Yoga Is Both A Collection Of Techniques To End Suffering And The Name .

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What is Yoga?Yoga is both a collection of techniques to endsuffering and the name of the state when onehas transcended suffering.Why do we suffer?1

Living Yoga“The postures are only the "skin" of yoga. Hiddenbehind them are the "flesh and blood" of breathcontrol and mental techniques that are still moredifficult to learn, as well as moral practices thatrequire a lifetime of consistent application andthat correspond to the skeletal structure of thebody. The higher practices of concentration,meditation and unitive ecstasy (samadhi) areanalogous to the circulatory and nervous system."Georg Feuerstein2

The 5 Afflictions, why unity is needed - KleshasWhy we suffer: - IgnoranceAsmita - False IdentificationRaga - AttachmentDvesa - AversionAbhini-vesha - Fear of Death3

AvidyaThere are known knowns. These arethings we know that we know. Thereare known unknowns. That is to say,there are things that we know wedon't know. But there are alsounknown unknowns. There arethings we don't know we don't know.Donald Rumsfeld4

Asmita“You are the sky.Everything else - It’s justthe weather”Pema Chodron5

Raga and Dvesa"But the disciplined (lower) Self,moving among sense-objects withsenses free from attraction andrepulsion and mastered by theHigher Self, goeth to Peace."Gita, II-646

Abhini-Vesha“Day after day countlesspeople die. Yet the living wishto live forever.”Yudhishthira (Quoted from the Gita)7

SamadhiRaja YogaSamnayasa YogaKarma YogaMantra YogaKriya YogaBhakti YogaJnana YogaHatha Yoga8


Raja Yoga Yoga of ControlFor the “true heros” of mindtrainingA practice to achieve controlover the mind and emotions todiscover the transcendentalreality.Swami Vivekananda10

Karma Yoga Yoga of SelfTranscending Action right work done well isa form of prayer.Act According toDharmaNon-attachmentMahatma Gandhi11

Bhakti Devotion - “the art of worship”Transcending emotionDualistic12

Jnana (gia-nna) Yoga Path of knowledge and self realizationThe” razor's edge”The most difficult path13

Hatha Yoga Forceful YogaDiamond BodySun and MoonKrishnamacharya14

Yoga Development: Important LiteratureHatha Yoga Hatha Yoga-PadipikaGherandha SamhitaYoga in General Bhagavad GitaVedasUpanishadsYoga Sutras15

Yoga citta vritti nirodahaYoga is the restraint of mentalmodifications16


Yamas - 8

Nyamas - a19


PranayamaModifications of the breathare either internal, externalor stopped; they are to beregulated by space, time andnumber and are either longor shortYoga Sutras 2.5021

PratyaharaThe bridge between the eternal aspects of Yoga (bahiranga) and the Internalaspects (antaranga) of Yoga22

Dharana“Dharana is the binding of the mind toone place, object or idea.” - Yoga Sutras III:1"Give me a fulcrum and I will move the Earth" - Archimedes23

DhyanaDhyana is contemplating, reflecting on whatever Dharana hasfocused on. Dhyana is non-judgmental, non-presumptuousobservation of that object.24

SamadhiA soundless state of breathlessness. A blissful superconscious state in which a yogi perceives the identity of theindividualized Soul and Cosmic Spirit. - Yogananda25


Two types of SamadhiKevala nirvikalpa samadhi - Just temporarySahaja nirvikalpa samadhi - a continuous state throughoutdaily activity.27

Svaroopa - pratishthaaResting in one’strue identity28

Hatha Yoga History and Philosophy29

TantraAs the hard boundaries that we normally drawaround ourselves dissolve, we feel more aliveand enter a world of greater experientialintensity. Relaxation and meditation replace ourordinary body image with an experience ofourselves as a fluid process that is connectedwith the larger, vibrant whole. In this experiencethe boundaries of the ego lose their rigidity.Georg Feuerstein30

Two centuries after the YS, anew current of religiousthought emerged in Buddhistand Hindu circles in SouthAsia. Scriptures called theTantras identifiedself-deification andsupernatural power as thegoals of religious life,employing “Yoga” as anoverarching term for theentire range of Tantricpractice. David Gordon WhiteThe Goddess Bhairavi Devi with Shiva. Attributed to Paytag. India. Mughal Dynasty, ca. 1630-35. The MetropolitanMuseum of Art31


