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Operating System Lab Manual2018CERTIFICATECertified that this file is submitted byShri/Ku.Roll No. a student of year of the courseas a part of PRACTICAL/ORAL asprescribed by the Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University for d that I have instructed him/her for the said work,from time to time and I found him/her to be satisfactory progressive.And that I have accessed the said work and I am satisfied that the same is up to thatstandard envisaged for the course.Date:-Signature & Nameof Subject TeacherProf. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazSignature & Nameof HODPage 1

Operating System Lab Manual2018Anjuman College of Engineering and TechnologyVision To be a centre of excellence for developing quality technocrats with moral and socialethics, to face the global challenges for the sustainable development of society.Mission To create conducive academic culture for learning and identifying career goals. To provide quality technical education, research opportunities and imbibeentrepreneurship skills contributing to the socio-economic growth of the Nation. To inculcate values and skills, that will empower our students towards developmentthrough technology.Vision and Mission of the DepartmentVision: To achieve excellent standards of quality education in the field of computer scienceand engineering, aiming towards development of ethically strong technical expertscontributing to the profession in the global society.Mission: To create outcome based education environment for learning and identifying careergoals. Provide latest tools in a learning ambience to enhance innovations, problem solvingskills, leadership qualities team spirit and ethical responsibilities. Inculcating awareness through innovative activities in the emerging areas oftechnology.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 2

Operating System Lab Manual2018Program Educational Objectives (PEOs) The graduates will have a strong foundation in mathematical, scientific andengineering fundamentals necessary to formulate, solve and analyze engineeringproblem in their career. Graduates will be able to create and design computer support systems and impartknowledge and skills to analyze, design, test and implement various softwareapplications. Graduates will work productively as computer science engineers towards bettermentof society exhibiting ethical qualities.Program Specific Outcomes (PSOs) Foundation of mathematical concepts: To use mathematical methodologies andtechniques for computing and solving problem using suitable mathematical analysis,data structures, database and algorithms as per the requirement. Foundation of Computer System: The capability and ability to interpret andunderstand the fundamental concepts and methodology of computer systems andprogramming. Students can understand the functionality of hardware and softwareaspects of computer systems, networks and security. Foundations of Software development: The ability to grasp the software developmentlifecycle and methodologies of software system and project development.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 3

Operating System Lab Manual2018PROGRAM: CSEDEGREE: B.ECOURSE: Operating SystemSEMESTER: IVCOURSE CODE: BECSE4S3TCOURSE TYPE: REGULARCOURSE AREA/DOMAIN: C- ProgrammingCONTACT HOURS: 2 hours/Week.CORRESPONDING LAB COURSE CODE :LAB COURSE NAME : Operating System LabCREDITS: 2BECSE4S3TPCOURSE PRE-REQUISITES:C.CODECOURSE NAMEBECSE302T C- ProgrammingDESCRIPTIONSEMBasic Concepts of C- ProgrammingIIILAB COURSE OBJECTIVES: This course explains the debate for each object oriented design principle. Draw a high level class diagram in UML for each pattern. Classify how the different components of the pattern collaborate with each other. List the consequences of each pattern to the overall software quality of a system.COURSE OUTCOMES: Operating SystemAfter completion of this course the students will be able –SNODESCRIPTIONBLOOM’STAXONOMYLEVELCO.1Compare different type of operating system.2CO.2Make use of various file allocation techniques.1CO.3Apply scheduling algorithm and solve scheduling problems.3CO.4Develop the program on memory management and page replacementalgorithm.6CO.5Discover the program using vi editor, the concurrency conditions andcritical section problem.4CO.6Explain the concept of deadlock and methods for its avoidance.5Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 4

