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Part of the Edinburgh & South East Scotland City Region DealDevelopmentOpportunities in FifeData-Driven Innovation andLocal Economic StrategyPreliminary Analysis ReportDoing data rightddi.ac.uk

Development Opportunities in FifeDevelopment Opportunities in FifeAuthors:Dr Fumi Kitagawa is a Senior Lecturer inEntrepreneurship and Innovation at the Universityof Edinburgh Business School, and has a PhD inUrban and Regional Studies. Her research hascentred on how public science generates impact oneconomy and society; in particular, the role of highereducation institutions in the regional developmentand innovation processes. Fumi has publishedextensively on S&T and Innovation policy, governanceof regional and local economic development,scientific entrepreneurship, and university-industryrelationships, covering the UK, Sweden, and East Asia.Dr Matjaz Vidmar is Lecturer in EngineeringManagement at the School of Engineering, TheUniversity of Edinburgh. His background is in Physicsand Astronomy, and he holds a PhD in Science andTechnology Studies on high-tech innovation andorganisational learning. His research is examiningnew product development processes, innovationintermediation (networks), entrepreneurship andfutures design, working in particular with the satelliteand space data industry and artificial intelligence.In addition, he is involved in many internationalinitiatives to develop the future of these fields aswell as delivering an extensive public engagementprogramme. You can find more atwww.roe.ac.uk/ vidmarDr Owais Anwar Golra is an Assistant Professor ofEntrepreneurship and Innovation at Business Schoolof the National University of Sciences and Technology,Pakistan and has been involved in the research workon the management and creation of innovationsparticularly in the context of developing countries.His doctoral research at the University of Edinburghfocused on analysing inter-firm network formationand knowledge absorption capabilities of firms andregions. His interest revolve around topics focusingon inter-organizational learning and innovation,digital entrepreneurship and the development of newproducts and process innovations, and advanced socialnetwork analysis and modelling.Dr Alessandro Rosiello is a Senior Lecturer atthe University of Edinburgh Business School. Hecombines innovation theories and institutionaleconomics from an evolutionary perspective to studyscience, technology and innovation dynamics in avariety of industrial settings, entrepreneurship andsmall business finance, and industrial clustering atregional level. He has a PhD in Economics from theUniversity of Strathclyde and over the past 10 yearshis research progressively broadened to investigatethe quantitative relationship between R&D and thefinancial performance of innovative firms, the designof venture capital/R&D policies, the concept of smartspecialisation for regional growth, and technologicalcatch-up in resource-rich countries.Development Opportunities in Fife: Data-Driven Innovation and Local Economic Strategyhttps://doi.org/10.7488/era/874Copyright 2021 University of Edinburgh/City Region Deal Data-Driven Innovation programmeCite this paper as:Kitagawa, F., Vidmar, M., Golra, O. A. and Rosiello, A. (2021). Development Opportunities in Fife:Data-Driven Innovation and Local Economic Strategy. Data Driven Innovation Programme, Universityof Edinburgh. https://doi.org/10.7488/era/874The Data-Driven Innovation ProgrammeThe University of Edinburgh13-15 South College StreetEdinburghEH8 9AAE: ddi@ed.ac.ukT: 44 (0)131 651 4299ddi.ac.ukCover photos:Geo246 and CStephen via Getty Imagesddi.ac.uk2

Development Opportunities in FifeContentsForeword4Executive Summary5Introduction6The Fife Economic Strategy and Key Economic Sectors7DDI relevance, inclusive growth agenda and challengesto key economic sectors in Fife9Professor Peter Mathieson, Principal and Vice-Chancellor, the University of EdinburghCllr David Alexander and Cllr David Ross, Co-Leader, Fife CouncilMatching Key Sectors in Fife with the University of Edinburgh DDI Capability11Opportunity Areas for Data-Driven Innovation in Fife131414141515Addressing the TRADE Outputs KPIs16Capabilities Delivery Model18Conclusion – Challenges and Recommendations for Next Steps202121Advanced Manufacturing for Engineering and ConstructionAutonomous Systems and Sensors on Marine and Airborne PlatformsSmart Systems for Health and WellbeingData-enhanced Agriculture, Distribution and LogisticsData Intelligence for Enterprise ServicesRecommendationsFurther ContactAcknowledgements22Appendix A: Sources of Data and Analysis242424Appendix B Economic Activity in Fife25Appendix C: DDI Programme Impact Pathway(Source: the University of Edinburgh DDI Programme, 2018)30Appendix D: DDI Programme Impact Pathways modeldeveloped in the study in Fife31Appendix E: Matching Key Sectors in Fifeand Opportunity Areas for DDI Programme32List of Acronyms37Primary Data Sources and Groups of InformantsSecondary Data Sourcesddi.ac.uk3

