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JAI HIND COLLEGEBASANTSING INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE&J.T.LALVANI COLLEGE OF COMMERCE(AUTONOMOUS)"A" Road, Churchgate, Mumbai - 400 020, India.Affiliated toUniversity of MumbaiProgram :BSc.Proposed Course: BotanySemester VCredit Based Semester and Grading System (CBCS) with effect from theacademic year 2020-20211

T.Y.B.Sc. BOTANY SyllabusAcademic year 2020-2021Semester VCourseCodeSBOT5014444444SBOT5PR1Microbiology, Algae, Fungi and PlantPathologyPalaeobotany, Angiosperms, Anatomy,PalynologyCytology and Molecular Biology,Physiology, Environmental Botany, PlantTissue CultureEthnobotany& Mushroom Industry,Biotechnology I, Instrumentation,Pharmacognosy& Medicinal BotanyPractical I and IILectures/Week448SBOT5PR2Practical III and IV48SBOT502SBOT503SBOT504Course TitleCredits2

Semester V – TheoryCourse code:SBOT501Unit IUnit IIMicrobiology, Algae, Fungi and Plant Pathology60 L(Credits : 4 Lectures/Week:4)Learning Objectives: Study types of micro-organisms, culturing techniques and theirapplications Study a comparative account of different classes of marine and freshwater algae. Learn about life cycles of fungi, plant pathogenic fungi and differentcontrol measures.Learning Outcomes:Students will be able to: Identify the different types of organisms and their growthcharacteristics. Master culturing techniques of microbes Grasp the concept of fermentation using appropriate examples. Differentiate between marine and fresh water algae Understand life cycles of algal and fungal specimens [as per thesyllabus] and classify the same Apply the knowledge gained to identify pathological symptoms onplants and suggest appropriate prophylactic measures for the sameMICROBIOLOGY: Types of microbes Culturing: Sterilization, media, staining, colony characters15 L Pure cultures Role of microbes in fermentation: Alcohol and AntibioticsALGAE: Division Rhodophyta: Classification(According to G.M.Smith)and General Characters: Distribution, Cell structure,pigments, reserve food, range of thallus, reproduction:asexual and sexual, Alternation of Generations, EconomicImportanceo Structure, life cycle and systematic position ofPolysiphonia; Batrachospermum Division Xanthophyta:Classification (According to G.M.Smith) and General Characters, Distribution, Cell structure,pigments, reserve food, range of thallus, Reproduction:15 Lasexual and sexual, Alternation of Generations, EconomicImportanceo Structure, life cycle and systematic position ofVaucheria Division: Bacillariophyta:Classification (According to G.M.Smith) and General Characters, Distribution, Cell structure,pigments, reserve food, range of thallus, Reproduction:asexual and sexual, Alternation of Generations, EconomicImportanceo Structure, life cycle and systematic position ofPinnularia3

Unit IIIFUNGI: Basidiomycetes: Classification (According to G.M.Smith)General characters, life cycles and economicimportance of:o Agaricuso Puccinia Deuteromycetes: Classification (According to G.M. Smith)General Characters, life cycles and economic importance of:o AlternariaPLANT PATHOLOGY Unit IVStudy of plant diseases: Causative organism, symptoms,predisposing factors, disease cycle and control measures ofthe following.o White Rust – Albugo sp.o Tikka disease of ground nut: Cercosporao Damping off disease: Pythiumo Citrus canker – Xanthomonas sp.o Leaf curl – leaf curl virus15 L15 LReferences:1. Rao A. S., Introduction to Microbiology, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 20062. Gangulee H.C., Das K.S., &Datta C., College Botany, Volume I, New Central BookAgency, 20063. Vashishta B. R., & Sinha A. K., Botany for degree students Algae, S. Chand, 1stEdition, 20104. Vashishta B. R., & Sinha A. K., Botany for degree students Fungi, S. Chand, 1stEdition, 20105. Reed G., Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology, CBS Publishers andDistributors, 20046. Casida L. E. J.R., Industrial Microbiology, New Age International Publishers, 2007.7. Smith G. M., Cryptogamic Botany – Algae and Fungi, Vol. I, McGraw Hillpublications, 1955.4

