ALABAMA A&M AND AUBURN UNIVERSITIES Common Diseases Of Holly And Their .

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A L A B A M AA & MA N DA U B U R NU N I V E R S I T I E SCommon Diseases ofHolly and Their ControlIntroductionMCylindrocladiumLeaf SpotCylindrocladium leafspot, commonly on ‘Burford’,Japanese, American, and yaupon holly, is seen primarily oncontainer stock in the Southeast.This disease may also be introduced into home landscapes ondiseased container stock.Symptoms first appear as tinyyellow (chlorotic) spots whichlater enlarge to circular spotswith a tan to brown center anda purple-black border. Even asingle spot may cause a diseasedleaf to be prematurely shed bythe plant. On badly defoliatedholly, a shoot dieback may alsooccur.In nurseries, apply a fungicide (See Table 1) every 10 to 14days starting at bud break untilall new growth matures. In landscapes, apply fungicides only toplants previously damaged bydisease. Begin fungicide spraysat leaf-out and repeat every 10to 14 days until shoot growthhas stopped.AnthracnoseThe common holly hostsof anthracnose include English,Chinese, American, inkberry, andwinterberry holly. Anthracnosemay occur on holly in production nurseries and the landscape.Like Cylindrocladium leaf spot,this disease is seen most oftenon holly across the Southeast.Circular to irregular blotchesusually tan to brown appear onthe leaves (Figure 1).Numerous pink-orange, pinhead sized spore masses of thecausal fungus, that appear during humid weather inside theARCHembers of the genus Ilexor holly are landscape favorites throughout the UnitedStates. Popularity of this groupstems from their diversity of leaftexture, fruit and foliage color,size, and their adaptation to abroad range of climatic conditions. When compared withother woody landscape plants,holly have relatively few seriousdiseases. Most diseases are moredamaging in the nursery than inthe landscape. In the landscape,pests such as spider mites, scaleinsects, and spittle bugs usually pose more of a threat to thehealth and beauty of holly thando diseases or plant parasiticnematodes. This publicationdiscusses leaf spots and blightof holly and their management;root rot diseases of holly; andnematode pests of holly.on most woody ornamentalslike holly are associated withextended periods of wet, humid,cloudy weather in the spring andsummer.IVEANR-1087Leaf Spot and Blightsof HollyA wide variety of fungi maycause leaf spot diseases on cultivated holly. In landscapes, theinjury to holly may be unsightlybut the plants are rarely harmedby these diseases. Often, damageis so light that it’s hardly noticeable.In container and field nurseries, considerable spotting of theleaves and subsequent defoliation often associated with leafspots and blight diseases maygreatly reduce the quality andmarket value of holly. Typically,outbreaks of leaf spot diseasesFigure 1. Anthracnose on inkberry.Table 1. Chemical Control Of Cylindrocladium Leaf SpotFungicideRate Per Gallon Rate Per 100Gallonthiophanate-methyl3336 50W1 T.12 to 16 oz.10 to 20 fl. oz.3336 4.5F—Halt 50W1 T.—www.aces.eduCommentsBegin sprays atleaf-out. Repeatevery 10 to 14days. Prune outdiseased limbs.