ForewordThe Kingdom of Fife was once at theheart of Scotland’s heavy industries,from the coal mines beneath the earthto the shipbuilding yards that lined theFirth of Forth.Those traditional stalwarts were supplemented by thegrain and the livestock grown and raised on primeagricultural land, and by the fishing boats that landedtheir catches in the area’s numerous harbours.In more recent years, those primary and secondaryindustries have been joined by lighter manufacturing– especially in the electronics and food and drinksectors – and by a thriving services sector, rangingfrom finance through to healthcare.In 2021, Fife’s participation in both the Edinburghand South East Scotland City Region Deal and the TayCities Deal will help the area to access the fundingand the partnerships it needs to take the next steps ingrowing its economy.Those next steps will use data to drive innovation.By gathering and analysing information, businesseswill be able to develop products and services that willbetter meet the needs of their customers.This use of data-driven innovation (DDI) is notlimited to companies that would traditionally relyon computers and other digital technology. Whilebusinesses operating in the finance and in theinformation and communication technology arenasmay be among the first to harness DDI, its applicationsextend far and wide.Using sensors to monitor the performance of offshorewind turbines will enable firms in Fife to know whenmaintenance and repairs will be needed. Sensorswill also allow the ageing infrastructure in Scotland’soil and gas industry to be monitored, so it can bedecommissioned and recycled at the appropriatemoment, completing the links in Fife’s circulareconomy, with some of the structures potentiallybeing decommissioned near where they were built.Public services can be transformed by understandingwhen and why citizens access services, from educationand healthcare through to libraries and publictransport. That same data on transport and provisionof services such as public toilets can also help toenhance the Kingdom’s thriving tourism sector,ensuring visitors have access to the services they needto improve their holidays and trips, turning them intoreturn visitors and ambassadors for Fife.In this report, Fife’s economic development prioritiesare examined, and links are identified with theexpertise available within the University of Edinburghand its partners. With strong transport links betweenFife and the Lothians, the opportunities for thekingdom to tap into the knowledge and experienceof academia and support services at the University areimmense.The next steps are to identify the current andpotential uses of DDI within Fife and then form thoselinks with the University. Just as black gold in the formof coal and oil drove the kingdom’s economy in thepast, so too could data drive the innovation neededfor Fife’s economy of the future.Professor Peter MathiesonPrincipal and Vice-Chancellor,The University of EdinburghCllr David Alexander and Cllr David RossCo-Leader, Fife CouncilFarmers use satellites and computers to monitorweather conditions and determine the optimumpaths for tractors to seed, spray, and harvest crops.Manufacturing lines can be made even more efficientby gathering data on the performance of machineryand by analysing procedures and processes on theshop floor.ddi.ac.uk4