Course code:SBOT502Unit IUnit IIPalaeobotany, Angiosperms, Anatomy, Palynology60 L(Credits :04/ Lectures/Week:04)Learning Objectives: Learn about the process of fossilization and different fossils. Morphology of flower and fruits will help the students, understandthe classification in an effective manner. Learn about abnormal secondary growth and importance of the samein identification of plants Study of palynology and its application will help the students tounderstand importance of pollen study.Learning Outcomes:Students will be able to: Construct various form genera on the basis of internal structuresobserved in fossilized specimens prescribed in the syllabus. Identify and differentiate between types of flowers and fruits. Apply the knowledge of morphology in identification of plants asper Bentham and Hooker’s (Natural) system of classification. Enumerate plants of economic importance from the prescribedfamilies. Compare and differentiate amongst various types of anomalousanatomical structures in plants. Identify pollen grains based on morphology using NPC system ofclassification. Apply the knowledge of palynology in various fields prescribed insyllabus and Suggest a few measures to cure or control pollenallergy.PALAEOBOTANY:15 L All form genera Stem, leaf, male and female fructification Calamites All form genera root, stem, bark, leaf, male andfemalefructification - Lepidodendron All form genera root, stem, leaf, male andfemalefructification - Lyginopteris All form genera - Pentoxylon Contribution of BirbalSahni&BirbalSahni Institute ofPalaeobotany, LucknowANGIOSPERMS:15 L Morphology of flower and fruit Bentham and Hooker’s system of classification forflowering plants up to family with respect to thefollowing prescribed families and economic andmedicinal importance for members of the familieso Capparidaceaeo Umbelliferaeo Cucurbitaceaeo Rubiaceaeo Solanaceae5

Unit IIIUnit IVo Commelinaceaeo Zingiberaceaeo MarantaceaeANATOMY:15 L Anomalous secondary growth in the Stems ofo Bignoniao Salvadorao Achyrantheso Aristolochiao Dracaena. Anomalous secondary growth in storage roots ofBeet,Radish Root stem transition Types of Stomatao Anomocytico Anisocytico Diacytico Paracytico Graminaceouso Tetracytico CyclocyticPALYNOLOGY:15 L Pollen morphology Pollen viability – storage Germination and growth of pollen Application of Palynology in honey industry, coal and oilexploration, forensic science(Case studies) Aerobiology and pollen allergies (Case studies)References:1. Gangulee H.C., Das K.S., &Datta C., College Botany, Volume II, New Central BookAgency, 20062. Chopra G. L., Angiosperms: Systematic & Life cycle, Nagin & Co. 19643. Sharma O. P., Plant Taxonomy, Tata McGraw – Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., 20094. Gurcharan S., Plant systematics, Oxford &IBH publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., 3rd edition,20125. Davis P. H., & Heywood V. H., Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy, ScientificPublishers, 20116. Pandey B. P., Plant anatomy, S. Chand & Co. Ltd., 20127. Fahn A., Plant anatomy, Pergamon Press,19678. Esau K., Plant anatomy, John Wiley & Sons, 19539. Pijush R., Plant anatomy, New Central Book Agency, 200610. Sivanna K.R., &Johri B.M., Angiosperm Pollen: Structure and Function, John Wiley& Sons (Asia), Pvt. Ltd , 198611. Bhattacharya K., Majumdar M. R., & Bhattacharya S.G., A textbook of Palynology,New Central Book Agency, 3rd edition, 201112. Agashe S. N., Palaeobotany: Plants of the past, their evolution, Palaeoenvironmentand application in exploration of fossil fuels, Science Publishers, 1997.13. Biswas C. and Johri B.M. - The Gymnosperms Springer publication.6

