantry DivisionXXRepublicof KoreaCapitalIII59th roupIIIUnited Nations forces under Eighth U.S. Army had 932,539 troops in 6U.S. Army, 1 U.S. Marine Corps, 1 United Kingdom Commonwealth and 14Republic of Korea divisions. [267,177 U.S. Army; 35,306 U.S. Marine Corps;39,145 United Nations; 590,901 Republic of Korea]1st, 22d,8226th SignalGroupsNon-U.S./Republic of Korea United Nations combat forces included: 1stCommonwealth Division (with Brazillian, Canadian, Australian and NewZealand units); a Turkish brigade; and Belgian, French, Dutch, Thai, Greek,Ethiopian, Colombian and Philippine battalions. The Turkish brigade and theother battalions were attached to U.S. divisions.1stTransportationAviation Battalion(Provisional)Figure 3 – U.S. Army in Korea, 27 July 1953Persian GulfGeneral Norman Schwarzkopf, as the commander of U.S. Central Command(USCENTCOM), followed the precedence discussed above by serving as the U.S. joint commander in a parallel command structure with his Saudi counterparts. While he had an ArmyCentral (ARCENT) component in 3d Army, he declined to form an overarching land command.General Schwarzkopf’s main reason for retaining joint ground command to himself was to avoidoffending either Arab or Marine sensitivities. Additionally, he wanted to avoid creating anotherfour-star land headquarters to control 3d Army/ARCENT’s two corps, the Marine ExpeditionaryForce (MEF) and the Arab land forces. Lieutenant General John Yeosock, ARCENT commander, established the Coalition, Coordination Communications and Integration Center (C3IC)under the Joint Military Committee to achieve unity of effort between Saudi and U.S. forces5

U.S. PacificCommandADM SharpU.S. ArmyPacificFree WorldForcesU.S. MilitaryAssistanceCommand, VietnamJoint General Staff,Republic of VietnamArmed ForcesFleet MarineForce, PacificPacific AirForcesPacific FleetGEN WestmorelandU.S. Army,VietnamGEN WestmorelandNaval Forces,VietnamArmy AdvGrp IV CTZII FieldForceI FieldForceIII MAFIV CTZ,RVNAFIII CTZ,RVNAFII CTZ,RVNAFI CTZ,RVNAF7th Air ForceCombatant CommandOperational ControlAdministrative ControlCoordinationCTZ – Corps Tactical Zone MAF – Marine Amphibious Force RVNAF – Republic of Vietnam Armed ForcesFigure 4 – U.S./Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces/Free World Command Relationships, Vietnam, 1967while maintaining the independence of both. Schwarzkopf did task the 3d Army staff withthe responsibility of developing the overall ground operations plan in conjunction with theMarines and Arab Coalition partners, and he used his deputy commander, Lieutenant GeneralCalvin Waller, as his primary assistant for ground combat issues. This convoluted arrangementviolated the principles of simplicity and unity of command; created numerous challenges anddifficulties in the coordinated application of air- and landpower; and contributed to the failureto destroy the Republican Guard (see figure 5).19SaudiJoint StaffU.S. CentralCommandJoint Military CommitteeGEN HammadGEN SchwarzkopfCoalition Coordination Communicationsand Integration Cell (C3IC)Joint ForceCommandLTG KhaledSaudiAir ForceEastCommandSaudi NavyNorthCommandCENTAF/JFACCNAVCENTSOCCENTLt. Gen. HornerVADM MauzCOL JohnsonARCENT/3d ArmyMARCENT/I MEFLTG YeosockEgyptianCorpsSyrianDivisionLtGen BoomerXVIIICorpsVII CorpsLTG LuckLTG Franks3d ArmyTroopsARCENT – U.S. Army Forces, U.S. Central Command CENTAF – U.S. Air Forces, U.S. Central Command JFACC – Joint Force Air Component Command MARCENT – U.S. Marine Corps, U.S.Central Command MEF – Marine Expeditionary Force NAVCENT – U.S. Naval Forces, U.S. Central Command SOCCENT – Special Operations Command, U.S. Central CommandFigure 5 – Desert Shield/Desert Storm Command Relationships6