Development Opportunities in FifeExecutive SummaryThis report aims to identify opportunities for the University ofEdinburgh to develop data-driven innovation (DDI) activities in Fife.It identifies the alignment of interests betweenthe University DDI Programme and key private andpublic organisations in Fife; and, it evaluates options,recommending potential next steps.We identify specific opportunity areas for DDIactivities across the eight key sectors identified in theFife Economic Strategy 2017-2027 (i.e. energy andrenewables; manufacturing incl. engineering; financeand business services incl. Fintech; digital technologyincl. ICT; tourism, culture and creative industries; foodand drink; health and care; construction and civilengineering).We present the key TRADE (Talent, Research,Adoption, Datasets and Entrepreneurship)opportunities areas that the University can deploy inFife: Advanced manufacturing for engineeringand construction; Autonomous systems and sensors onmarine and airborne platforms; Data intelligence for enterprise services; Data-enhanced agriculture/food & drink,distribution and logistics; and, Smart systems for health and wellbeing.The University’s capabilities can be deployed in threeways: Physical infrastructure, digital platform andnetwork of partners. In terms of an research anddevelopment (R&D) hub as a physical infrastructure(along the lines of the advanced manufacturingresearch centre model), we see tangible opportunitieswith advanced engineering and robotics, andautomation and autonomous systems applications.This could be developed to establish an educationalhub to accelerate the talent pipeline, embedded inFife College in collaboration with the University ofEdinburgh.ddi.ac.ukWe identify further opportunities for talent throughtraining and skills development (e.g. degree-levelapprenticeships, industry-sponsored thesis/projects,CPD, and executive education) with online curriculumdevelopment as means to scaling-up provision.There is an enthusiasm across the DDI hubs (e.g.EFI, Bayes Centre, Usher Institute) to develop theseopportunities in partnership with Fife College andSkills Development Scotland.There are two key challenges that need to beaddressed:The willingness of industry to engage andtake up the DDI agenda; and,Embedding DDI engagement within theUniversity.In order to move forward, we recommend a seriesof gap analyses of the DDI landscape in Fife relatingto innovation, entrepreneurship and skills needs.There are wider questions about how to link theDDI Programme to an inclusive growth and socialinclusion agenda across the whole City Region. Thereare relevant approaches existing within the University,including: the widening participation agenda andgrowing and developing innovative learner pathways;the City Region Deal Inclusive Growth Framework;and Living Lab with participatory methodology andreal problem-solving approaches.The importance of the foresight opportunities forthe University with local stakeholders needs to berecognised. Datasets and evidence of impacts on theCity Region needs to be developed as part of the DDIProgramme, also considering the social benefits of theidentified DDI opportunity areas.5

Development Opportunities in FifeIntroductionThe Data-Driven Innovation (DDI) Programme1 is part ofthe Edinburgh and South East Scotland City Region Deal(ESES CRD)2. At its core, the Programme aims to supportorganisations and individuals benefit from the cuttingedge research and development in the generation, storage,analysis and use of various forms of data.The DDI programme aims to “help establish theregion as the data capital of Europe, drawing ininward investment, fuelling entrepreneurship anddelivering inclusive economic growth”3. It will improvedigital skills through working with schools, furtherand higher education, employers, and trainingproviders.The University of Edinburgh (UoE) has engagedwith this research agenda for several decades andhas globally been leading expertise in informaticsand data science, as well as in the related fields ofengineering and natural and social science. TheUniversity of Edinburgh and Heriot Watt Universityare working together, particularly in the area ofrobotics. The DDI Programme is centred around fiveinnovation hubs (i.e. Edinburgh Future Institute;Easter Bush; National Robotarium; Bayes Centre; UsherInstitute)4. The Edinburgh International Data Facility(EIDF) project underpins the five innovation hubs,and supports the inclusive growth ambitions of thepartnership. In looking towards extending the DDIProgramme with partners in the ESES-CRD, this studyspecifically analyses some of the emerging areas ofopportunity for developing the academic, commercialand civic collaboration with partners and stakeholdersin Fife, in particular, to address the ambitions of theoverarching CRD economic development and inclusivegrowth agenda.Fife Council is the third largest local authority inScotland in terms of population, and is committedto supporting two city deals – the Edinburgh andSouth East Scotland (ESES) City Region Deal, and theTay Cities Deal, covering the northeast of Fife. In thisstudy, we will only focus on the ESES City RegionDeal, while we are aware of informal arrangementsto support potential synergies between the twodeals in the coming years. There is one highereducation institution located in Fife, the Universityof St Andrews, while Fife College is a key local skillsprovider, along with private providers.The shift away from dependence on traditionalindustries towards a more service-based economy hasbeen a focus of economic development policy in Fife.The Fife Economy Partnership, Fife Council and theOpportunities Fife Partnership have jointly developedthe Fife Economic Strategy 2017-2027 to achievesustainable and fair economic growth for Fife. In thiseconomic strategy, eight key industrial sectors areidentified, which can significantly contribute to higheconomic growth in the region. This study identifiespotential DDI opportunities across these sectors.This study is based on interviews conducted betweenOctober and December 2018 with key individualstakeholders including the industry, academic andgovernmental sectors, as well as the analysis ofsecondary data sources. More than 30 individualswere consulted (see Appendix A for their names andorganisations). Key areas of opportunity are identifiedby matching the existing and emerging alignment ofinterests between the University DDI activities and keyprivate and public sectors in Fife. The report concludesby evaluating options and recommending possiblenext steps.1 See https://ddi.ac.uk/ for more information. [all online sources were accessed as of 6 December 2018 unless otherwise stated]2 The UK and Scottish governments, and regional partners are investing 1.1bn over 10 years in transport, housing, culture, skills andemployability and innovation. The regional partners include the six local authorities of Edinburgh, Midlothian, East Lothian, West Lothian, Fifeand the Scottish Borders, plus universities and colleges in the region.3 See https://www.ed.ac.uk/local/city-region-deal; 7706/item 86 - edinburgh and southeast scotland city region deal and http://www.acceleratinggrowth.org.uk/4 n-deal-securedSee https://ddi.ac.uk/about-us/ for DDI Innovation Hubs.ddi.ac.uk6