Course code:SBOT503Unit ICytology and Molecular Biology, Physiology, Environmental60 LBotany, Plant Tissue Culture(Credits :4 Lectures/Week:4)Learning Objectives: Learn about different cell organelles and important processes withinthe cell. Learn about some more cell organelles like nucleus and vacuoles indepth. They will also study important processes within the cellwhich are involved in protein synthesis in prokaryotes andeukaryotes. Study various plant physiological processes involved in solute andwater uptake and translocation. Study in detail the various anatomical structures and tissuesinvolved in transportation of solutes and water. Learn about different bioremediation techniques and also change inlandforms due to gradual changes in their surroundings andenvironment. Plant tissue culture aims to acquaint the students with appliedaspects of plant tissue culture, especially in agriculture and cropimprovement. Understand the actual working of a fermentation process and how itcan be applied commercially.Learning Outcomes:Students will be able to: Understand the detailed structure and role of important cellorganelles like nucleus and vacuoles. Function and ultrastructure ofnormal and giant chromosomes will also be understood Understand the detail process of protein synthesis (transcription andtranslation) along with post transcriptional modifications occurringin eukaryotic cells during protein synthesis Understand principle involved behind important physiologicalprocesses like transpiration, osmosis, water potential and imbibition. Understand the role and presence of variable types of anatomicalstructures involved in water movement in different types of plants. Understand the principle involved in transportation of water andsolutes within plants. Understand and comment on different methods of bioremediation tocombat the major current day problem i.e. pollution. Learn the transition of landform over the period of years due toenvironmental impact. Understand commercial productions of secondary metabolitesfromplants and their scale upsCYTOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Structure and function of nucleus Structure and function of vacuole15 L Structure and function of giant chromosomes The genetic code: Characteristics of the genetic code Transcription and Translation in Prokaryotes &Eukaryotes7

Unit IIUnit IIIUnit IVPHYSIOLOGY Water relations: Potential, osmosis, transpiration, imbibition Solute transport: Transport of ions across cell membranes,active and passive transport, carriers, channels and pumps Translocation of solutes: Composition of phloem sap,girdling experiment, pressure flow model, phloem loadingand unloading, anatomy of sieve tube elements, mechanismsof sieve tube translocation, Munch’s hypothesisENVIRONMENTAL BOTANY Bioremediation: Principles, factors responsible andmicrobial population in bioremediation Phytoremediation: Metals, Organic pollutants Plant succession: Hydrosere and Xerosere – Formation ofbarren space, succession on the land citing different seresleading upto the climax, succession in water, ecesis, polyand monoclimax theoriesPLANT TISSUE CULTURE Aspects of micropropagation with reference to Floriculture:Detailed study of Orchid cultivation Plant cell suspension cultures for the production ofsecondary metabolites: with special reference to Shikoninproduction Somatic embryogenesis and artificial seeds Protoplast fusion and Somatic hybridization:o Concept, definition, and various methods ofprotoplast fusiono Applications of somatic hybridization in agriculture15 L15 L15 LReferences:1. De Robertis E. D. P., Cell Biology and Molecular Biology, 8th edition, Lea andFebinger, 1987.2. Russell P. J., i-Genetics: A Mendelian Approach, 3rd edition, Pearson EducationIndia, 2009.3. Russel P. J., Genetics, 5th edition, Harper Collins Publishers, 1990.4. Odum E. P., Barrett G. W., Principles of Ecology, Brooks and Cole, 2004.5. Verma P. S., Agarwal V.K., Textbook of Environmental Biology, S. Chand , 2000.6. Taiz L., Zeiger E., Plant Physiology, 5th edition, Sinauer associates Inc., 2010.7. Verma V., Plant Physiology, ANE books, 2009.8. Jha T. B., Ghosh B., Plant tissue culture- Basic and Applied, Universities Press, 2005.9. Ignacimuthu S., Plant Biotechnology, 2nd edition, Narosa Publishing HsePvt. L 2012.10. Gamborg O. L., Phillips G. C., Plant cell tissue and organ culture- Fundamentalmethods, Narosa publishing house, 2004.11. Pearson- Ecology: New International Publication12. Reinert J., Bajaj Y. P. S., Applied and fundamental aspects of Plant cell, Tissue andorganculture, Springer- Verlag, 1989.13. Buchanan, B. B.,Gruissem, W. & Russell L. J.: Biochemistry and molecular biologyof plants 2nd Edition, Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & sons, Ltd, 2015.8

