LEAP: Targeted Strategies To Accelerate SAE Proficiency

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Learning English: Achievement and Proficiency (LEAP)TARGETEDSTRATEGIES TOACCELERATE SAEPROFICIENCYThe Department for Education requests attribution as:South Australian Department for Education APRIL 2021

INTRODUCTIONThis resource provides strategies to support students’language development and progress through the LEAPLevels. Teachers can use the strategies to intentionallyaddress students’ identified language needs, acceleratetheir development of Standard Australian English(SAE), and move them on in their level of ‘LearningEnglish: Achievement and Proficiency’ (LEAP).CONTENT ORGANISATIONAspects of languageStrategies in this resource address the following keyaspects of language. Colour is used to indicate theaspect being addressed as follows: cohesive devices (yellow) sentence structure (orange) verbs and verb groups (green)Two of the components of a clause also directlycorrespond to 2 aspects of language, which areincluded in the levelling process at the word andword group level: verbs and verb groups (processes): here, the focusis both on function (different types of processes)and accuracy of grammatical form (eg tense).The table also shows the typical 1:1 relationshipbetween form and function circumstances: here, the focus is on function,what meaning is being added about the processand the table shows that various forms can expressthis function.Participants are not identified as part of the levellingprocess. Rather there is a focus on the form: nounsand noun groups since the ability to build andmanipulate noun groups is key in developing academicSAE. Maroon (not red) is used for nouns and noungroups because they can be used to express eitherparticipants or circumstances, as indicated in the table.Proficiency bands circumstances (blue) nouns and noun groups (maroon) evaluative language (purple).An overview of content is provided at the beginningof each aspect for quick identification of the learningsequences. An introduction to each language aspectdescribes its threads and explains associated formsand functions with examples.Participants, processes andcircumstancesColour is also used to identify at the word level whichaspect of language is being demonstrated. At times,this includes aspects that are not considered in thelevelling process.Targeted strategies to accelerate SAE proficiency,particularly at sentence level grammar (sentencestructure), often involve explicitly teaching the 3components of a clause:Following the introduction to the language element,learning sequences with targeted strategies areprovided for 4 proficiency bands: LEAP Levels 1–4 and leaping to levels 5–6 LEAP Levels 5–6 leaping to levels 7–9 LEAP Levels 7–9 leaping to levels 10–12 LEAP Levels 10–12 leaping to levels 13–14.A chart, at the beginning of each band, provides: thenumber and name of learning sequences, the languagein focus, and the genre/s used within each sequence.HOW TO USE THISRESOURCE1. Begin by assessing students to identify theircurrent LEAP Level and specific areas in needof development.2. Set tailored targets and learning goals.Functional componentsof a clauseForm typicallyexpressed by3. Based on identified needs and learning goals,go to the relevant aspect of language.a central process: what’sgoing on?a verb/verb group4. Use the overview of the content to identify wherethe band matching your target level begins andturn to that page.one or more participants:who or what is involved?a noun/pronoun/noun group oradjective/adjectivegroup5. Use the chart to identify a learning sequence thataddresses your language focus.(optional) extra details of thecircumstances surroundingthe process: when, where,how, why did it happen?an adverb/adverbialgroup, prepositionalphrase or a noungroup6. Follow the sequence or adapt for your context.Strategies and texts may need to be adapted tobe age-appropriate for your students. Adaptationsmay also be necessary to ensure they are supportingthe development of curriculum knowledge.7. Refer to explanations in the introduction to theselected aspect of language to build your knowledgeas required.2 Learning English: Achievement and Proficiency (LEAP) STRATEGIES – INTRODUCTION