Web BlightHOutbreaks of web blight orRhizoctonia aerial blight are seenmost often on rooted liners andcontainer-grown dwarf cultivarsof Japanese and yaupon holly,though liners of other holliesmay also be damaged. In general, holly cultivars with densecanopies that are jammed together are particularly sensitive toweb blight. Warm to hot, humidweather patterns are essential fordisease development. This diseaseonly occurs on holly in landscapes during periods of unusually hot, wet weather.Brown spots appear alongthe margin and base of theleaves. They rapidly enlargeinto irregular brown to blackblotches that may encompass theentire leaf. Mats of dead leavesusually cling to the damagedshoots. Blighting of the leavesusually starts on leaves closest tothe ground and spread upwardsthrough the canopy towards theshoot tips (Figure 2).When possible, space plantsto improve air circulation. Avoidoverhead watering in late afternoon or early evening. Beginpreventive fungicide sprays inJune. Repeat sprays every 7 to14 days as needed or until nighttemperatures cool. To get gooddisease control, thoroughly wetthe canopy, stems, and mediasurface with the fungicide spray.Recommended fungicides arelisted in Table 3.ARCTable 2. Chemical Control of AnthracnoseFungicideRate PerRate Per CommentsGallon100 GallonsazoxystrobinHeritage 50W—1 to 4 oz. Apply to wet the entirecanopy. Repeatapplications every14 to 28 days as needed.chlorothalonilDaconil2 t.1.38 pt.Begin sprays in lateWeather Stikspring and repeat every7 to 14 days as needed.Prune out diseased limbs.Daconil Ultrex—1.4 lb.Garden Fungicide2 ¼ t.—thiophanate-methylHalt 50W2 ½ t.—Apply to wet the entirecanopy. Repeat applications every 14 to 28 daysas needed.OPH 6672—16 oz.thiophanate-methyl3336 50W1 T.12 to 16 oz.3336 4.5F—10 to 20 fl. oz.2 Alabama Cooperative Extension SystemFigure 2. Web blight on Japaneseholly cv ‘Helleri’. (Courtesy of A.Windham, University of Tennessee).Botryosphaeria CankerBotryosphaeria or bot cankeris a found on nearly all cultivated species of holly including ‘Foster’, dahoon, Japanese,Chinese, inkberry, American, andyaupon holly. Development ofbot canker is often preceded byexposure of holly to unusuallyhigh or low temperatures or incombination with severe droughtconditions. Holly in good physical condition are rarely damagedby this disease.The first noticeable symptoms of this disease are yellowing and premature leaf drop ofthe leaves on girdled limbs alongwith a twig dieback. Cankers,often centered on a deadtwig, usually appear as slightlyshrunken and cracked patches ofdiscolored bark. Tissues belowthe canker face turn brown andthis discoloration often extendsseveral inches above and belowthe canker margin. Cankers maycontinue to expand until thediseased limb is girdled, therebykilling all parts of the plantabove the canker.Stress-related dieback diseases such as bot canker can largelybe avoided by following properestablishment and maintenancepractices. Preferably, new plantings of holly should be installedin the fall. Amend the soil priorto planting according to soiltest recommendations to correct any mineral or pH deficiencies. Always set holly so that theroot ball sits at or just slightlyIVEblotches, can easily be seen withthe naked eye or a hand lens.A shoot dieback may also beseen on anthracnose-damaged‘Burford’ holly.Apply a recommended fungicide starting in late spring.Repeat sprays every 7 to 14 daysas needed. Recommended fungicides are listed in Table 2. Seecomments on management offoliar diseases below for othercontrol suggestions.

