MSE Wall Design And Construction Policy Updates - Indiana

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MSE Wall Design and ConstructionPolicy UpdatesAnne RearickBridge Director, INDOTAthar KhanManager, INDOT Office ofGeotechnical ServicesMarch 7, 2017

Overview BackgroundDesign Memo 17-03Preconstruction ReviewShop Plan ReviewConstructionMaterials InspectionField Inspection ChecklistQuestions

MSE Wall ProblemsSite DrainageBulging PanelsBackfill Leakage

MSE WallsTerm “MSE” : Mechanically Stabilized EarthTypes of MSE walls:Modular block wall: Typical extensiblereinforcement Precast concrete panel type of wall: Usesboth extensible or inextensiblereinforcement Note: Current Indiana specification only allowsinextensible reinforcement with precast concrete paneltype of MSE wall.Slide 4

Typical Section Of MSE Wall

Roles and ResponsibilitiesPer INDOT Standard Specifications 731.03 The internal and external stability shall be theresponsibility of the contractor.The global stability will be the responsibility of theengineer.

MSE WallDesign Memo 17-03 Issued March 1, 2017Effective ImmediatelyCovers MSE Wall review processMSE Wall SuitabilityIDM RevisionsPlan Requirements

MSE Wall Review ProcessStage of PlanDevelopment(as of the dateof the memo)Prior to Stage 1Review byGeotechnicalServices?When toSubmitInformation RequestStage 1 plans,includingpreliminary walllayout.Current plan set orTitle Sheet, PlanYesImmediately and Profile, DetailSheets*Yes, whereCoordinateAs determinedAfter Stage 3 guidance below haswithduringnot beenGeotechnical coordination withaccounted for inServicesGeotechnicalthe plans.immediatelyServices* Detail sheets include wall layout/geometry, wall section view, knownobstructions, known foundation improvement requirements.After Stage 1and BeforeStage 3

MSE Wall Review Process Office of Geotechnical Engineering concurrence isrequired agreeing that the use of an MSE wall is suitablefor projects that have not yet reached Stage 1.A second submittal at Stage 3 may be necessary ifadditional detail is required. This will be noted when thefirst review is returned.Revisions to plans based upon this memo will beexpected for projects prior to Stage 3.Revisions to plans for projects beyond Stage 3 will bedetermined on a project to project basis with fullcoordination.

MSE Wall SuitabilityLook for most economical solution MSE is often not the best option in cut orlimited right of way situationsConsider all possible alternativesConsider facing optionsConsider the effect of wall curvature

MSE Wall SuitabilitySite drainage Consideration needs to be given to the flow ofwater on the siteFor walls constructed along a riverbank or in afloodplain the top of the leveling pad shall beat least 1 foot above the ordinary high waterelevation. No. 8 stone shall be placed behindthe wall instead of structure backfill up to theQ100 high-water elevation.

MSE Wall SuitabilityPotential obstructions Utilities other than wall drainageFloodplain erosion and scour potentialPotential corrosion of reinforcement due tocontaminated ground water or otherenvironmental considerations

MSE Wall IDM RevisionsIDM 402-6.02(02) Structure Sizing –Alignment Pile sleeves should be assumed where an endbent is placed behind an MSE wall.The minimum distance from the edge of thepile sleeve to the back of the MSE wall panelis 3 ft.

MSE Wall IDM RevisionsIDM 409-2.04(02) Integral End Bent –Design Requirements, 409-3.03 SemiIntegral End Bent, and Figure 409-2G Figure 409-2G illustrates the minimumdistance from the edge of the pile sleeve tothe back of the MSE wall panel and preferredMSE wall configurations at an end bent.

MSE Wall IDM Revisions

MSE Wall IDM Revisions

MSE Wall IDM RevisionsIDM 410-5.01(06), Design Criteria Where two intersecting walls form anenclosed angle, the angle is to be greaterthan or equal to 70 degrees.Sharp curves should be avoided in the walllayout.Utilities should not be placed through thereinforced zone. Where utility placement inthe reinforced zone is unavoidable, futureaccess must be provided to the utility withoutdisrupting the reinforcement.

MSE Wall IDM RevisionsIDM 410-5.01(07), Figure 410-5(0)C(New), Information to be Shown onPlans Drainage systems are required for all MSEwalls. Figure 410-5(0)C illustrates a typicalMSE wall cross sections and provides thedrainage details to be included on plans.