HIGH-IMPACT STRATEGIESThis resource supports the implementation of thefollowing high-impact strategies in Literacy andNumeracy First (DECD, 2018a): targeted differentiated teachinglanguage/s (L1s) or dialects to develop StandardAustralian English proficiency. Many learningsequences use Unite for Literacy free digitalpicture books, narrated in a variety of languages. multiple exposures: using multimodal resourcesand providing students with multiple opportunitiesto encounter, engage with, and elaborate on newknowledge, language and skills. clear learning intentions explicit teaching and ongoing feedback.It particularly focuses on 2 literacy improvementstrategies: development of oral language for academicpurposes strengthening writing through meta-knowledgeof language.Furthermore, it supports 2 high-impact strategies forEALD students:1 translanguaging : actively encouraging students todraw on, make connections with, and use their firstLearning sequences are also informed by Myhill’s(2018) LEAD principles for effective explicit teachingof grammar/language: Link the grammar being introduced to how itworks in mentor texts. Explain the grammar through examples, notlengthy explanations. Authentic texts used as models. Design-in high-quality discussion about grammarand its effect.LANGUAGE AND CONTEXT – PURPOSE, AUDIENCEAND REGISTERAs students’ proficiency in SAE develops across the LEAP Levels, there is an increasing focus on thedevelopment of academic language and the ability to operate successfully in a wider range of contextsor registers. The register continuum is a valuable reference for discussing choices in texts and theirappropriateness and effectiveness for given contexts, including specific purposes and audiences.Register continuumeveryday, informal,spokenmore specialisedand more formaltechnical, abstract,formal, writteneveryday, concreteWhat: field – subject mattertechnical, abstractinformal, personalWho: tenor – roles and relationshipsformal, impersonalHow: mode of communicationwritten, monologic,generalised contextspoken, dialogic, specific,‘here and now‘ contextTier 1, 2 and 3 vocabularyThe development of EALD learners’ vocabulary acrossthe LEAP Levels can also be connected to the 3-tieredsystem developed by Beck, McKeown & Kucan (2013):1. Tier 1 words are basic and high-frequency wordsused in everyday conversation. While assumed tobe familiar to most students, EALD students willoften need this vocabulary explicitly taught as partof building knowledge of the field.12. Tier 2 words are those used by ‘at standard’ studentsin academic contexts. They are words that can beused across contexts to add clarity and/or precision.These words appear more frequently in written textsthan in oral language. Whether a word is consideredto be Tier 2 or not will differ depending on the yearlevel. Given their importance in academic successand transferability across topics and curriculumareas, they warrant a great deal of attention.For more on translanguaging, see ‘What is translanguaging?’, EAL Journal, available athttp://TLinSA.2.vu/translanguaging (accessed October 2020)Learning English: Achievement and Proficiency (LEAP) STRATEGIES – INTRODUCTION 3

3. Tier 3 words are those that relate to specific fieldsof knowledge. They have specialised meaningsaccording to the curriculum area and conveytechnical, subject and topic-specific knowledge,such as the sciences. These words need to betaught in the context of the curriculum area tasksspecific to building content knowledge on aparticular topic.NG TO LEARNTALKIBuildingknowledgeof the fieldSee also the department’s Best Advice paper:Vocabulary (DECD, 2016).2CONTEXTUALISEDLEARNINGExplicitly teaching about language is best done wherelanguage use occurs in authentic dialogue about acurriculum topic. The starting point for planning thenis the identified target language in the context ofrelevant curriculum learning. Key mentor and/ormodel texts can then be identified or developedto ensure that they provide important curriculumcontent and the identified language thenticmentor and/ormodel textsTEACHING ANDLEARNING CYCLEThe learning sequences should be implementedwithin an intentionally planned teaching and learningcycle, enabling teachers to integrate oral language(‘talking to learn’), reading and writing practices todevelop deep learning and understanding of genre.This provides EALD students with time and multipleexposures to new language, skills and knowledge.The diagram in the next column shows how theteaching and learning cycle is situated in dialogicprocesses, which lead to understanding aboutcontent, text and language (DECD, 2018b). Many ofthe strategies here involve group and pair workbecause ‘talk is a critically important tool in securingmeaningful learning about language’ (Myhill, Jones,Watson & Lines, 2016:5).2Independentuse of arningabout thegenreSupportedwritingTeaching and learning cycle(Adapted from DECD, 2018b:13)Carefully sequenced learning is essential for students todevelop enough knowledge, skills and understandingto transfer their learning:The movement from surface learning—the facts,concepts and principles associated with a topicof study—to deep learning, which is the ability toleverage knowledge across domains in increasinglynovel situations, requires careful planning.(Fisher, Frey, Hattie & Thayre, 2017:18)Building knowledge of the fieldDeveloping content knowledge for specific learningareas should include activating prior knowledge,hands-on activities, exploratory learning – talkaccompanying action, learning to hear, and trying outnew vocabulary. This is also the time for engaginglearners’ interest in the topic: it is vital for engagementand motivation for learning to be inclusive of students’cultural experiences and welcome the use of homelanguages in these initial discussions.Supported readingWhen learning to read is located in learning aboutcurriculum topics, there is a clear context and purposefor reading which improves both engagement andcomprehension. It is a time to refer back to questionsabout the learning topic and develop knowledge andunderstanding in both the content and the languagerequired to access and utilise the content. Readingprocedures, such as shared reading, guided readingand close reading, can focus on specific strategiesneeded to comprehend learning area texts, forexample, the structure, language and key vocabularyhttp://TLinSA.2.vu/Big6vocab4 Learning English: Achievement and Proficiency (LEAP) STRATEGIES – INTRODUCTION