holly, Japanese holly, yaupon,and ‘Foster’ holly.Symptoms of Sphaeropsisknot range from localized swelling of young twigs to knobbygalls on the larger branches.Also, clusters of stunted, sometimes leafless shoots or witchesbroom may be seen. Leaves ongalled branches often turn yellowand drop. A dieback of the defoliated branches often follows.Propagating cuttings fromdiseased holly is a commonmethod of spreading this disease.Before taking any cuttings, inspect stock plants to make surethat they are free of symptoms.Do not take cuttings from diseased holly. After each cut, dipthe pruning knives or shears inalcohol or a similar disinfectant.In the landscape, prune diseasedlimbs well below any galls orswellings. When establishing newplantings of susceptible hollies inFlorida and nearby states, inspectincoming plants for typical symptoms and return any diseasedhollies. No fungicides are currently labeled for the control ofSphaeropsis knot on holly.ARCHabove the soil level, not below.On poorly drained soils or sitesprone to flood, plant holly onraised beds. Mulch around hollies with well-rotted sawdust,pine straw, or an aged bark tohold moisture in the soil and toavoid mechanical injury to thelimbs and trunk by mowers andweed trimmers. Water new andestablished plants according toneed, especially during extendedperiods of hot, dry weather.Prune discolored or wiltedbranches back to green wood asthey appear. No fungicides arerecommended for the control ofbot canker on holly.Sphaeropsis KnotSphaeropsis knot occurs onholly primarily in Florida and toa lesser extent in other southeastern states. In Florida, thisdisease is found most often inlandscape and native stands ofAmerican and dahoon hollies.Other hollies known to havebeen damaged by this disease inFlorida landscapes and containernurseries include the ChineseManagement ofthe Foliar Diseasesof HollyIn the landscape, provide effective protection from most leafspot and blight diseases by timely surface watering, maintaining recommendedsoil fertility and pH, choosing an adapted hollycultivar as well as proper plantmaintenance and spacing.To minimize the length oftime the foliage remains wet,water hollies in both landscapesand nurseries with overheadsprinklers between 1 and 7 amor at midday. If a serious leafspot and blight should occur,collect and destroy the fallenleaves. Fungicides are rarelyneeded to protect holly in landscape plantings from leaf spotand blight diseases.In container nurseries,dwarf Japanese and yauponholly need to be spaced out toallow air circulation and speedevaporation of water on leafsurfaces. Fertility and wateringpractices detailed above willhelp control these diseases incontainer-grown holly. Also, fungicides often must be appliedto protect rooted cuttings andcontainer-grown Japanese andyaupon holly through the springand summer months from webblight. Recommended fungicidesare listed in the above tables.IVETable 3. Chemical Control of Web BlightRate PerFungicideRate ather Stik 6F2 t.1.38 pt. Problem on container grownDaconil Ultrex—1.4 lb.dwarf holly during summermonths. Hot, pounds wetweather favors disease.1.25 lb. Apply on 7 to 14 day scheduleEcho 90DF—when weather patterns favordisease. Repeat as needed.Thalonil 4.17F2 t.2 pt.Add a spreader-sticker towettable powderformulations.Thalonil 90DF—1.25 lb.iprodioneChipco 26 GT—1 to 2 lb.thiophanate-methyl3336 50W1 T.12 to 16 oz.3336 4.5F—10 to 20 fl. oz.Halt 50W1 T.12 to 16 oz.Root Rot Diseasesof HollyRoot rot diseases may heavily damage holly in the nursery.With the exception of low areasprone to flooding, they arerarely a problem in landscapeson well-maintained holly. Two ofthe more common root rot diseases of holly are described inthis publication.Common Diseases of Holly and Their Control3