Course:Ethnobotany& Mushroom Industry, Biotechnology I,60 LSBOT504 Instrumentation, Pharmacognosy& Medicinal Botany(Credits :04/ Lectures/Week:4)Learning Objectives: Learn the concept of Ethnobotany and its importance. Learn different medicinal plants used to treat various ailments. Learn the concept of cultivation and harvesting of different mushroomspecies. Learn the nutritional value and importance of Mushroom in daily diet. Study the construction and analysis of genomic, chromosomal and cDNA libraries and analysis of genes and gene transcripts. Learn the working, principle and parts of a regular colorimeter andspectrophotometer. They will also study the applications of bothinstruments in all areas of biological sciences. Study general principle involved in column chromatography. They willstudy in detail the parts of any column chromatography unit along withprinciple involved in separation of analytes using columnchromatography technique. Study in detail the principle involved, bedding material used and specificapplications of adsorption and partition chromatography, ion exchangeand molecular sieve chromatography. Learn about different medicinal plants and their pharmacopoeiastandards along with their pharmacological properties of the same.Learning Outcomes:Student will be able to: Appreciate the importance of ancient medicines and its application incurrent scenario. Understand mushroom cultivation practices and can further utilize thisknowledge for entrepreneurship development. Understand the significance and construction of genomic, chromosomaland c- DNA libraries and will be able to differentiate between these. Understand the various ways in which DNA molecules are analysed inmolecular biology experiments. They will be familiar with methods andprinciple involved in identification and analysis of cloned DNA or itstranscripts using colony hybridisation, antibody probes, southernhybridisation, Autoradiography, as well as restriction mapping. Master the technique of column chromatography and will be able todistinguish between various types of column chromatographic separationprocedures. Pack the bedding material in small columns for chromatographicseparation of plant metabolites. Know the applications of all types of column chromatographictechniques and therefore be able to correctly decide the type of methodi.e. adsorption and partition chromatography, ion exchange or molecularsieve chromatography to be implemented for separation of specific plantmetabolites depending on its properties. Comment upon geographical source, chemical constituents and uses ofvarious plants prescribed in their syllabus. Understand the importance of macroscopic and microscopic9

Unit Icharacters/phytoconstituents in identification of adulterants and commonvarieties for the plants from their syllabus.ETHNOBOTANY AND MUSHROOM INDUSTRY Ethnobotany - Definition, history, sources of data and methods ofstudy Applications of ethnobotany:oEthnomedicinesoAgricultureoEdible plantsoFamine related plantsoPoisonous plants and Antidotes Unit IIUnit IIITraditional remedies used by tribals in Maharashtra foro Skin problems: Rubiacordifolia, Santalum albumo Liver problems : Phyllanthus , Andrographiso Wound healing and ageing: Centella, Typha, Terminalia,Tridaxo Fever : Vitexnegundo, Tinosporacordifolia leaveso Diabetes: Momordicacharantia, Syzygiumcuminii Mushroom Industry: General account of production ofmushrooms with respect to methods of Composting, spawning,casing and harvesting of mushroom. Cultivation of Pleurotus,Agaricus, Volvariella Mushroom in detail General account of mushrooms: Nutritional value, picking andpackaging, economic importance.BIOTECHNOLOGY I Construction of genomic DNA libraries, Chromosome librariesand c- DNA libraries Identification of specific cloned sequences in c DNA librariesand Genomic libraries Analysis of gene and gene transcripts – Restriction enzyme,analysis of cloned DNA sequences, Hybridization (SouthernHybridization)INSTRUMENTATION Colorimetry and Spectrophotometry (Visible, UV and IR) Instrumentation, working, principle and applications Chromatography: General account of Column chromatography.Principle and bedding material and applications ofadsorption andpartition chromatography, ion exchange chromatography,molecular sieve chromatography. Brief account & applications ofHPLC & HPTLC technique Centrifugation: Principle, working and application of centrifuge,types of centrifuge.15 L15 L15 L10