Absence of JFLCC DoctrineActual doctrinal development significantly lagged behind experience and innovations inthe field. After 1973 and the final issuance of FM 100-15, Large Unit Operation, the Army hadbecome more interested in doctrine for corps and below.20 While a functional land componentcommand had been a joint force commander (JFC) option since 1986, the Army had not beeninterested in pushing for this. Historically, many Army commanders had served both as overalljoint/multinational commander and as their own joint forces land component commander(JFLCC). In addition, the Marines opposed the concept of a JFLCC as they did not want tobe dismembered by the two functional components: joint force air component commander(JFACC) and JFLCC. Post-Desert Storm, General Binford Peay, Commander, USCENTCOM,designated the ARCENT commander as Deputy JFLCC as an interim measure. Prior to 1995,no joint doctrine existed on JFLCC, and it received only a passing comment in the 1995 FM100-7, Decisive Force: The Army in Theater Operations.21 However, in 1996 the U.S. ArmyWar College began producing a JFLCC Primer for instructional use.22 In April 1997, in response to an Army request, the Air Land Sea Application Center published a JFLCC Study thatrecommended against development of stand-alone JFLCC doctrine.23However, on 23 June 1998, after Operation Desert Thunder, Marine General Anthony C.Zinni, USCENTCOM, designated Lieutenant General Tommy Franks, Commanding General,ARCENT, as his JFLCC for operations in the Middle East. Zinni’s action marked the first useof a formally designated functional land component commander and preceded actual joint doctrine.24 At his retirement ceremony, General Zinni stated, “We can make the land componentcommand arrangement work. There will be no more occasions in the Central Command’s areaof operations where Marines . . . fight one ground war and the Army fights a different groundwar. There will be one ground war and a single land component commander.”25KosovoDuring NATO Operation Allied Force in March 1999, General Wesley Clark as SupremeAllied Commander Europe (SACEUR) knew that “by doctrine . . . I would need to placesomeone in charge of the ground component.”26 But due to the political restrictions and the“short war syndrome,” he established neither a combined nor a joint force land componentcommander for either the NATO operation or its associated U.S. operation. Consequently, hegave instructions to three U.S. and NATO land commanders separately. Admiral James Ellis—the NATO commander responsible for Allied Force and the U.S. commander of JTF NobleAnvil—concluded that ruling out a ground operation probably prolonged the air operation.He also stated that “the lack of a land component commander” to coordinate NATO actions inAlbania, Macedonia and Kosovo “was doctrinally flawed and operationally dangerous.”27 Seefigure 6 on the following page for the command and control relationships.Development of JFLCC DoctrineFollowing the problematic deployment of TF Hawk for Kosovo, General Eric K. Shinseki,the CSA, announced on 12 October 1999, “To improve strategic responsiveness, we will enableour Army service component commands [ASCCs] to function both as joint force land component command [JFLCC] and as Army Force [ARFOR] headquarters” and “we will enableour corps to function as JFLCC, ARFOR and joint task force [JTF] HQ.”28 General Shinseki’sstatements generated a renewed interest in actual JFLCC doctrine within the Army.7

Supreme AlliedCommander,EuropeGEN ClarkCommander inChief, EUCOMU.S. NavalAllied Forces,Forces, Europe,SouthernJTF Noble AnvilEuropeADM EllisU.S. Air Forces,EuropeGen. Jumper6th Fleet/Security ForcesSquadronVADM Murphy3rd Air Force,Joint Task ForceShining HopeMaj. Gen. HintonV CorpsTask Force HawkLTG HendrixEUCOMNATOU.S. ArmyEuropeStabilizationForceGEN Meigs16th Air Force/Allied Air Forces,Southern EuropeLt. Gen.ShortAllied RapidReaction Corps(Kosovo Force)Lt. Gen.JacksonAMF(L)(Albania Force)Lt. Gen.ReithCombined AirOperationsCenterNATO Operational ControlCombatant CommandOperational ControlAdministrative ControlTactical ControlTask ForceEagleLTG ByrnesTask ForceFalconBG CraddockAMF(L) – Allied Command, Europe, Mobile Force (Land) EUCOM – U.S. European Command NA

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