Thielaviopsis BlackRoot RotSee Table 4 for recommendedfungicides.Prior to establishing newplantings of holly, pull severalplants from their containers andcheck the roots for typical symptoms of black root rot. Rejectshipments of diseased or poorquality plants. Should black rootrot be diagnosed in establishedplantings, remove the damaged plants and install diseaseresistant hollies or other woodyFigure 3. Black Root Rot on Japaneseholly cv ‘Helleri’. (Courtesy of A.Windham, University of Tennessee).ARCHThis disease has also beenoccasionally seen on yaupon andAmerican holly. Black root rot ismost prevalent in container nurseries but may also be moved intothe landscape on diseased hollies. Distribution of this disease isnearly nationwide.Symptoms of black root rot include yellowing of the leaves followed by a noticeable slowing ofplant growth, early leaf drop, andtwig dieback. Black bands or ringscan be seen along the length ofthe normally white to buff coloredfeeder roots. As the disease progresses, much of the root systemwill darken and die.Cuttings of Japanese and otherroot-rot susceptible hollies mustbe rooted in new containers orflats in a soilless pine bark medium. Some peat-based commercialmixes may be contaminated withthe causal fungus, Thielaviopsisbasicola. Recycled containers mustbe thoroughly washed and disinfected prior to their reuse. Discardold potting media. In the nursery,preventive fungicide drenchesshould be routinely applied to cultivars of Japanese, Blue, and otherblack root-rot susceptible hollies.Table 4. Chemical Control of Black Root RotFungicideRate PerRate PerCommentsGallon100 Gallonsthiophanate-methylSoil drench. Applymonthly.3336 50W1 T.12 to 16 oz.3336 4.5F—10 to 20 fl. oz.etridiazole thiophanate-methylBanrot 40W—6 to 12 oz. Soil drench. Apply inenough water to saturatesoil or potting media.Irrigate immediately.Retreat every 4 to 12weeks.Banrot 8G—1 lb./cu. yd. Dry Soil Media Mix.Retreat media after 4 to 12weeks as needed with arecommended fungicidedrench.metalaxyl thiophanate-methylDRENCH PAK—1 pkg. 3336 At Seeding. Mix 1 gallon of stock solution per 1001 pkg.gallons of drench solution.Subdue II Agitate gently. Apply 0.5to 1 pint of solution persquare foot of bench or bedarea at 21 to 28 dayintervals as needed.1.5 pk.At Transplanting. Apply 13336 to 2 pints of solution per1 pkg.square foot of bench or bedSubdue II area and repeat at 21 to 28day intervals as needed.Agitate gently.thiophanate-methylHalt 50W2 ½ t.—Soil drench. ApplyOPH 6672 50W—16 2- to 4-weektriflumizoleintervals as needed. Use aTerraguard 50W—1 to 4 oz.higher rate under heavydisease pressure.IVEBlack root rot occurs mostoften on cultivars of Japaneseholly as well as the Blue orMeserve (I. x meserveae) hollyand inkberry (Figure 3).plants. Cultivars of Japaneseholly susceptible to this diseaseare ‘Hoogendorn’, ‘Nigra’, ‘GreenCushion’, “Mobjack Supreme’,‘Hetzii’, and ‘Helleri’. The hollycv. ‘Blue Maid’ may be themost susceptible of the Blue orMeserve holly cultivars to thisdisease. Other trees susceptibleto black root rot are catalpa,American elm, and black locust.4 Alabama Cooperative Extension System

often be traced to pathogencontaminated potting media ordiseased liners. Take cuttingsfrom healthy plants and rootthem in aged bark or heat sterilized soil in clean containers onraised benches. Never reuse potting media or containers. Rootingholly in ground beds is discouraged. Discard diseased cuttingsand container plants.In the nursery, fungicidedrenches should be applied forthe control of root rot disease onsusceptible holly cultivars fromthe time cuttings are rooted untilfinished container-grown plantsare shipped (Table 5). Preventivefungicide applications are rarelyneeded to control any root rotdisease of holly in the landscape.Fungicides will not kill root rotfungi that have already invadedroot tissues but will preventthem from attacking healthyroots. See Extension publicationANR-571, “Phytophthora RootRot on Woody Ornamentals”for more information on recommended management practicesand fungicide use guidelines.ARCHPythium and Phytophthoraroot rots are common diseasesof a wide range of woody ornamentals, including most kinds ofholly. Generally, Phytophthoraroot rot is much more damaging in container nurseries thanthe landscape. Pythium rootrot can cause plant loss in boththe nursery and the landscape.Development of both diseasesis often favored by a poorlydrained potting medium or acompacted, poorly drained clayor silt soil. Plant loss may beparticularly high in landscapebeds where water tends to standfor several hours after watering. Planting too deep and overmulching may also contribute todisease development.Symptoms of these two diseases and