of an information text in science. Talking aboutlearning area texts and responding to readingthrough writing journals and other daily activitiesprepares students for composing their own writingin the target genre.The key point is that through talk and writing,students are able to build a richer representationof the content of the texts they read and deal withthe question that vexes every writer: How can Ifind a way to say that so others will understand?StudentcomposesTeacherrecasts(Duke, Pearson, Strachan & Billman, 2011:78)Learning about the genreEnsure that students understand that genres haveparticular purposes and are written with a specificaudience in mind. Wherever possible, connectthe target genre to outside of school examples,so students understand they are learning to uselanguage ‘like a scientist’ or ‘like an historian’.Provide multiple examples of the target genre andsupport students to identify the generic featuresthey need to incorporate into their writing. Make thetarget genre the focus of dialogue in the classroom,so students can determine what they need to knowand learn to shape their content knowledge using thetarget genre. Many of the language activities describedin this document will be situated in this part of theteaching and learning cycle, as EALD learners inparticular will require repeated opportunities to learnand practise new language structures.Students learning English need to know how writtenEnglish differs from spoken English (Gibbons, 2011).By explicitly teaching language at word, sentenceand text level, you build each student’s repertoireof language resources:Showing learners the grammatical choices writersmake, and the grammatical choices they can make aswriters, can alter the way their writing communicatesand their understanding of the power of choice.(Myhill, 2018)Supported writingSupport students to incorporate all they have learnedabout content, genre and language into a new textthrough joint construction, prior to students writingindependently. Time invested in this process is essentialif students are to move from ‘talk about content andtexts’ to the denser and highly structured languagerequired to purposefully write about content for anintended audience. The diagram in the next columnrepresents the process, which can occur over severalsessions, beginning with the teacher modellingthrough ‘think aloud’ (Rossbridge & Rushton, 2014).StudentcommentsJointconstruction:teacher andstudents talkabout writingand tionsTeacherparaphrasesElements for supporting students in joint construction(Adapted from DECD, 2018b:15)The joint construction process is highly interactiveand involves a gradual release of responsibility asthe teacher hands over the writing to the students:The teacher’s role is to support the composition ofthe text through the use of strategies which focusthe students’ attention on their language choiceswhen expressing their ideas. While the focus ofthe joint construction is on composing a writtentext, it is spoken language which is central to theactivity (Rossbridge & Rushton, 2014:4)Independent use of the genreAs students prepare to write independently: jointly construct success criteria and annotateexamples of the target genre at different levelsso that students can have clear goals maintain high expectations for all students andbe available to support small groups who requireadditional assistance incorporate opportunities for students to reflectand evaluate the writing process so they can namewhat they have learned and what they want toimprove on next time.Learning English: Achievement and Proficiency (LEAP) STRATEGIES – INTRODUCTION 5