MSE Wall IDM Revisions

MSE Wall IDM RevisionsIDM 410-5.01(07), Figure 410-5(0)C(New), Information to be Shown onPlans (Cont.) A plan view showing all obstructions and their offsetfrom the back of the MSE wall is required on the MSEWall Details sheet. Obstructions include but are notlimited to, piles, pile sleeves, catch basins, signal orsign foundation, guardrail posts, and culverts.Where an obstruction projects through the MSE wallpanel, the obstruction should also be shown in anisolated section and elevation view.

MSE Wall IDM RevisionsIDM 410-5.01(07), Figure 410-5(0)C(New), Information to be Shown onPlans (Cont.) Modifications to the wall design to avoidobstructions must be shown in the MSE Wallworking drawings. Design options forobstructions within the reinforced zone aredescribed in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge DesignSpecifications, section

MSE Wall IDM RevisionsIDM 410-5.01(07), Figure 410-5(0)C(New), Information to be Shown onPlans (Cont.) When an end bent is placed behind an MSEwall, expanded polystyrene should be shownfor gap between the front face of the endbent and the back of the MSE wall. Do notshow Styrofoam or extruded polystyrene.

Plan Requirements Show and label all obstructions Plan view shall show the distance from theback of the panel.Elevation view shall show all obstructions thatproject through a panel.Show all the details of groundimprovement if specified in theGeotechnical ReportConsider adding a section viewShow site drainage

Example Drainage Problems3/15/2017

Preconstruction Review The plans and specificationsThe site conditions relevant toconstruction requirementsReview of Geotechnical ReportMaterial requirementsConstruction Sequences for the specificreinforcement systemShop Drawing Submittal & Approval

MSE Wall Shop Plan Review Construction Memo 13-13 Revised (9/15/15)

MSE Wall Shop Plan ReviewConstruction Memo 13-13 Revised(9/15/15) Shop plans and design calculations are to be stampedby a PE and are to be submitted to the designer ofrecordThe designer of record will forward a copy to theINDOT Office of Geotechnical EngineeringThe Office of Geotechnical Engineering will reviewand provide comments back to the designer of recordThe designer of record will provide the final approval

MSE Wall Shop Plan ReviewItems to be considered Adherence to the AASHTO LRFD Design Specifications11.10.1 . When two intersecting walls form an enclosedangle of 70 degrees or less, the affected portion ofthe wall shall be designed as an internally tied binstructure with at-rest earth pressure coefficients. C11.10.10.4The max splay of reinforcements is limited to amaximum of 15 degrees

MSE Wall Shop Plan ReviewItems to be considered Treatment of obstructions addresses obstructions in thereinforced soil zone1.2.3.If reinforcement is to be partially or fully severed in thelocation of the obstruction, design the surroundingreinforcement layers to carry the additional load Place a structural frame around the obstructioncapable of carrying the load from the reinforcements If the soil reinforcements consist of discrete strips anddepending on the size and location of the obstruction,it may be possible to splay the reinforcements aroundthe obstruction

Reinforced Earth CompanySanders Pre-Cast ConcreteSystems, Inc.Sine WallTricon Precast Ltd.

Sine Wall Syst em to use rippled Strip

Reinforcement-soil frictional capacity Reinforcement tensile strengthSandersTricon

MSE Wall

MSE WallIndiana Toll Road Improvement in Gary

MSE Wall

Materials InspectionPrefabricated Precast Concrete Elements Reinforcing ElementsOther Materials Facing Joint Materials Reinforced backfill Retained backfill

Improper Panel Storage

Proper Panel Storage

Improper Storage of Reinforcement

Proper Storage of Reinforcement

Joint Material

Joint Material

Backfill Material Type 3 structure backfill within reinforced backfillzone excluding # 30 sand meeting INDOT SpecsUnit weight shall not be less than 120 pcf unlesslight weight is specifiedInternal friction angle (ᵩ) of 34 degree for structurebackfill within reinforced backfill zone“B” Borrow or structure backfill within retainedbackfill zone with Internal friction angle (ᵩ) of 30degree

Construction Control Site PreparationLeveling PadErection of Facing ElementsReinforced Fill Placement andCompactionPlacement of Reinforcing Elements

Site Preparation Cut to gradeRemove unsuitable material as specifiedProof roll the entire footprint area of MSEwall to delineate any loose and/or unsuitablematerialsCompact any loose material and remove andreplace any unsuitable materialPerform DCP tests for verification

Excavation to Grade

Excavation to Grade

Leveling Pad Excavate: for leveling padPour: unreinforced concrete leveling pad asspecifiedCuring time: at least 12 hrs before placing PanelsVertical tolerance: 3mm to design elevationImproperly Placed Leveling Pad: may result inpanel misalignment, cracking, and spalling