black root rot are similar. Typically, yellowing of theleaves, particularly at the shoottips, early leaf drop, slowedplant growth, and twig diebackare seen at early stages of thesediseases. Later, one or morelimbs may wilt and dieback tothe main trunk and a brown toblack streaks of dead tissue mayextend from one area of rotted roots to the damaged limb(Figure 4). Often, the root system will continue to disintegrateuntil the plant dies.Holly grown under a combination of heat and/or moisturestress are much more sensitiveroot rot diseases than are wellmaintained, vigorous plants.Always choose hollies that areadapted to the local climate andsoil conditions. Root rot diseasesare often introduced into thelandscape on diseased containerplants. To avoid introducingthese diseases, purchase hollieswith white healthy roots andgood foliage color. Pythium andPhytophthora root rot are oftenmore prevalent on wet-naturedsoils. Planting holly and othershallow-rooted shrubs on raisedbeds is strongly suggested inareas with poorly drained, wetnatured soils. Also, amendinglandscape beds with plenty ofaged pine or hardwood bark willhelp suppress root rots. Plantingtoo deep is an open invitationfor Pythium or Phytophthora rootrot. Fertilizing according to soiltest recommendations will maintain vigor, thereby reducing thesusceptibility of holly to root rot.Root rot outbreaks in homeand commercial nurseries canIVEPythium andPhytophthora Root RotFigure 4. Phytophthora rot andcrown rot on blue holly.Common Diseases of Holly and Their Control5

Table 5. Chemical Control of Pythium and Phytophthora Root RotFungicideetridiazoleTruban 5GRate Per 100 Gallons Comments10 oz./cu. yd.mediaSoil Drench. Apply with enough water to saturate soil ormedium. Irrigate immediately. Retreat every 4 to 12 weeks.Dry Soil Mix. Retreat after 4 to 12 media weeks with arecommended fungicide drench as needed.Soil Drench. Reapply every 30 days as needed.Foliar Spray. Reapply every 30 days as needed.Dry Soil Mix. Use only on well rooted media plants. Treat asneeded with a recommended fungicide after 30 days.IVEetridiazole thiophanate-methylBanrot 40W6 to 12 oz.Banrot 8G1 lb./cu. yd. mediafosetyl-ALAliette WDG0.4 to 0.8 lb.2.5 to 5.0 lb.0.5 to 0.8 lb./cu. yd.mediamefonoxamSubdue Maxx1 to 2 fl. oz.1 to 2 fl. oz.Subdue GR26 to 125 oz.1.6 to 12.5 oz./cu. yd.mediapropamocarbBanol 67S25 fl. oz.metalaxyl thiophanate-methylDRENCHPAK1 pkg. 3336 1 pkg. Subdue II1.5 pkg. 3336 1 pkg. Subdue IIDry Soil Mix. Broadcast: Rate medfia 6-8 pounds per 1,000square feet of bed area.Soil Drench. Apply every 2 to 3 months as needed.Soil Drench on Established Plants in Landscape.Broadcast or band with enough water to cover root zone.After application, irrigate with 1 2 inch water if rain does notoccur within 7 days.Broadcast. Covers 1,000 sq. ft. of bed area. Repeat at 2to 3-month intervals as needed and irrigate immediately.Dry Soil Mix or Incorporated. Thoroughly mix and irrigatewith enough water to wet root zone. Retreat as needed after2 to 3 months.HSoil Drench. Repeat at 3 to 4 month intervals.ARCAt Seeding. Mix 1 gallon of stock solution per 100 gallonsof drench solution. Agitate gently. Apply 0.5 to 1 pint ofsolution per square foot of bench or bed area at 21- to 28-dayintervals as needed.At Transplanting. Apply 1 to 2 pints of solution per squarefoot of bench or bed area and repeat at 21- to 28-day intervalsas needed. Agitate gently.6 Alabama Cooperative Extension System

Figure 5. Galls produced by root-knotnematode on roots of Japanese holly cv‘Helleri’. (Courtesy of R. Jones, NorthCarolina State University).Often, established hollies willtolerate some nematode damagewithout any noticeable injury tothe plant.In the landscape, a littleplanning will go a long waytowards minimizing the riskfrom nematodes. Since damaging nematodes are most likelyto occur in the soils of oldvegetable gardens, a nematodeassay should be run on soil fromthese areas before any plants areestablished. Before planting anyfield for balled and burlapped(B&B) holly production, a nematode soil assay should be run. Ifroot-knot or lesion nematode arefound in landscape beds, planta holly cultivar resistant to thatnematode. In field nurseries, donot plant holly in those fieldsknown