Learning English: Achievement and Proficiency (LEAP)TARGETED STRATEGIES TO ACCELERATE SAE PROFICIENCYCOHESIVE DEVICESCOHESIVE DEVICES: INTRODUCTIONReference itemsText connectivesOrientations to the messageSentence openersTopic, circumstances and subordinate clausesPassive voiceNominalisation22222223LEVELS 1–4 AND LEAPING TO LEVELS 5–61. Pronouns referring to animals and things2. Pronouns referring to people and thingsSubject pronouns – who is doing the action?Object pronouns – who/what actions are done to and possessive pronouns: whose is it?3. Reference to point out which one4. Text connectives to create sequence4455566LEVELS 5–6 LEAPING TO LEVELS 7–95. Sentence openers in procedures and protocols6. Sentence openers in procedural recounts7. Sentence openers in sequential explanationsPassive voiceOpeners that link back to create flow8. Text organisation in argumentsWhole text – structureParagraphs to group and develop ideas778999101011LEVELS 7–9 LEAPING TO LEVELS 10–129. Text connectives when elaborating ideas10. Sentence openers and text connectives for structure and orientation11. Openers and connectives for cause and contingency12121415LEVELS 10–12 LEAPING TO LEVELS 13–1412. Strategic orientations and text organisationText and paragraph openers as orientationsText organisation and efficient orientation using nominalisationManipulation of text connectivesOrienting to angle, contingency and causeOrientation to abstraction through passive voice and nominalisation16161617191921Resource 1: Pronoun chartResource 2: Changing sentence openersResource 3: Sentence openers to create flowResource 4: Animals should not be kept in zoosResource 5: Text connectives and logical relationshipsResource 6: The legacies of Ancient Rome for modern societyResource 7: Moving from informal to formal languageResource 8: Discussion/argument: Should children play computer games?Resource 9: Register continuum232425262728293031The Department for Education requests attribution as:South Australian Department for Education APRIL 2021

COHESIVE DEVICES: INTRODUCTIONSpoken and written texts that connect and flow well for a reader/listener utilise various cohesive devices, including: reference items: pronouns and demonstratives/pointers text connectives orientations to the message.Reference itemsThis includes using an element of language to refer to something in a shared physical context (Pass it to him);a shared cultural context (The queen is our longest serving monarch); or to another part of the text, such asa word, word group or larger section of the text. These reference items connect or tie parts of a text together,making it cohesive. The main elements considered here are pronouns and demonstratives.Text connectivesThese connect sentences and paragraphs and show the logical development of ideas across the text. Theyfunction to: organise a text connect adjacent paragraphs and sentences in logical relationships (see Resource 5: Text connectives andlogical relationships for examples).Orientations to the messageThe opening of a text (a title and/or introduction), the opening of a stage/paragraph (sub-heading or topicsentence) and the openings of sentences help orient a reader. They assist the reader to predict and follow thedevelopment of ideas across the text. The connection between these openers at whole text level, at paragraphlevel, and at sentence level (including clause level) is what makes a text flow and gives it coherence.Sentence openersDecisions about what is placed at the beginning of a sentence are determined by the topic, the genre and theregister of the text. As students gain control of language and an increasing range of genres and registers, theybegin to manipulate the elements of a sentence, adopting genre patterns, and consciously choosing how toorient their audience to the message.Topic, circumstances and subordinate clausesInitially, sentence openers orient only to the topic or the action (in the case of a procedure). Then circumstancesand later subordinate clauses are brought to the front of the sentence to orient readers/listeners to details oftime and place and, later, to manner, condition, cause and contingency. These rearrangements of the sentencedo not require a change in grammar.Passive voicePassive voice and nominalisation also allow alternative orientations to the message. However, both requirechanges to the grammar of the clause. In the passive voice, the clause is rearranged so that the ‘done to’rather than the ‘doer’ of the action comes before the verb and so becomes the subject of the clause.See the examples on page 3.To form the passive voice with simple tenses: the person or thing that is ‘done to’ is brought to the front of the clause an auxiliary ‘to be’ verb is added to denote the tense (present, past or future) the -ed (en) participle form of the verb is used if the ‘doer’ is included, then ‘by’ is added to precede the ‘doer’.2 Learning English: Achievement and Proficiency (LEAP) STRATEGIES – COHESIVE DEVICES

Present:ActivePassiveMy mothertakesmy brother .My brotheris takenbymy mother .actor/doerverbdone todone toverb‘by’actor/doerPast:ActivePassiveMy mothertookmy brother .My brotherwas takenbymy mother .actor/doerverbdone todone toverb‘by’actor/doerFuture:ActiveMy motherwill takemy brother .My brotheractor/doerverbdone todone toPassivewill be taken byverb‘by’my mother .actor/doerTo change the verb group to the passive voice for the continuous aspect: select auxiliary ‘to be’ according to the subject and tense: am, is, are, was or were, will be add the auxiliary being use the past participle, for example, taken.For example: I am being taken by my mother; she was being taken by mother; they will be being takenby my mother.To change the verb group to the passive voice for the perfect aspect: select auxiliary ‘to have’ according to the subject and tense: have, has, had, will have add the auxiliary been use the past participle, for example, taken.For example: I have been taken by my mother; he had been taken by my mother; they will have been takenby my mother.NominalisationNominalisation allows a writer/speaker to move beyond orienting to people, concrete objects and circumstanceto orient to abstractions. It also allows an orientation to an action/event or a quality through a change ingrammatical form, eg from verb to noun or adjective to noun. This change in grammatical form then requiressubsequent grammatical changes to create a new sentence: Many fish died after the factory illegally dumped their chemicals and polluted the river. The death of many fish resulted from illegal dumping of chemicals that polluted the river. Water pollution resulting from illegal chemical dumping caused a marked increase in fish deaths. The story is neither credible nor believable. The credibility of the story has been called into question.Learning English: Achievement and Proficiency (LEAP) STRATEGIES – COHESIVE DEVICES 3