Operating System Lab Manual2018Lab Instructions: Make entry in the Log Book as soon as you enter the Laboratory. All the students should sit according to their Roll Numbers. All the students are supposed to enter the terminal number in the Log Book. Do not change the terminal on which you are working. Strictly observe the instructions given by the Faculty / Lab. Instructor. Take permission before entering in the lab and keep your belongings in theracks. NO FOOD, DRINK, IN ANY FORM is allowed in the lab. TURN OFF CELL PHONES! If you need to use it, please keep it in bags. Avoid all horseplay in the laboratory. Do not misbehave in the computerlaboratory. Work quietly. Save often and keep your files organized. Don’t change settings and surf safely. Do not reboot, turn off, or move any workstation or PC. Do not load any software on any lab computer (without prior permission ofFaculty and Technical Support Personnel). Only Lab Operators and TechnicalSupport Personnel are authorized to carry out these tasks. Do not reconfigure the cabling/equipment without prior permission. Do not play games on systems. Turn off the machine once you are done using it. Violation of the above rules and etiquette guidelines will result in disciplinaryaction.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 5

Operating System Lab Manual2018Continuous Assessment PracticalExpNoNAME OF EXPERIMENT1Study and explain the types of operating ndencies, application software with theirdifferences).2Installation of any one of the operating system(UBUNTU, CENT-OS).8Write a C-program to present the Output of differentfile operation.Write a C-program to implement any file allocationtechnique (Linked, Indexed or Contiguous)Write a C-program to Present the Output offollowing CPU Scheduling algorithm. FCFS SJF Priority Round RobinWrite a C-program to Present the Output offollowing Page Replacement Algorithm. FIFO LRU OPTIMALWrite a C-program to implement memorymanagement algorithm for memory management. First fit Best fit Worst fitWrite a C-program to present the Output forProducer– Consumer problem concept.9Simulate Bankers algorithm for Deadlock Avoidance10Write a C-program to implement Disk schedulingalgorithms.34567Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazDateSignRemarkPage 6

Operating System Lab Manual2018CONTENTSExpNoNAME OF EXPERIMENT1Study and explain the types of operating systems (their types withstructure, functionality, dependencies, application software with theirdifferences).2Installation of any one of the operating system (UBUNTU, CENT-OS).3Write a C-program to present the Output of different file operation.48Write a C-program to implement any file allocation technique (Linked,Indexed or Contiguous)Write a C-program to Present the Output of following CPU Schedulingalgorithm. FCFS SJF Priority Round RobinWrite a C-program to Present the Output of following Page ReplacementAlgorithm. FIFO LRU OPTIMALWrite a C-program to implement memory management algorithm formemory management. First fit Best fit Worst fitWrite a C-program to present the Output for Producer– Consumerproblem concept.9Simulate Bankers algorithm for Deadlock Avoidance10Write a C-program to implement Disk scheduling algorithms.567Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPAGENO.Page 7

Operating System Lab Manual2018EXPERIMENT NO – 1Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 8

Operating System Lab Manual2018Aim: Study and explain the types of operating systems (their types with structure,functionality, dependencies, application software with their differences).Theory:An Operating System performs all the basic tasks like managing file, process, andmemory. Thus operating system acts as manager of all the resources, i.e. resourcemanager. Thus operating system becomes an interface between user and machine.Types of Operating Systems: Some of the widely used operating systems are asfollows1. Batch Operating SystemThis type of operating system does not interact with the computer directly. There is anoperator which takes similar jobs having same requirement and group them intobatches. It is the responsibility of operator to sort the jobs with similar needs.Advantages of Batch Operating System: It is very difficult to guess or know the time required by any job to completeProcessors of the batch systems knows how long the job would be when it is inqueue Multiple users can share the batch systems The idle time batch system is very less It is easy to manage large work repeatedly in batch systemsDisadvantages of Batch Operating System: The computer operators should be well known with batch systems Batch systems are hard to debug It is sometime costly The other jobs will have to wait for an unknown time if any job failsExamples of Batch based Operating System:Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 9