to be infested with damaging nematodes.ARCHNematodes are microscopicworms that feed on the feederroot system of plants. Generally,damaging populations of thesepests are limited to sandy orsandy loam soils. Several speciesof the root-knot and ring nematode are know to attack Chineseand Japanese holly. Serious nematode damage on holly is rarelyseen in the landscape, thoughsome damage is sometimes seenon field-grown holly. Generally,container grown holly will belargely free of damaging nematodes.Typical symptoms of nematode injury such as yellowingof the leaves, slowed growth,and poor response to fertilizersor irrigation usually don’t appear until the roots have beenbadly damaged. Damage relatedto poor soil fertility, improperplant establishment, drought,and similar disorders can easilybe mistaken for nematode injury.On root-knot damaged holly, numerous, small galls or swellingswill appear on the feeder roots(Figure 5).The yaupon and ‘Burford’Chinese holly are resistant to thering nematode while cultivars ofthe Japanese holly are not. The‘Burford’ Chinese holly is, however, sensitive to attack by thesouthern root-knot nematode,the most common nematodepest of vegetables and ornamentals. The reaction of other hollies to plant parasitic nematodesis largely unknown. Additionalwatering, mulching, and fertilizing to need may improve thehealth and restore the beautyof nematode-damaged plants.Adding compost to landscapebeds may also help plants recover from nematode damage.Severely stunted plants willrarely respond to better careand should be replaced with anematode resistant plant. SeeExtension publication ANR-689,“Nematode Pests of Flowers andWoody Plants,” for more information on nematode resistantwoody plants.Holly fanciers and nurseryoperators should not propagateholly in non-sterile field soil.Preferably, holly cuttings shouldbe rooted in a bark mix usingthe same precautions alreadydescribed under Pythium andPhytophthora root rot control.If field soil is used, make surethat it has been heat or steamsterilized. Avoid rooting cuttingsin ground beds, regardless ofwhether the soil can be sterilized.IVENematode Pestsof HollyCommon Diseases of Holly and Their Control7

IVEHCARAustin Hagan, Extension Plant Pathologist, Professor, Entomology and PlantPathology at Auburn UniversityUse pesticides only according to the directions on the label. Follow all directions, precautions, and restrictions that arelisted. Do not use pesticides on plants that are not listed on the label.The pesticide rates in this publication are recommended only if they are registered with the Environmental ProtectionAgency and the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries. If a registration is changed or cancelled, the rate listedhere is no longer recommended. Before you apply any pesticide, check with your county Extension agent for the latest information.Trade names are used only to give specific information. The Alabama Cooperative Extension System does not endorse orguarantee any product and does not recommend one product instead of another that might be similar.For more information, call your county Extension office. Look in your telephone directory under your county’s name tofind the number.ANR-1087Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work in agriculture and home economics, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914,and other related acts, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Alabama Cooperative Extension System(Alabama A&M University and Auburn University) offers educational programs, materials, and equal opportunity employmentto all people without regard to race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age, veteran status, or disability.4M, Revised Jan 2005, ANR-1087 2005 by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. All rights reserved.

do diseases or plant parasitic nematodes. This publication discusses leaf spots and blight of holly and their management; root rot diseases of holly; and nematode pests of holly. Leaf Spot and Blights . of Holly. A wide variety of fungi may . cause leaf spot diseases on cul-tivated holly. In landscapes, the injury to holly may be unsightly

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