The Emergence of Hatha YogaTime was when I despised thebody:But then I saw the God within.The body, I realized, is theLord’s temple;And so I began preserving itwith care infinite.ogarBh33

Matseyendra-nath8th to 10th centuryGuru of Goraksha34

Goraksha-nath8th to 11th CenturyCreator of Hatha Yoga35

The Union of the Sun and MoonThe ecstatic state of unity between subject andobject.UNION36

Yoga Development: Important LiteratureHatha Yoga Hatha Yoga-Padipika (mid 14th Century)Gherandha Samhita (Late 17th Century)Yoga in General Bhagavad GitaVedasUpanishadsYoga Sutras37

Purificatory Techniques6 Acts:6 aharaDhyanaSamadhiMuktiDhautiVasti or bastiNetiLauli or NauliTratakaKapala-bhati38

32 Postures listed/described in hujanga-asanayoga-asana39

Prana - Breathing Forth Pra Breathean toThe bridge between the mind and the bodyOur access to the Divine and also to our own autonomic processesThe currency of all Hatha Yoga Processes40

Not One but Three BodiesPhysical- What can be seen and is studied by medicineSubtle or Causal - Energetic (Spiritual)Cosmic - Means by which the individual relates to the Universe as a totalexperience. Realization leads to total liberation41

The NadisLittle River, conduit, channel, veinor arteryThe conveyors of life current orpranaHow many?The Kshurika-Upanishad and later theHathayogapradikpa claim there are 72,000 nadisOther figures have been proposed - 80,000(Trisikhibramanopanishad), 200,000, or 300,000 (e.g.Siva Samhita, Goraksha Sataka, Goraksha Paddhati)42

3 Main NadisSushumna - “most gracious”Ida - “comfort”Pingala - “tawny”43

Subtle Body Models44

The 5 Elements45

ChakrasPools of life energy, vibrating at different ratesIn the Hatha tradition there are 7, each with their own psychosomatic functions46

VayusVayuAreaFunctionPranaChest, HeadGoverns intake, inspiration, propulsion,forward momentumApanaPelvisSamanaNavelGoverns assimilation, discernment,inner absorption, consolidationUdanaThroatGoverns growth, speech, expression,ascension, upward movementVyanaWhole BodyGoverns circulation on all levels,expansiveness, pervasivenessGoverns Elimination, downward andoutward movement47

One should meditate onthe Udgitha as the vyana.That which one breathesout is the prana and thatwhich one breathes in isthe apana. That which is thejunction of the prana andthe apana is the Vyana. Thisvyana is speech. Thereforewhen one utters speechone stops the prana andthe apana.From the ChandogYa Upanishad,Chapter 348

“It is the teacher’s foremost duty to give you back yourintelligence, to return you to your heart, to encourage you toaccess yourself. They do this by being who they really are, andby being completely honest and compassionate with you. It isin such an environment of absolute truth and trust that wefind the actual process of yoga, one in which both the teacherand the student are honest about what they know and aresincerely willing to look at the processes of how they knowwhat they know”Richard Freeman, from theMirror of Yoga49

The Koshas or 5 Sheathsalso known as thePancha KoshaThe nature of being humanencompasses physical andpsychological aspects thatfunction as one holistic system.The Kosha system refers to thesedifferent aspects as layers ofsubjective experience. Layersrange from the dense physicalbody to the more subtle levels ofemotion, mind and spirit.Psychology refers to theemotional, mental and spiritualaspects of our being. Together, allaspects make up our subjectiveexperience of being alive50


“I found that the chief difficultyfor most people was to realizethey really heard newthings--that is, things that theyhad never heard before. Theyhad ceased to hope and believethat there might be anythingnew.”P.D. Ouspensky52

What is KarmaNot a system of reward and punishment.53

What is Dharma?“Whatever Karma brought you to this point, it is now your Dharma to deal with it. “54

“I have no work to do inall the worlds, Arjuna,for these are mine. Ihave nothing toobtain, because I haveit all, and yet I work”Krishna55

The GunasIt’s the gunas that make us believethe ego is the actor.56

Raja Yoga Samnayasa Yoga Karma Yoga Mantra Yoga Kriya Yoga Bhakti Yoga Jnana Yoga Hatha Yoga 8. 9. Raja Yoga . Pranayama Modifications of the breath are either internal, external . Asana 2. Mudra 3. Pratyahara 4. Dhyana 5. Samadhi 6. Mukti 6 Techniques: 1. Dhauti 2. Vasti or basti 3. Neti

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