Leveling Pad

Erection of Facing Elements Always begin adjacent to any existingstructure and proceed toward the openend of the wallHorizontal joint material or wooden shimsshould not be permitted between the firstcourse of panels and the leveling padexcept for panel batteringVertical Backward Batter should not bemore than 0.05 inch/foot of wall height

Erection of Facing Elements Use panel spacing bars for horizontal spacingbetween panelsFirst row of panels must be continuously braceduntil several layers of reinforcements and backfillhave been placedAdjacent panels should be clamped together toprevent individual panel displacementSince variety of panel types used on a project,facing element types must be checked to verifythe installation exactly as shown on the plans

Erection of Facing Elements

Leveling Pads at Panel Step-up(6”12”)000

Erection of Facing Elements

Erection of Facing Elements

Erection of Facing Elements

Reinforced Fill Placement/Compaction Mark your 6” compacted lift on the back side of thewall panelsPlace backfill parallel to the wall and startingapproximately 3 feet from the back of wall panelLevel the fill by machinery moving parallel to the wall,windrowing toward the reinforcement endsLock the reinforcement and the panels in positionPlace the backfill not exceeding 5 “ in loosethickness within 3 feet behind the wall by windrowingafter locking the reinforcement

Reinforced Fill Placement Compaction Compacting lift not exceeding 5 “ in loosethickness with a minimum of 5 passes usingvibratory roller or plate weighing less than1000 poundsExcept for the initial layer the fill must bebrought up uniformly for the whole layerSoil layers should be compacted up to oreven slightly above the elevation of eachlevel of reinforcement connections prior toplacing that layer of reinforcement elements

Lift Thickness Marking on Facing Panel

Backfill Measurement Solution Template

Reinforced Fill Placement & Compaction12” - 36”

Reinforced Fill Placement & Compaction

Reinforced Fill Placement & CompactionSheepfoot Rollers Not Allowed

Reinforced Fill Placement & Compaction

Reinforced Fill Placement & Compaction

Reinforced Fill Placement & Compaction

Placement of Reinforcing Elements

Placement of Reinforcing Elements

Placement of Reinforcing ElementsImproper bolting at connections

Placement of Reinforcing ElementsReinforcing Strip Connection to Facing

Placement of Reinforcing Elements Straps not installed perpendicular towallBent straps

Do not drive any machineryover reinforcementAvoid exerting excessivepressures on the panels

Placement of Reinforcing ElementsBroken connections with new brackets

Location of reinforcement connection15 max

Geotechnical Initiatives Current: Recent Specification ChangesStandardized MSE Wall RecommendationsDeveloped a Checklist for Construction PersonnelDeveloped a Bearing Capacity Verification TableDeveloped a Training Course for construction Inspectionwith the Assistance of the Research DivisionFuture: Modification to INDOT specs to address some design andconstruction issues such as splay angle of 15 degreesUse of Type IC subgrade treatment on MSE wallsUse of impervious Geomembrane over MSE wallsDevelopment of MSE Wall Inventory

Recent Specification Changes Design: Contractor: Responsible for Internal & Externalstability of the wallEngineer: Responsible for Global stabilityDesign Method: AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design SpecificationF* Value: Standardized use of AASHTO default valuesTributary Area: Use as per FHWA-NHI-10-025

Recent Specification Changes Material: Unit weight: Structure backfill should be at least 120pcf,design values for foundation soil should be as per theGeotechnical reportGeotextile: Use at the interface between the reinforcedand retained backfill zones or adjacent soil

Recent Specification Changes Construction: Foundation Preparation: Proofrolling of the entire footprint of Reinforced backfillzoneVerification of foundation by DCP TestingGeotextile in conjunction with MSE wall constructionwill not be measured or paid separately

MSE Wall- 731.07 Rev.N 56inchesN 56inchesN 56inchesN 56inchesN 56inches2.5 ft. deepDCP Tests for Foundation Requirement

MSE Wall- 731.07 Rev.DCP Test Frequency50 ft.( 500 sq ft area10 ftDCPThe frequency of DCP measurements is:1 DCP test for every 500 sq ftOr5 DCP tests per end bentUnsuitable areas shall be removed, replaced, and compacted in accordance with203 and 211.

