# Student's Problem-Solving Skill On Momentum Conservation Law

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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 218Based on the analysis of students’ answers (Table 1) forthe question given in the problem-solving session, thestudents' problem-solving skill was still less. In case ofrecoil of the shotgun, most of the students could identify theproblem but less completely (A3 level), in the indicator ofdefining the problem, most of the students could mentionthe relevant information although it was lack ofcompleteness (B3 level). In the indicator of determining thestrategy, the students were less suitable for determining thephysics concept (C2 level). In the indicator of applying thestrategy, most of the students could explain the solutionbased on the physics concept although the explanation givenwas less clear and less connected logically; the explanationgiven was still fragmented (E2 level). Meanwhile, for thecase of the motion of the hose tip, most of the studentsshowed the low skill that was level 2 for all indicators.Based on the analysis of students' answers, we can concludethat the students were still low in applying the strategy andevaluating the solution. The examples of students' answersto the discussion questions are presented in Fig. 2. For thequestion number 1, student's answer is No, because the gunand the bullet have a different mass so that when the bulletwas shot, the speed of the bullet and the gun is different, themass of the gun is more significant than the mass of thebullet. While the student was answering or inquiry number2 is Roni must give momentum to the hose with the samesuppression to the water flowing from the hose.Table 1. Description of Students Problem-Solving Skill in the Problem-Solving Session of Momentum Conservation LawNo. IndicatorProblem-Solving SkillsPercentage Number of Students (%)IndicatorCODE43211.Using momentumconservation law tosolve the problemsrelated to recoilphenomena.(the case ofshotgun air)Identify the problemsDefine the fy the problemsA35,71064,290Define the 10,71E7,1410,7171,4310,71Explore the possiblestrategiesAct on StrategiesLook back and evaluate thesolution2.Usingmomentumconservation law tosolve the problemsrelatedtorecoilphenomena. (the case ofwater hose).Explore the possiblestrategiesAct on StrategiesLook back and evaluate thesolution(a)(b)Fig. 2. (a) Example of Students’ Answers to the Question Number 1 (b) Example of Students’ Answer to the Question Number 249

Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 218Description of Analysis Result of Student’sProblem-Solving Skill in the Problem-Solving Sessionin the Form of Calculation QuestionThere was one question in the problem-solvingsession, the application of momentum conservationlaw in the form of calculation item as presented in Fig.3. This question is about a fisherman that rides a shipmoving at the speed of 4 m/s, the mass of thefisherman is 60 kg, and the mass of the ship is 80 kg.Suddenly, the net is snagged to stone, so that he mustjump into the water with the opposite direction withthe ship move. If the fisherman jumps at the speed of2 m/s, students should calculate how much the speedof the ship right after the fisherman jumps. Theanalysis result of student’s problem-solving skill in theproblem-solving session about the concept ofmomentum conservation law for the calculationquestion was described like presented in Table 2.Fig. 3. The question in Problem-Solving Session on the Concept of Momentum Conservation Law in the Form of Calculation QuestionTable 2. Description of Student’s Problem-Solving Skill on the Question in Problem-Solving Session about theApplication of the Concept of Momentum Conservation Law in the Form of Calculation QuestionIndicatorProblem-Solving SkillsPercentage Number of Students (%)IndicatorCODE4321Using momentum conservationIdentify the problemsA32,2910,7128,5721,43law in problem-solvingDefine the problemsB10,7139,29500(identifying the problem,Explore the possible strategiesC7,147517,860defining the problem,determining the strategy,Act on StrategiesD32,1446,4321,430applying the strategy,evaluating the solution) for theLook back and evaluate theE21,435017,8610,71case of clashing in the form ofsolutioncalculation.Based on the analysis of students’ answers (Table2) to the question given in problem-solving session inthe form of calculation question, the students'problem-solving skill seemed good enough if it wascompared to the conceptual question. For the indicatorof identifying the problem, most of the students wereat level 4 (A4). For the indicator of defining theproblem was at level 2 since most of the students didnot write down the complete information. Meanwhile,for the other three indicators such as determining thestrategy, applying the strategy, and evaluating thesolution, most of the students were at level 3. Theexample of student' answer for the question ofmomentum conservation law in the form of calculationis presented in Fig. 4.Fig. 4. Example of Student’s Answer of Question in Problem-Solving Session about Concept of Momentum Conservation Law in the Form ofCalculation Item50

Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 218train must put off the wagon the first. Then, thewagons from the front part and push the wagon pushedforward off so that the wagon which he rides on movesin the opposite direction/moves backward, so themining train will be slow down/moves in the oppositedirection. The description of student’s problemsolving skill on the concept of momentumconservation law for the question in pre-test and posttest is shown in Table 4.Based on Table 4, we can know that generally, thestudent’s problem-solving skill for each indicator hasimproved. For the skill of identifying problem, whenpre-test, most of the students could not be able toidentify the problem correctly (60,71%). The studentstended to determine how to make the train was notwrong in the line. When post-test, most of the students(50%) could be able to identify the problem correctlyalthough they did not mention explicitly that wasdetermining how does a train become slow or move.For the indicator of identifying the problem in the pretest, many students (53.57%) who mentionedirrelevant information such as emergency brake andreducing the fuel. In post-test, the student could beable to mention the critical and relevant informationalthough there were some of them who answered lessthoroughly. For the indicator of determining thestrategy and applying the strategy, when pre-test, 75%of the students had not shown the strategy based onphysics concept; they determined the solution basedon the logic and information of the question. However,in post-test, 53.57% of the students seemed to be ableto explain and determine the solution based on themomentum conservation law. From the sequence ofthe students’ sentences of their answers, we can seethat the students’ ability to evaluate the solution in pretest was 60.717 of the students who gave unclear andillogical sentences. However, in post-test, there was abetter change although only 3.57% of the students whocould give an answer clearly which was focused andcorrelated logically; 64.29% of the students gave lessprecise and less logical answers and only 7.14% of thestudents who gave answers with all sentences whichwere unclear and illogical.Fig. 6. Question of Pre-Test and Post-Test regarding Momentum Conservation Law(a)(b)Fig. 7. (a). Example of Student’s Answer in Pre-Test; (b) Example of Student’s Answer in Post-Test52

Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 218time to think, analyze, and try to solve the problem[30].The student's problem-solving skill on thecalculation question showed an excellent enoughproblem-solving skill of the students compared to theconceptual question. The students could give thecorrect answer although there were some of them whowere less meticulous in writing the denomination. Thiscase showed that the students felt easier in doingmathematical problem than the conceptual problem.Based on the questionnaire data before theintervention, it was found that the students were notused to finish the physics questions in the form ofcalculation and they tended to repeat the exercise inthe textbook. This case is matched with the previousresearch indicating that to improve the problemsolving skill, and the students should be habituated ortrained to face a new problem with a meaningfulexplanation [16]. Facing many items do not alwaystrain the functional understanding ability in problemsolving [16]; [17]; [20]. In-Depth knowledge is alsoneeded to activate the functional understanding tosolve the problem for the different situation [16-17].Correlating the physics concept to the problemfaced and applied it to find a solution are the activitiesfor the indicator of applying the strategy that becomesthe core of problem-solving activity. The result of thisresearch showed that the students could not be able toactivate the practical understanding. This case isrelevant to the previous research result reporting thatthe students got difficulty in interpreting the conceptqualitatively related to the energy and momentumapplied in the real situation [23,25]. Although thestudents' analysis was less thorough and complete, thestudents could be able to answer directly to a correctsolution. This case is matched with the previousresearch stating that the students got benefit inconstructing a new knowledge from a real learningexperience [31].The student’s problem-solving skill on the conceptof momentum conservation law showed theimprovement between before and after theintervention. Such improvement happened to allindicators such as identifying the problem, definingthe problem, determining the strategy, applying thestrategy, and evaluating the solution. However, theimprovement happened to the indicator of applying thestrategy and evaluation the solution was still lessoptimal, and the most of the students indicated thiscase was at level 3 and 2 for these particular indicators.The analysis of the student's answer showed that theywere less able to apply the concept of momentumconservation law in solving the daily physicsproblems. This fact was supported with a writteninterview result (questionnaire) in which we found thatthe students were still used to face physics questionsin the form of calculation and to emphasize on theconcept application on the daily problems. Theproblem solving oriented to the use of the formulationfor the mathematical questions did not show thestudents' understanding of the concept used. [20].The student’s lack of skill in applying the strategyand evaluating the solution was possibly due to theirlow understanding of the concept of momentumconservation law, or they were hard to correlate theconcept learned to the problem faced. The interviewresults showed that not all students could use the helpof link maps when they did the question. Somestudents mentioned that the link maps helped them incalculation question. This case showed that thestudents could not be able to interpret the physicalmeaning of physics equation and they only saw it as amathematical equation so that they were difficult toconnect the concept with the daily conceptualproblems. The students see the physics equation asonly a mathematical equation [32].V” CONCLUSIONThe student’s problem-solving on the concept ofmomentum conservation law was still less optimal forthe indicator of applying the strategy and evaluatingthe solution. The students' less understanding causedthis case to the concept, and they were not used to facethe contextual and conceptual questions. They werestill lack of activating the functional understanding ofproblem-solving. Some alternatives can be done tomake the students more experts in solving theproblem, especially in physics learning such ashabituating the students with the activity ofconstructivist learning to make the concept understoodby the students more structuralized and morethorough. The students are needed to be habituated toface contextual questions and train the reasoningability by applying the concept so that they not onlyapply the formulation based on their memory but alsothey have a complicated thinking process. Thestudents are needed to be habituated to understand thephysical meaning of the physics equation rather thanonly remember the mathematical formulationREFERENCES[1][2][3]The Partnership for 21st Century Skills, The MILE Guide:Milestone

understanding in problem-solving is needed to improve their problem-solving skill. The previous research showed that map meetings learning including summary lecture, problem-solving session, and the plenary could help the novice students in understanding the physics concept and develop the problem-solving skill [11]. Therefore, this

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