LEVELS 2LEVELS13–14LEVELS 1–4 AND LEAPING TO LEVELS 5–6Learning sequenceLanguage in focusGenres1. Pronouns referringto animals and things subject pronouns: it, they object pronouns: it, them possessive pronouns: its, theirs descriptions and descriptivereports2. Pronouns referringto people and things subject pronouns – who is doing theaction? object pronouns – who/whatactions are done to? possessive pronouns – whose is it? narratives (picture books, fablesand simple retells) personal recounts3. Reference to point outwhich one demonstratives and pointers: this,that, these and those narratives oral interactionsLEAPING TO LEVELS 5–64. Text connectives to createsequence simple text connectives andcircumstances of time personal recounts narratives (picture books, fablesand simple retells)1. Pronouns referring to animals and thingsEngage Introduce a topic, such as polar bears. Display pictures and ask students to describe features from thepictures, beginning sentences with ‘Polar bears ’ or ‘A polar bear ’. Read a simple text, such as Polar Bears Rock!1, that continually repeats the noun group.Explicitly teach: I do – we do – you do Repeat using a text, such as A Waddle of Penguins2, that begins each page with ‘Penguins’ and then refersback to them using pronouns (they, their) or pointers (these birds). Display a chart such as the one below of pronouns that refer to things:SubjectObjectPossessiveSingular: 1itititsPlural: 2 theythemtheir/theirs Explain that there are many different pronouns and that, to begin with, you will focus only on the subjectpronouns used at the beginning of sentences (before the verb). Point out the pronouns that begin sentences or appear before the verb (subject pronoun: it, they). Explainthat the author can refer to the topic without using its name all the time. Model circling the pronoun and linking it to the noun/noun group. Students repeat. Students match the correct pronoun card: ‘it’ and ‘they’ to pictures and/or nouns/noun groups, eg penguins– they, a penguin – it. In pairs, students complete cloze activity on a familiar text, filling in deleted subject pronouns. Provide a text that continually repeats the topic and have students identify when to use a pronoun andwhich pronoun to use.12McGuffee P (2015) Polar Bears Rock!, Unite for Literacy, available at http://TLinSA.2.vu/McGuffee2015 (accessed October 2020)McKay W (2019) A Waddle of Penguins, Unite for Literacy, available at http://TLinSA.2.vu/McKay2019 (accessed October 2020)4 Learning English: Achievement and Proficiency (LEAP) STRATEGIES – COHESIVE DEVICES