Operating System Lab Manual2018 Payroll System, Bank Statements etc.2. Time-Sharing Operating SystemsEach task has given some time to execute, so that all the tasks work smoothly. Eachuser gets time of CPU as they use single system. These systems are also known asMultitasking Systems. The task can be from single user or from different users also.The time that each task gets to execute is called quantum. After this time interval isover OS switches over to next task.Advantages of Time-Sharing OS: Each task gets an equal opportunity. Less chances of duplication of software. CPU idle time can be reduced.Disadvantages of Time-Sharing OS: Reliability problem. One must have to take care of security and integrity of user programs and data. Data communication problem.Examples of Time-Sharing OSs are: Multics, Unix etc.3. Distributed Operating SystemThese types of operating system is a recent advancement in the world of computertechnology and are being widely accepted all-over the world and, that too, with a greatpace. Various autonomous interconnected computers communicate each other using ashared communication network. Independent systems possess their own memory unitand CPU. These are referred as loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. Thesesystems processors differ in sizes and functions. The major benefit of working withthese types of operating system is that it is always possible that one user can access thefiles or software which are not actually present on his system but on some otherProf. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 10

Operating System Lab Manual2018system connected within this network i.e., remote access is enabled within the devicesconnected in that network.Advantages of Distributed Operating System: Failure of one will not affect the other network communication, as all systems areindependent from each other Electronic mail increases the data exchange speed Since resources are being shared, computation is highly fast and durable Load on host computer reduces These systems are easily scalable as many systems can be easily added to thenetwork Delay in data processing reducesDisadvantages of Distributed Operating System: Failure of the main network will stop the entire communication To establish distributed systems the language which are used are not well definedyet These types of systems are not readily available as they are very expensive. Notonly that the underlying software is highly complex and not understood well yetExamples of Distributed Operating System are LOCUS etc.4. Network Operating SystemThese systems run on a server and provide the capability to manage data, users,groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. These types ofoperating systems allows shared access of files, printers, security, applications, andother networking functions over a small private network. One more important aspectProf. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 11

Operating System Lab Manual2018of Network Operating Systems is that all the users are well aware of the underlyingconfiguration, of all other users within the network, their individual connections etc.and that’s why these computers are popularly known as tightly coupled systems.Advantages of Network Operating System: Highly stable centralized servers Security concerns are handled through servers New technologies and hardware up-gradation are easily integrated to the system Server access are possible remotely from different locations and types of systemsDisadvantages of Network Operating System: Servers are costly User has to depend on central location for most operations Maintenance and updates are required regularlyExamples of Network Operating System are: Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux,Mac OS X, Novell NetWare, and BSD etc.5. Real-Time Operating SystemThese types of OSs serve the real-time systems. The time interval required to processand respond to inputs is very small. This time interval is called response time.Real-time systems are used when there are times requirements are very strict likemissile systems, air traffic control systems, robots etc.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 12

Operating System Lab Manual2018Two types of Real-Time Operating System which are as follows: Hard Real-Time Systems:These OSs are meant for the applications where time constraints are very strict andeven the shortest possible delay is not acceptable. These systems are built for savinglife like automatic parachutes or air bags which are required to be readily available incase of any accident. Virtual memory is almost never found in these systems. Soft Real-Time Systems:These OSs are for applications where for time-constraint is less strict.Advantages of RTOS: Maximum Consumption: Maximum utilization of devices and system, thus moreoutput from all the resources Task Shifting: Time assigned for shifting tasks in these systems are very less. Forexample in older systems it takes about 10 micro seconds in shifting one task toanother and in latest systems it takes 3 micro seconds. Focus on Application: Focus on running applications and less importance toapplications which are in queue. Real time operating system in embedded system: Since size of programs issmall, RTOS can also be used in embedded systems like in transport and others. Error Free: These types of systems are error free. Memory Allocation: Memory allocation is best managed in these types ofsystems.Disadvantages of RTOS: Limited Tasks: Very few tasks run at the same time and their concentration isvery less on few applications to avoid errors.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 13