Development Opportunities in FifeThe Fife economic strategyand key economic sectorsAs the context for this study, the geographical and industrial profiles of businesses in Fife andtheir economic activities are analysed drawing on a number of secondary data sources (e.g.Fame database, ONS data) (See Appendix B for details).The Fife Economic Strategy 2017-2027 has identified eight key areas that can significantlycontribute to high economic growth in the region5 (see Table 1). In this study, we focusedon these eight areas to understand the needs of the Fife industry and align them with thecapabilities of the University of Edinburgh.SectorEnterprises Turnover ( )Employment (Nos)Energy and renewables----------------Manufacturing incl. Engineering 6&78353.86 bn15,010Finance and business services incl. Fintech16&8110500 m3,470Tourism , culture and creative industries715565 m13,000 655725 m6,000570271 m5,220Health and Care, and Education15495509 m14,730Construction and Civil engineering161,2101.04 bn7,260Fife Region Total10,29512.98 bn106,0009Food and drink 12&13Digital technology incl. ICT171410&11Table 1 – Economic activity in the eight key economic sectors as per Fife economy strategy 2017-20275 Fife Economic Strategy 2017-20276 The manufacturing industry in Fife, Sector Profile 2018; g-in-Fifefactsheet-2018.pdf7 https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0054/00543007.pdf8 -financial-business/9 Fife Tourism Strategy 2014-2024; /files/2517/tourist strategy final for screen.pdf10 Creative Industries in Fife 2016 summary report; ve-Industries-Fact-Sheet-2016-Summary.pdf11 Fife Tourism Partnership (autumn 2018), Insight into tourism sector helps plan for future, Fife Business Matters, 44, pp26. iles/fbm-44-autumn-low.pdf12 Food and drink in Fife, sector profile 2017; heet Food-Drink Profile-2017.pdf13 Food and drink (autumn 2018), Fife Business Matters, 44, pp11. iles/fbm-44-autumn-low.pdf14 Digital sector in Fife, 2018 factsheet; lSector-Factsheet.pdf15 Businesses in Scotland 2018. https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0054/00543007.pdf16 Businesses in Scotland 2018. https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0054/00543007.pdf17 Businesses in Scotland 2018. https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/0054/00543007.pdf18 Regional Skills Assessment infographic 2018; 44997/fife-rsa-region.pdfddi.ac.uk7

Development Opportunities in FifeManufacturing, wholesale and retail, and health andsocial work are the top three employment sectorsin Fife in 201818. Given their size, they are expectedto add the most gross value over the forecastedperiod till 2028. Significant contributions to growthare also expected from real estate activities andthe construction sector. However, they will notbe the fastest growing sectors - over the forecastperiod the fastest growing sectors are expected tobe information and communication, professional,scientific and technical activities and administrativeand support services19. The public sector is a significantemployer in Fife, contributing to 26 per cent of Fife’sGVA in 2016, followed by manufacturing (19.5 percent) and professional and other private services (18.6per cent)20. Health and care is the largest public sectoremployer in Fife.In relation to the Scottish economy, Fife is consideredas a high productivity and low output region21. In2018, the GVA by Fife was 7.5 billion, which was sixpercent of Scotland’s total national output22. Fife’sbusiness base is largely made up of micro and smallto medium enterprises (SMEs). In Fife, 96 per centof businesses have fewer than 49 employees and62 per cent have 0-4 employees23. There are only 50businesses in Fife with more than 250 employees.Moreover, 80 per cent of Fife’s productivity comesfrom these larger companies24.19 Regional Skills Assessment Fife Insight 2017; 44099/rsa-indesign-fife-2.pdf20 Scotland’s Economic Performance Fife Council http://www.parliament.scot/S5 EconomyJobsFairWork/Inquiries/PSE016-Fife Council.pdf21 Regional Skills Assessment Fife Insight 2017; 44099/rsa-indesign-fife-2.pdf22 Fife Regional Skills Assessment (RSA) Summary Report 201823 Fife Business Base 2017; ss-BaseReport-2017.pdf24 Opportunities Fife Partnership Strategy Refresh and Outline; trategy-2018-2022.pdfddi.ac.uk8