Read a simple version of a familiar story, whereeach page/segment begins with character’s name. Read other texts with students, identifyingpronouns and to whom they refer. Students sequence pictures of a familiar story. Students read a text to a partner and togetheridentify the pronouns and to whom they refer.Explicitly teach: I do – we do – you do Display the text and point out the first words oneach page/segment. Explain that the repetitionconnects the parts of the story and tells thereader they are going to hear more about thesecharacters. Students join in reading, chorusing the characternames, at the beginnings of each page/segment. Point out the pronouns at the beginning ofsentences (subject pronouns), explaining that theserefer to the characters without using their nameall the time. Ask students how this is done in L1. Model and then involve students in circling thepronoun and drawing a line to the noun, eg:One day Goldilocks was walking in the forest.She saw a house and knocked on the door.She went inside. Ask students if they have different words to referto males and females and/or singular or pluralsin L1. Display Resource 1: Pronoun chart. Pointout the many different pronouns to refer to peopleand things. Explain that, to begin with, the focuswill be on subject pronouns used at the beginningof sentences. Go through the chart with studentsadding examples from L1.3 Students complete a cloze activity on a familiarstory, filling in deleted subject pronouns.Object pronouns – who/whatactions are done to and possessivepronouns: whose is it?Explicitly teach: I do – we do – you do Use the same text, and similar processes as aboveto explore object and possessive pronouns inResource 1: Pronoun chart. For example: Who or what actions are done to? (object),eg Goldilocks tried Baby Bear’s porridge andshe ate it all up. Baby Bear cried. Mother Bearcomforted him. Whose is it? (possessives) such as ‘my’ in myporridge, my chair, my bed. Explore how these pronouns change when movingfrom dialogue to narrator voice, eg She tried MotherBear’s porridge, but her porridge was too cold; Shetried Father Bear’s chair but his chair was too big.Baby Bear looked at his chair. It was broken.British Council (2015) ‘Goldilocks and the three bears’, Daily Motion, available at http://TLinSA.2.vu/Goldilocks(accessed November 2020)Learning English: Achievement and Proficiency (LEAP) STRATEGIES – COHESIVE DEVICES 5LEVELS13–14Engage Students match the correct pronoun cardsto pictures and/or names of the characters,eg Goldilocks – she; The three bears – they;Father – he.LEVELS10–12Subject pronouns – who is doingthe action?LEVELS7–9Goldilocks and the three bears3 or any familiar story/fable, including those from students’ first languages(L1s).The difference between ‘you and I’ or ‘you andme’ is not formal/informal or correct/ incorrect.It is whether it is subject or object, eg it is correctto say, ‘You and I will be in trouble’ because it iscorrect to say, ‘I will be in trouble.’ It is correct tosay, ‘That might happen to you and me’ becauseit is correct to say, ‘That might happen to me.’LEVELS5–6Suggested model textStudents can add L1 equivalents, where theyexist and/or make their own chart to show howpronouns work to refer to people in their L1.LEVELS1–42. Pronouns referringto people and things

VELS1–43. Reference to point outwhich oneEngage Place a large bowl on a table near you and a mediumbowl further away. In pairs, students share which bowl they think isFather Bear’s and which is Mother’s. Ask a studentto point to Father Bear’s bowl. Ask the student ‘Thisbowl?’ Student repeats ‘This one’ and all studentsrepeat, ‘This bowl. This bowl is Father Bear’s bowl’.Ask another student to point to Mother Bear’sbowl, repeating the process, but this time using‘That bowl’. Having students point to the bowlintroduces them to the function of the ‘pointer’in the noun group.Explicitly teach: I do – we do – you do Introduce a chart of demonstrative pronouns andexplain when they are used: for items in close proximity this (one), these(more than one) for items at a distance that (one), those (morethan one). Students make up sentences using demonstrativepronouns in spoken and written contexts. In pairs, students ask and answer questions like‘Which toy(s) do you like best?’, eg I like this/thatone; I like these/those.Explicitly teach: I do – we do – you do Provide a simple model text and underline thebeginnings of sentences that focus on time. Askstudents if they notice any patterns, eg sentencesstart new paragraphs, a comma after the timeword/phrase. Discuss how this helps the reader to understandthe order and timing of events. Students resequence a cut-up model text anddiscuss what helped them. Create a set of ‘time’ sentence starters, includingthose that can open or start: a whole-text (Long ago; On the weekend) a new or next part of the text (The next day;Then; Soon; Next; After lunch; Later). If appropriate to the learning goal, point outthat some of these are adverbial phrases givingthe circumstances of time and others are textconnectives, logically connecting and sequencingthe events in time. Model how to choose a ‘whole-text opener’ tobegin a recount or narrative and then a ‘new part’opener to continue your story. Students use these for whole-class or small groupround-robin storytelling (retelling a familiar story,recounting class events of the day), either orallyor as a joint construction of a written text.4. Text connectives to createsequenceEngage Display a familiar narrative or a model recount thatbegins with a focus on time. Underline the beginning of the first sentence,pointing out that it doesn’t begin with the character/person. Ask what it begins with, elici

Proficiency bands Following the introduction to the language element, learning sequences with targeted strategies are provided for 4 proficiency bands: LEAP Levels 1-4 and leaping to levels 5-6 LEAP Levels 5-6 leaping to levels 7-9 LEAP Levels 7-9 leaping to levels 10-12 LEAP Levels 10-12 leaping to levels 13-14.

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