MSE Wall Geotechnical Design Parameter TableDesign ParameterMaximum Calculated SettlementMaximum Differentail SettlementTime for settlement completionMaximum wall heightDesign RecommendationsMinimum Reinformcement Length/Height RatioUndercut requiredUndercut depthUndercut areaUndercut Backfill MaterialValue (area 1)*"x" inches"y" inches"z" daysXX ft0.75H? (example)yes/noX feet?from Sta. XX to XX line "XX"XXXXXXXSeismic recommendationSite ClassSeismic ZonePeak Ground Accelaration AsSlidingEccentricityGeotechnical Analysis ChecksGlobal StabilityFactored Bearing ResistanceCDR 1.0 1.0Factor of safety/resistance factor5400 psf (example value)Foundation Soils Strength Parameters**Cohesioninternal friction angleNotes:*more sheets can be added to include recommendations for each area of concern.**if varying soil conditions encountered underneath the MSE wall, the table can be expanded to include all soilprofile information

Check ListThe following is a general checklist to follow when constructing aMechanicallyStabilized Earth wall (MSE wall). The answer to each of these shouldbe yes unlessplans, specifications or specific approval has been given otherwise.YES NO1. Has the contractor submitted wall shop drawings?2. Has the contractor submitted select backfill certification?3. Has the contractor furnished a copy of any instructions thewall supplier may have furnished?4. Has the contractor supplied a Certificate of Compliancethat the wall materials comply with the applicable sectionsof the specifications? Has the contractor supplied a copy ofall test results performed by the Contractor supplier toassure compliance with specifications?

Check ListYES NO5. Have the shop drawings been approved?6. Has the geotechnical report been checked for undercutting?7. Did the contractor receive the correct panels (shape, sizeand soil reinforcement connection layout) per theapproved shop drawings?8. Did the contractor receive the correct reinforcement(proper length and size)?9. Have the panels and the reinforcement been Inspected fordamage as outlined in the Specs?.

Check ListYES NO10. If any panels or soil reinforcement were found damagedhave they been rejected or repaired in accordance withthe specifications?11. Are the panels and the soil reinforcement properly storedto prevent damage?12. Has the MSE wall area been excavated to the properelevation?13. Has the area been proof rolled(a minimum of five passesbya roller weighing a minimum of 8 tons)?14. Has all soft or unsuitable materials been compacted orremoved and replaced?

Check ListYES NO15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Has the leveling pad area been properly excavated? Has the leveling pad been set to the proper alignment? Has the leveling pad cured for a minimum of 12 hours? Is the first row of panels properly placed? Do theyhave proper spacing, bracing, tilt and where required,do they the spacers installed? Has the proper filter fabric and adhesive been supplied? Is the filter fabric being properly placed over the joints? Is the adhesive being applied to the panel, than the filterfabric being placed?

Check ListYES NO22. Is the filter fabric stored properly away from sunlight andprotected from UV radiation?23. Is the contractor using correct panels (size, shape &# of connections) for that panel’s wall location &elevation?24. Is fill being placed and compacted in 6 inch lifts?25. Is the equipments are kept off the reinforcement until aminimum of 6 inches of fill is placed?26. Are the lifts being placed by the proper method andsequence?27. Is the fill being compacted by the correct equipment and inthe correct pattern?28.

Check ListYES NO28. Is the proper compaction being met within 3 feet of walland greater than 3 feet from the wall based on DCPcriteria?29. Is the fill being brought up to or slightly above the soilreinforcement elevation before the reinforcement areconnected?30. Is the reinforcement being properly connected?31. Is the soil reinforcement in the proper alignment?32. Is the vertical and horizontal alignments are checkedperiodically and adjusted as needed?33. Is the contractor removing the wooden wedges as perspecification?

Check ListYES NO34. 35. At the end of each day’s operation is the contractor shapingthe last level of backfill to permit a positive drainage awayfrom the wall such as temporary pipe etc.? Has the contractor backfilled the front of the wall?36. Is the correct coping being installed?

Factored Bearing Resistance vs DCP Blow CountsFactored Bearing Resistance Based on DCP BlowCountsDCP Blows for 12DCP Blows for 12inches1011121314Factored BearingResistance 00.00inches2122232425262728293031Factored BearingResistance e: This table is applicable only for fine grained soils. For sand& gravel, please contact Office of Geotechnical Services

QuestionsAnne RearickDirector of BridgesOffice: (317) 232-5152Email: A. KhanManager, Office of Geotechnical EngineeringOffice: (317) 610-7251 ext 219Email:

Modular block wall: Typical extensible reinforcement Precast concrete panel type of wall: Uses both extensible or inextensible reinforcement. Note: Current Indiana specification only allows inextensible reinforcement with precast concrete panel type of MSE wall. Slide 4. MSE Walls . Term "MSE" : Mechanically Stabilized Earth. Types of MSE .

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