Operating System Lab Manual2018 Use heavy system resources: Sometimes the system resources are not so goodand they are expensive as well. Complex Algorithms: The algorithms are very complex and difficult for thedesigner to write on. Device driver and interrupt signals: It needs specific device drivers andinterrupts signals to response earliest to interrupts. Thread Priority: It is not good to set thread priority as these systems are very lesspron to switching tasks.Examples of Real-Time Operating Systems are: Scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems,weapon systems, robots, air traffic control systems, etc.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 14

Operating System Lab Manual2018CONCLUSION: Thus we, have studied and explain the various types of operatingsystems successfully.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 15

Operating System Lab Manual2018Viva Voce Question1. Explain the main purpose of an operating system?2. What is kernel?3. What are Real-time systems?4. Why operating system called as recourse manager?Signature of Subject TeacherProf. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 16

Operating System Lab Manual2018EXPERIMENT NO – 2Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 17

Operating System Lab Manual2018Aim: Installation of any one of the operating system (UBUNTU, CENT-OS)Theory:Ubuntu is one of the most popular and easy-to-use versions of Linux available, andyou can download and install it absolutely free. All you need is a CD burner and aninternet connection, and you can have Ubuntu up and running in just a few minutes.Follow this guide to learn how to install Ubuntu.1. OverviewThe Ubuntu desktop is easy to use, easy to install and includes everything you need torun your organisation, school, home or enterprise. It's also open source, secure,accessible and free to download.In this tutorial, we're going to install Ubuntu desktop onto your computer, using eitheryour computer's DVD drive or a USB flash drive.2. RequirementsYou'll need to consider the following before starting the installation: Connect your laptop to a power source. Ensure you have at least 25GB of free storage space, or 5GB for a minimalinstallation.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 18

Operating System Lab Manual2018 Have access to either a DVD or a USB flash drive containing the version ofUbuntu you want to install. Make sure you have a recent backup of your data. While it's unlikely thatanything will go wrong, you can never be too prepared.See Installation/System Requirements for more specific details on hardwarerequirements. We also have tutorials that explain how to create an Ubuntu DVD orUSB flash drive.3. Boot from DVDIt's easy to install Ubuntu from a DVD. Here's what you need to do:1. Put the Ubuntu DVD into your optical/DVD drive.2. Restart your computer.As soon as your computer boots you'll see the welcome window.From here, you can select your language from a list on the left and choose betweeneither installing Ubuntu directly, or trying the desktop first (if you like what you see,you can also install Ubuntu from this mode too).Depending on your computer's configuration, you may instead see an alternative bootmenu showing a large language selection pane. Use your mouse or cursor keys toselect a language and you'll be presented with a simple menu.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 19

Operating System Lab Manual2018Select the second option, ‘Install Ubuntu', and press return to launch the desktopinstaller automatically. Alternatively, select the first option, ‘Try Ubuntu withoutinstalling', to test Ubuntu (as before, you can also install Ubuntu from this mode too).A few moments later, after the desktop has loaded, you'll see the welcome window.From here, you can select your language from a list on the left and choose betweeneither installing Ubuntu directly, or trying the desktop first.If you don't get either menu, read the booting from the DVD guide for moreinformation.4. Boot from USB flash driveMost computers will boot from USB automatically. Simply insert the USB flash driveand either power on your computer or restart it. You should see the same welcomewindow we saw in the previous ‘Install from DVD' step, prompting you to chooseyour language and either install or try the Ubuntu desktop.If your computer doesn't automatically boot from USB, try holding F12 when yourcomputer first starts. With most machines, this will allow you to select the USB devicefrom a system-specific boot menu.F12 is the most common key for bringing up your system's boot menu, but Escape, F2and F10 are common alternatives. If you're unsure, look for a brief message when yoursystem starts - this will often inform you of which key to press to bring up the bootmenu.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 20