Unit IVPHARMACOGNOSY AND MEDICINAL BOTANY Monographs of drugs with reference to biological sources,geographical distribution, common varieties, macro andmicroscopic characters, chemical constituents, therapeutic uses,adulterants o Trigonellafoenum-graecum (Methiseeds)o Cassia angustifolia (Senna leaves)o Syzygiumaromaticum ( Clove buds)o Allium sativum(Garlic cloves)o Curcuma longa (Turmeric Rhizome)o Syzygiumcuminii(JamunStem bark)o Raphanussativus(RadishRoot)o Micheliachampaca(Champakaflower)15 LReferences:1. Sanjeev Kumar, Recent Advances In Ethnobotany, Deep publication 20152. Jain S. K. &Mudgal V., A Handbook Of Ethnobotany, Bishen Singh Mahendra PalSingh, Debra Dun, 19993. Chaudhuri, Rai H.N. & D.C. Pal 1981. Plants in folk religion and mythology. In: S.K.Jain (ed.), Glimpses of Indian Ethnobotany. Oxfords IBH, New Delhi. 59- 68.4. Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, AYUSH, Government of India.5. Biswas S., Datta M., Mushroom: A Manual for Cultivation, College of Agriculture,Phi learning Pvt. ltd., 2011.6. Kokate C. K., Purohit A. P., Pharmacognosy, NiraliPrakashan, 2011.7. Khandelwal K.R., Practical Pharmacognosy- techniques and experiments,NiraliPrakashan, 2008.8. Evans W. C., Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 16th edition, Saunders ltd., 2009.9. Wilson K., Walker J., Principles and techniques of Biochemistry and molecularBiology, 7th edition, Cambridge University Press, 2010.10. Russell P. J., Genetics: A Mendelian Approach, 3rd edition, Pearson Education India,2009.11. Veerakumari L., Bioinstrumentation, MJP Publishers, 2004.12. Glick, B. R., Pasternak, J. J. & Patten C. L.: Molecular Biotechnology Principles andapplications of Recombinant DNA 4thEdition Wiley Publishers 201013. A.K Gupta and Neeraj Tandon- Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants Indian Councilof Medical Research (ICMR) 2004.11

Semester V – PracticalCourse:PRACTICAL I & IISBOT5PR1 (Credits :4 Practical/Week:8)Learning objectives : Learn the techniques of isolation and culturing of microorganismslike bacteria, fungi, etc. They will also learn to study the effect ofvarious chemicals on the growth of microorganisms. Study the morphological differences and structures of differentclasses of marine and fresh water algae Study the morphological and features of different classes ofpathogenic fungi Observe the various fossil specimens and slides. Observe minute morphological details of plants under study withreference to its habitat, leaf, flower and fruit morphologicalpeculiarities and distinctive features. Take anatomical sections of plant parts and understand normal aswell as secondary growth occurring in plants. Observe various types of pollen grains and classify the same basedon pollen morphology. They will also perform techniques to extractand isolate pollen grains from various naturally occurring samplesof honey and coal. Practical ways to perform, observe and study invitro pollen germination along with effects of various metaboliteson pollen germination and growth of pollen t

Smith G. M., Cryptogamic Botany – Algae and Fungi, Vol. I, McGraw Hill publications, 1955. 5 Course code: SBOT502 Palaeobotany, Angiosperms, Anatomy, Palynology (Credits :04/ Lectures/Week:04) 60 L Learning Objectives: Learn about the process of fossilization and different fossils. Morphology of flower and fruits will help the students, understand the classification in an effective manner .

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