Development Opportunities in FifeDDI relevance, inclusive growth agenda andchallenges to key economic sectors in FifeThe UK Government has pinpointed several areas as key industrial drivers ofeconomic growth. These are: artificial intelligence, additive manufacturing,automation and robotics, smart technology, fourth industrial revolution (4IR)and augmented reality25. In realising the growth from these sectors, the UKGovernment Industry Strategy26 identifies various grand challenges:Put the UK at the forefront of the artificialintelligence and data revolution;Maximise the advantages for UK industry ofthe global shift to clean growth;The Scottish Government also has an economicstrategy with four priorities that place digitaldevelopment at the epicentre of future investmentand innovation trends27. As a result, Scotland hasdeveloped a strategic agenda for realising its fullpotential in the digital arena28. Among the key goalsof this strategy are: S timulating innovation, welcominginvestment and promoting its digitaltechnologies industries; D eveloping internationallycompetitive, digitally maturebusinesses across all sectors;Become a world leader in shaping the futureof mobility; and, B ecoming recognised internationallyas a natural test bed for innovation inconnectivity; and, F ocusing education and trainingsystems on expanding the existingpool of digital skills and capabilities. arness the power of innovation to helpHmeet the needs of an ageing society.25 Department for Business Energy and Industry Strategy, Science & Innovation Audits summary report 2016).26 UK Government Industry Strategy t/uploads/system/uploads/attachment eb-ready-version.pdf27 Scottish Government (2015) Scotland’s Economic Strategy https://www2.gov.scot/economicstrategy28 Scottish Government (2017)Realising Scotland’s full potential in a digital world: a digital strategy for Scotland scotland/pages/2/ddi.ac.uk9

Development Opportunities in FifeIn the context of the Fife economy, each of the eightkey economic sectors indicates a growing need andpotential demand of DDI; for instance, in the oil andgas industry, sensors, analytics and data reportingare the key areas of future development. One ofthe perceived challenges is competition with globalbusinesses in other countries that are ahead in theshift toward industry 4.0. Some manufacturing andengineering businesses in Fife have already realisedthe importance of data-driven innovation andindustry 4.0 concepts in their manufacturing processes(e.g. Bosch Rexroth, the Glenrothes DPS Group)29.The transition to Industry 4.0 is not an even process.Three key issues are identified namely, adoption ofDDI, attraction and retention of skilled labour, andautomation. In the Fife economy, more than 80 percent of the companies are small and medium size.Whilst large organisations may have been adoptingrobotics and flexible manufacturing systems for manyyears, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)may be lagging behind due to lack of awareness andresource constraints.Another perceived challenge for SMEs in Fife isthe skills agenda. The availability and quality ofskilled labour for manufacturing, engineering andconstruction has been recognised as a key challenge- along with the ageing workforce. Attractionand retention of talent is one of the major issues,especially for SMEs. There is a new challenge ofinvesting in retraining and upskilling existing workersas digitalisation and automation change the nature ofworkplaces. There are a few recent locally embeddedskills initiatives, particularly in health and care sectorand fintech sector, with the involvement of businessesin Fife and Fife College (see p.14).The Scottish Government’s (2015) economic strategystates: “increasing growth and tackling inequalityare mutually supportive”30. The Fife Council BusinessCharter provides a framework for the workingrelationship between Fife Council and local businesses,both improving the economic performance andreducing inequalities31. At the CRD level, an analysisof the City Region’s inclusion challenges identified thefive thematic interventions: Accelerating inclusive growth; R emoving the physical barriers togrowth; C ommunity benefits throughprocurement; Targeted skills interventions; and, Social benefit through innovation32.There is no one-size-fits-all approach to tackling theseissues and realising opportunities related to DDI aspart of the inclusive growth agenda, given the rapidlychanging technological landscapes as well as localsocio-economic and demographic challenges. Giventhe University of Edinburgh’s focus on relevant DDIagendas, and its desire to engage with the needsand aspirations of local partners, there is a potentialthat the DDI Programme can play a significant role inimproving the local industry’s economic performanceand enhancing the inclusive growth agenda.This study built up on the existing “DDI ProgrammeImpact Pathways” model (Appendix C). Based onthe analysis of the data and information collectedin this study, we developed a preliminary model ofDDI deployment in Fife and used it as a conceptualframework (Appendix D).29 Industry 4.0- Revolutionising Manufacturing Fife Business Matters, Issue 44. pp 16-18 2018. sue44.html#p 1630 Scottish Government (2015) Scotland’s Economic Strategy.31 See the objectives set out in the Fife Council Business Charter https://businesscharter.fife.scot/ [02/04/19]32 otland-RegionDeal.pdf [30/04/19]ddi.ac.uk10