Operating System Lab Manual20185. Prepare to install UbuntuYou will first be asked to select your keyboard layout. If the installer doesn't guess thedefault layout correctly, use the ‘Detect Keyboard Layout' button to run through abrief configuration procedure.After selecting Continue you will be asked What apps would you like to install to startwith? The two options are ‘Normal installation' and ‘Minimal installation'. The first isthe equivalent to the old default bundle of utilities, applications, games and mediaplayers - a great launchpad for any Linux installation. The second takes considerablyless storage space and allows you to install only what you need.Beneath the installation-type question are two checkboxes; one to enable updateswhile installing and another to enable third-party software. We advise enabling both Download updates and Install third-party software. Stay connected to the internet so you can get the latest updates while you installUbuntu. If you are not connected to the internet, you will be asked to select a wirelessnetwork, if available. We advise you to connect during the installation so wecan ensure your machine is up to dateProf. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 21

Operating System Lab Manual20186. Allocate drive spaceUse the checkboxes to choose whether you'd like to install Ubuntu alongside anotheroperating system, delete your existing operating system and replace it with Ubuntu, orif you're an advanced user — choose the 'Something else' option.7. Begin installationAfter configuring storage, click on the ‘Install Now' button. A small pane will appearwith an overview of the storage options you've chosen, with the chance to go back ifthe details are incorrect.Click Continue to fix those changes in place and start the installation process.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 22

Operating System Lab Manual20188. Select your locationIf you are connected to the internet, your location will be detected automatically.Check your location is correct and clicks 'Forward' to proceed. If you're unsure of yourtime zone, type the name of a local town or city or use the map to select your location.9. Login detailsEnter your name and the installer will automatically suggest a computer name andusername. These can easily be changed if you prefer. The computer name is how yourcomputer will appear on the network, while your username will be your login andaccount name.Next, enter a strong password. The installer will let you know if it's too weak.You can also choose to enable automatic login and home folder encryption. If yourmachine is portable, we recommend keeping automatic login disabled and enablingencryption. This should stop people accessing your personal files if the machine is lostor stolen.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 23

Operating System Lab Manual2018If you enable home folder encryption and you forget your password, you won't be ableto retrieve any personal data stored in your home folder.10. Background installationThe installer will now complete in the background while the installation windowteaches you a little about how awesome Ubuntu is. Depending on the speed of yourmachine and network connection, installation should only take a few minutes.11. Installation completeAfter everything has been installed and configured, a small window will appear askingyou to restart your machine. Click on Restart Now and remove either the DVD orUSB flash drive when prompted. If you initiated the installation while testing thedesktop, you also get the option to continue testing.Congratulations! You have successfully installed the world's most popular Linuxoperating system!It's now time to start enjoying Ubuntu!CONCLUSION: Thus we, have studied and successfully installed the UBUNTUOperating system.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 24

Operating System Lab Manual2018Viva Voce Question1. What is Linux?2. What is the difference between UNIX and LINUX?3. What is the advantage of open source operating system?4. Why we use UBUNTU OS?Signature of Subject TeacherProf. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 25

Operating System Lab Manual2018EXPERIMENT NO – 3Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 26

Operating System Lab Manual2018Aim: Write a C-program to present the output of different file operation.Theory:File:A file is a named collection of related information that is recorded on secondarystorage such as magnetic disks, magnetic tapes and optical disks. In general, a file is asequence of bits, bytes, lines or records whose meaning is defined by the files creatorand user.File Structure A File Structure should be according to a required format that the operatingsystem can understand. A file has a certain defined structure according to its type. A text file is a sequence of characters organized into lines. A source file is a sequence of procedures and functions. An object file is a sequence of bytes organized into blocks that are understandableby the machine. When operating system defines different file structures, it also contains the codeto support these file structure. Unix, MS-DOS support minimum number of filestructure.File TypeFile type refers to the ability of the operating system to distinguish different types offile such as text files source files and binary files etc. Many operating systems supportmany types of files. Operating system like MS-DOS and UNIX have the followingtypes of files Ordinary files These are the files that contain user information. These may have text, databases or executable program. The user can apply various operations on such files like add, modify, delete oreven remove the entire file.Directory files These files contain list of file names and other information related to these files.Special files These files are also known as device files. These files represent physical device like disks, terminals, printers, networks, tapedrive etc.These files are of two types Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 27