Development Opportunities in FifeMatching key sectors in Fife withthe University of Edinburgh DDI capabilityIn Table 2, the eight key sectors identified by Fife’s Economic Strategy 2017-2027 are presentedalongside key industry actors. Local opportunities and some of the challenges for these sectorsare identified. Key issues addressed in skills in Fife are identified in italics These are matchedwith the University’s DDI capabilities and potentials. For the full information, see Appendix E.Key Sector in FifeEconomic Strategy2017-2027Fife Industry strength/opportunity andchallengesThe University of Edinburgh’sDDI capability and potentialEnergy and renewablesOil and gas large players (e.g. Babcock,TechnipFMC, Oceaneering, BurntislandFabricators) and supply chains; Orca Hub (joint HW-UoE / Robotariumventure)The Levenmouth Demonstration Turbine(ORE Catapult);Global Energy Inc.Queensway Park Data Centre Campus.Manufacturing incl.EngineeringSensors and big data as one of emergingsupplementary themes regardingmaterials and machine design.Sensors, analytics and data reporting arekey areas for future development:– Manufacturers: Quality Control– Operations: Predictive Maintenance(based on statutory requirements) ”Industry Forth” (2018)FASTBLADE-Babcock;Engineering Informatics and EI; SDSAvailability and quality of skilled labour as SE Invest in Fife / Fife Council a challenge; ageing workforce.companies (EoIs)Fife College linked in through SDS.Advanced Manufacturing InnovationCentre, proposed in 2018, with mainthemes:– Industry 4.0– Manufacturing engineering– Welding– Metallurgy and composites– Machining– Scientific services– Nuclear AMRCFinance and businessservices incl. FintechPayment services e.g. Ingenico Group;Renovite Technologies;FIS Global;Payment CentricThe Fife Fintech Skills Academy (FifeCouncil, Fife College, fintech industry inFife; Fintech Scotland)EPPC-Data Lab project with Paywizard Data Lab Fintech Scotland Centre of Excellence for Cyber SecurityResearch, InformaticsTable 2 – Matching key sectors in Fife and DDI capability at the University of Edinburghddi.ac.uk11

Development Opportunities in FifeKey Sector in FifeEconomic Strategy2017-2027Fife Industry strength/opportunity andchallengesThe University of Edinburgh’sDDI capability and potentialDigital technology incl.ICTe.g. Semifab, Exterity, Artilium, TDK AI and blockchain accelerator at BayesMicronas, Paywizard, BITwise, RG Wire andCentreCable; CDL vehicle information services; Centre of Excellence for Cyber Securityitek; EAFResearch Edinburgh Living LabTourism, culture andcreative industriesRelatively fast average annual growth of2.6 per cent – creative industry but limitedimpact; Tourism – job growth expected.Links between DDI and creative industry inFife (e.g. Fife College, Create in Fife; FifeCraft Association) being soughte.g. digital informatics; informatics; Bayes;EPCC; ECCI. Data-driven marketing andforecasting for tourism industry.Food and drinkFood and drink - Ports and logisticse.g. Diageo - spirits manufacturerdrinks industry (whisky), globa

The University of Edinburgh 13-15 South College Street Edinburgh EH8 9AA E: ddi@ed.ac.uk T: 44 (0)131 651 4299 ddi.ac.uk Development Opportunities in Fife Authors: Dr Fumi Kitagawa is a Senior Lecturer in Entrepreneurship and Innovation at the University of Edinburgh Business School, and has a PhD in Urban and Regional Studies. Her research has

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