Operating System Lab Manual2018 Character special files data is handled character by character as in case ofterminals or printers. Block special files data is handled in blocks as in the case of disks and tapes.Types of File OperationsFiles are not made for just reading the Contents; we can also perform some otheroperations on the Files those are explained below as: Opening an existing file Read Operation: Meant To Read the information which is Stored into the Files. Write Operation: For inserting some new Contents into a File. Rename or Change the Name of File. Copy the File from one Location to another. Sorting or Arrange the Contents of File. Move or Cut the File from One Place to Another. Delete a File Execute Means to Run Means File Display Output.Working with filesWhen working with files, you need to declare a pointer of type file. This declaration isneeded for communication between the file and program.FILE *fptr;Opening a file - for creation and editOpening a file is performed using the library function in the "stdio.h" header file:fopen().The syntax for opening a file in standard I/O is:ptr fopen("fileopen","mode")Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 28

Operating System Lab Manual2018For fopen("E:\\cprogram\\oldprogram.bin","rb"); Let's suppose the file newprogram.txt doesn't exist in the location E:\cprogram.The first function creates a new file named newprogram.txt and opens it forwritingasperthemode'w'.The writing mode allows you to create and edit (overwrite) the contents of thefile.Now let's suppose the second binary file oldprogram.bin exists in thelocation E:\cprogram. The second function opens the existing file for reading inbinarymode'rb'.The reading mode only allows you to read the file, you cannot write into thefile.Opening Modes in Standard I/OFileModeMeaning of ModeDuring Inexistence of filerOpen for reading.If the file does not exist, fopen() returns NULL.rbOpen for reading in binaryIf the file does not exist, fopen() returns NULL.mode.wOpen for writing.wbOpen for writing in binary If the file exists, its contents are overwritten. If themode.file does not exist, it will be created.aOpen for append. i.e, DataIf the file does not exist, it will be created.is added to end of file.abOpen for append in binarymode. i.e, Data is added to If the file does not exist, it will be created.end of file.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazIf the file exists, its contents are overwritten. If thefile does not exist, it will be created.Page 29

Operating System Lab Manual2018Opening Modes in Standard I/OFileModeMeaning of Moder Open for both reading andIf the file does not exist, fopen() returns NULL.writing.rb Open for both reading andIf the file does not exist, fopen() returns NULL.writing in binary mode.w Open for both reading and If the file exists, its contents are overwritten. If thewriting.file does not exist, it will be created.wb Open for both reading and If the file exists, its contents are overwritten. If thewriting in binary mode.file does not exist, it will be created.a Open for both reading andIf the file does not exist, it will be created.appending.ab Open for both reading andIf the file does not exist, it will be created.appending in binary mode.During Inexistence of fileClosing a FileThe file (both text and binary) should be closed after reading/writing.Closing a file is performed using library function fclose().fclose(fptr); //fptr is the file pointer associated with file to be closed.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 30

Operating System Lab Manual2018PROGRAM:Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 31

Operating System Lab Manual2018OUTPUT:CONCLUSION: Thus we, have implemented the C program for different fileoperations successfully.Prof. Samina Anjum/ Prof. Qudsiya NaazPage 32

Operating System Lab Manual2018Viva Voce Question1. Explain different types of files?2.

An Operating System performs all the basic tasks like managing file, process, and memory. Thus operating system acts as manager of all the resources, i.e. resource manager. Thus operating system becomes an interface between user and machine. Types of Operating Systems: Some of the widely used operating systems are as follows- 1.

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